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Writing a personal statement for a phd

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resume vanina vanini Publiee en 1829 dans la Revue de Paris puis integree en 1855 dans le volume des Chroniques italiennes , Vanina Vanini est l'une des plus romantiques et des plus romanesques nouvelles ecrites par Stendhal (1783-1842). Statement Phd. Elle raconte l'histoire de Vanina, fille du Prince Vanini, belle romaine aux cheveux noirs et a l'oeil de feu, prete a tout pour garder l'amour d'un jeune et pauvre revolutionnaire carbonaro. Michael. Comprenant que celui qui lutte pour la liberte de l'Italie lui echappe, elle le trahit, puis le sauve de la mort, avant d'epouser finalement un sage aristocrate de son milieu. Writing. Vanina Vanini est un somptueux tableau de l'Italie stendhalienne, lieu des passions amoureuses exaltees sur fond historique et politique. Agency Freudian Psychology Source Theory. Elle nous livre le meilleur de l'auteur de La Chartreuse de Parme et du Rouge et le Noir . Writing Statement For A. Le texte est suivi d'une breve biographie de Stendhal. Particularites sur la derniere vente.

de carbonari decouverte. dans les Etats du pape. C'etait un soir du printemps de 182*. Collins Essay. Tout Rome etait en mouvement: M. Writing Statement. le duc de B**, ce fameux banquier, donnait un bal dans son nouveau palais de la place de Venise. Lesson Essay. Tout ce que les arts de l'Italie, tout ce que le luxe de Paris et de Londres peuvent produire de plus magnifique avait ete reuni pour l'embellissement de ce palais. Writing A Personal. Le concours etait immense. Film Essay. Les beautes blondes et reservees de la noble Angleterre avaient brigue l'honneur d'assister a ce bal; elles arrivaient en foule. Writing For A Phd. Les plus belles femmes de Rome leur disputaient le prix de la beaute.

Une jeune fille que l'eclat de ses yeux et ses cheveux d'ebene proclamaient Romaine entra conduite par son pere; tous les regards la suivirent. Michael Collins. Un orgueil singulier eclatait dans chacun de ses mouvements. On voyait les etrangers qui entraient frappes de la magnificence de ce bal. Writing For A Phd. Les fetes d'aucun des rois de l'Europe, disaient-ils, n'approchent point de ceci. Les rois n'ont pas un palais d'architecture romaine: ils sont obliges d'inviter les grandes dames de leur cour; M. Solicited Cover. le duc de B*** ne prie que de jolies femmes.

Ce soir-la il avait ete heureux dans ses invitations; les hommes semblaient eblouis. Writing A Personal For A Phd. Parmi tant de femmes remarquables il fut question de decider quelle etait la plus belle: le choix resta quelque temps indecis; mais enfin la princesse Vanina Vanini, cette jeune fille aux cheveux noirs et a l'oeil de feu, fut proclamee la reine du bal. Agency Freudian Psychology. Aussitot les etrangers et les jeunes Romains, abandonnant tous les autres salons, firent foule dans celui ou elle etait. Son pere, le prince don Asdrubale Vanini, avait voulu qu'elle dansat d'abord avec deux ou trois souverains d'Allemagne. Writing A Personal Phd. Elle accepta ensuite les invitations de quelques Anglais fort beaux et fort nobles; leur air empese l'ennuya. Old Man Sea Summary Essay. Elle parut prendre plus de plaisir a tourmenter le jeune Livio Savelli qui semblait fort amoureux. A Personal Statement. C'etait le jeune homme le plus brillant de Rome, et de plus lui aussi etait prince; mais si on essay history library past, lui eut donne a lire un roman, il eut jete le volume au bout de vingt pages, disant qu'il lui donnait mal a la tete. A Personal For A Phd. C'etait un desavantage aux yeux de Vanina. Vers le minuit une nouvelle se repandit dans le bal, et fit assez d'effet.

Un jeune carbonaro, detenu au fort Saint-Ange, venait de se sauver le soir meme, a l'aide d'un deguisement, et, par un exces d'audace romanesque, arrive au dernier corps de garde de la prison, il avait attaque les soldats avec un poignard; mais il avait ete blesse lui-meme, les sbires le suivaient dans les rues a la trace de son sang, et on cover, esperait le ravoir. Comme on writing statement phd, racontait cette anecdote, don Livio Savelli, ebloui des graces et des succes de Vanina, avec laquelle il venait de danser, lui disait en la reconduisant a sa place, et presque fou d'amour: — Mais, de grace, qui donc pourrait vous plaire ? — Ce jeune carbonaro qui vient de s'echapper, lui repondit Vanina; au moins celui-la a fait quelque chose de plus que de se donner la peine de naitre. Le prince don Asdrubale s'approcha de sa fille. Taylor. C'est un homme riche qui depuis vingt ans n'a pas compte avec son intendant, lequel lui prete ses propres revenus a un interet fort eleve. A Personal For A Phd. Si vous le rencontrez dans la rue, vous le prendrez pour un vieux comedien; vous ne remarquerez pas que ses mains sont chargees de cinq ou six bagues enormes garnies de diamants fort gros. On Edward Taylor. Ses deux fils se sont faits jesuites, et ensuite sont mort fous. Writing Statement. Il les a oublies; mais il est fache que sa fille unique, Vanina, ne veuille pas se marier. Old Man. Elle a deja dix-neuf ans, et a refuse les partis les plus brillants.

Quelle est sa raison ? la meme que celle de Sylla pour abdiquer, son mepris pour les Romains . Le lendemain du bal, Vanina remarqua que son pere, le plus negligent des hommes, et qui de la vie ne s'etait donne la peine de prendre une clef, fermait avec beaucoup d'attention la porte d'un petit escalier qui conduisait a un appartement situe au troisieme etage du palais. For A Phd. Cet appartement avait des fenetres sur une terrasse garnie d'orangers. Plan Writing Compare Essay. Vanina alla faire quelques visites dans Rome; au retour, la grande porte du palais etant embarrassee par les preparatifs d'une illumination, la voiture rentra par les cours de derriere. Writing Statement. Vanina leva les yeux, et vit avec etonnement qu'une des fenetres de l'appartement que son pere avait fermee avec tant de soin etait ouverte. Writing Compare Contrast Essay. Elle se debarrassa de sa dame de compagnie, monta dans les combles du palais, et a force de chercher parvint a trouver une petite fenetre grillee qui donnait sur la terrasse garnie d'orangers. For A Phd. La fenetre ouverte qu'elle avait remarquee etait a deux pas d'elle. Humanities Imperfect Library Past. Sans doute cette chambre etait habitee; mais par qui ? Le lendemain Vanina parvint a se procurer la clef d'une petite porte qui ouvrait sur la terrasse garnie d'orangers. Elle s'approcha a pas de loup de la fenetre qui etait encore ouverte. Statement For A Phd. Une persienne servit a la cacher. And The. Au fond de la chambre il y avait un lit et quelqu'un dans ce lit. Statement. Son premier mouvement fut de se retirer; mais elle apercut une robe de femme jetee sur une chaise.

En regardant mieux la personne qui etait au lit, elle vit qu'elle etait blonde, et apparemment fort jeune. Old Man And The Essay. Elle ne douta plus que ce ne fut une femme. Writing. La robe jetee sur une chaise etait ensanglantee; il y avait aussi du sang sur des souliers de femme places sur une table. Essay Imperfect Library Past. L'inconnue fit un mouvement; Vanina s'apercut qu'elle etait blessee. Statement For A. Un grand linge tache de sang couvrait sa poitrine; ce linge n'etait fixe que par des rubans; ce n'etait pas la main d'un chirurgien qui l'avait place ainsi. Collins Film Essay. Vanina remarqua que chaque jour, vers les quatre heures, son pere s'enfermait dans son appartement, et ensuite allait voir l'inconnue; il redescendait bientot, et montait en voiture pour aller chez la comtesse Vitteleschi. Writing For A Phd. Des qu'il etait sorti, Vanina montait a la petite terrasse, d'ou elle pouvait apercevoir l'inconnue. Taylor. Sa sensibilite etait vivement excitee en faveur de cette jeune femme si malheureuse; elle cherchait a deviner son aventure.

La robe ensanglantee jetee sur une chaise paraissait avoir ete percee de coups de poignard. Writing For A. Vanina pouvait compter les dechirures. Solicited Cover. Un jour elle vit l'inconnue plus distinctement: ses yeux bleus etaient fixes dans le ciel; elle semblait prier. Writing A Personal Statement For A Phd. Bientot des larmes remplirent ses beaux yeux; la jeune princesse eut bien de la peine a ne pas lui parler. Taylor. Le lendemain Vanina osa se cacher sur la petite terrasse avant l'arrivee de son pere.

Elle vit don Asdrubale entrer chez l'inconnue; il portait un petit panier ou etaient des provisions. Writing A Personal For A Phd. Le prince avait l'air inquiet, et ne dit pas grand-chose. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay. Il parlait si bas que, quoique la porte-fenetre fut ouverte, Vanina ne put entendre ses paroles. Writing For A. Il partit aussitot. Il faut que cette pauvre femme ait des ennemis bien terribles, se dit Vanina, pour que mon pere, d'un caractere si insouciant, n'ose se confier a personne et se donne la peine de monter cent vingt marches chaque jour.

Un soir, comme Vanina avancait doucement la tete vers la croisee de l'inconnue, elle rencontra ses yeux, et tout fut decouvert. History Library. Vanina se jeta a genoux, et s'ecria: — Je vous aime, je vous suis devouee. L'inconnue lui fit signe d'entrer. — Que je vous dois d'excuses, s'ecria Vanina, et que ma sotte curiosite doit vous sembler offensante ! Je vous jure le secret, et, si vous l'exigez, jamais je ne reviendrai. — Qui pourrait ne pas trouver du bonheur a vous voir ? dit l'inconnue. Writing Statement For A Phd. Habitez-vous ce palais ? — Sans doute, repondit Vanina. Essays On Edward Taylor. Mais je vois que vous ne me connaissez pas: je suis Vanina, fille de don Asdrubale.

L'inconnue la regarda d'un air etonne, rougit beaucoup, puis ajouta: — Daignez me faire esperer que vous viendrez me voir tous les jours; mais je desirerais que le prince ne sut pas vos visites. Le coeur de Vanina battait avec force; les manieres de l'inconnue lui semblaient remplies de distinction. Writing Statement. Cette pauvre jeune femme avait sans doute offense quelque homme puissant; peut-etre dans un moment de jalousie avait-elle tue son amant ? Vanina ne pouvait voir une cause vulgaire a son malheur. Humanities Imperfect Library. L'inconnue lui dit qu'elle avait recu une blessure dans l'epaule, qui avait penetre jusqu'a la poitrine et la faisait beaucoup souffrir. Writing Phd. Souvent elle se trouvait la bouche pleine de sang. — Et vous n'avez pas de chirurgien ! s'ecria Vanina. — Vous savez qu'a Rome, dit l'inconnue, les chirurgiens doivent a la police un rapport exact de toutes les blessures qu'ils soignent.

Le prince daigne lui-meme serrer mes blessures avec le linge que vous voyez. L'inconnue evitait avec une grace parfaite de s'apitoyer sur son accident; Vanina l'aimait a la folie. Plan Contrast Essay. Une chose pourtant etonna beaucoup la jeune princesse, c'est qu'au milieu d'une conversation assurement fort serieuse l'inconnue eut beaucoup de peine a supprimer une envie subite de rire. — Je serai heureuse, lui dit Vanina, de savoir votre nom. — On m'appelle Clementine. — Eh bien, chere Clementine, demain a cinq heures je viendrai vous voir. Le lendemain Vanina trouva sa nouvelle amie fort mal. — Je veux vous amener un chirurgien, dit Vanina en l'embrassant. — J'aimerai mieux mourir, dit l'inconnue. Writing Statement For A. Voudrais-je compromettre mes bienfaiteurs ? — Le chirurgien de Mgr Savelli-Catanzara, le gouverneur de Rome, est fils d'un de nos domestiques, reprit vivement Vanina; il nous est devoue, et par sa position ne craint personne.

Mon pere ne rend pas justice a sa fidelite; je vais le faire demander. — Je ne veux pas de chirurgien, s'ecria l'inconnue avec une vivacite qui surprit Vanina. Plan Compare Essay. Venez me voir, et si Dieu doit m'appeler a lui, je mourrai heureuse dans vos bras. Le lendemain, l'inconnue etait plus mal. — Si vous m'aimez, dit Vanina en la quittant, vous verrez un chirurgien. — S'il vient, mon bonheur s'evanouit. — Je vais l'envoyer chercher, reprit Vanina. Sans rien dire, l'inconnue la retint, et prit sa main qu' elle couvrit de baisers.

Il y eut un long silence, l'inconnue avait les larmes aux yeux. A Personal. Enfin, elle quitta la main de Vanina, et de l'air dont elle serait allee a la mort, lui dit: — J'ai un aveu a vous faire. Michael. Avant-hier, j'ai menti en disant que je m'appelais Clementine; je suis un malheureux carbonaro. Vanina etonnee recula sa chaise et bientot se leva. — Je sens, continua le carbonaro, que cet aveu va me faire perdre le seul bien qui m'attache a la vie; mais il est indigne de moi de vous tromper. Statement For A. Je m'appelle Pietro Missirilli; j'ai dix-neuf ans; mon pere est un pauvre chirurgien de Saint-Angelo-in-Vado, moi je suis carbonaro. Essay. On a surpris notre vente ; j'ai ete amene, enchaine, de la Romagne a Rome. A Personal Phd. Plonge dans un cachot eclaire jour et nuit par une lampe, j'y ai passe treize mois. Taylor. Une ame charitable a eu l'idee de me faire sauver.

On m'a habille en femme. A Personal Statement. Comme je sortais de prison et passais devant les gardes de la derniere porte, l'un d'eux a maudit les carbonari; je lui ai donne un soufflet. And The Essay. Je vous assure que ce ne fut pas une vaine bravade, mais tout simplement une distraction. Writing A Personal Statement. Poursuivi dans la nuit dans les rues de Rome apres cette imprudence, blesse de coups de baionnette, perdant deja mes forces, je monte dans une maison dont la porte etait ouverte; j'entends les soldats qui montent apres moi, je saute dans un jardin; je tombe a quelques pas d'une femme qui se promenait. — La comtesse Vitteleschi ! l'amie de mon pere, dit Vanina. — Quoi ! vous l'a-t-elle dit ? s'ecria Missirilli.

Quoi qu'il en soit, cette dame, dont le nom ne doit jamais etre prononce, me sauva la vie. Lesson Plan Compare. Comme les soldats entraient chez elle pour me saisir, votre pere m'en faisait sortir dans sa voiture. A Personal Phd. Je me sens fort mal: depuis quelques jours ce coup de baionnette dans l'epaule m'empeche de respirer. And The Sea Summary. Je vais mourir, et desespere, puisque je ne vous verrai plus. Vanina avait ecoute avec impatience; elle sortit rapidement: Missirilli ne trouva nulle pitie dans ces yeux si beaux, mais seulement l'expression d'un caractere altier que l'on vient de blesser. A la nuit, un chirurgien parut; il etait seul, Missirilli fut au desespoir; il craignait de ne revoir jamais Vanina. Phd. Il fit des questions au chirurgien, qui le saigna et ne lui repondit pas. Agency Essay In Moral Psychology Theory. Meme silence les jours suivants.

Les yeux de Pietro ne quittaient pas la fenetre de la terrasse par laquelle Vanina avait coutume d'entrer; il etait fort malheureux. Writing A Personal Statement For A. Une fois, vers minuit, il crut apercevoir quelqu'un dans l'ombre sur la terrasse: etait-ce Vanina ? Vanina venait toutes les nuits coller sa joue contre les vitres de la fenetre du jeune carbonaro. Si je lui parle, se disait-elle, je suis perdue ! Non, jamais je ne dois le revoir ! Cette resolution arretee, elle se rappelait, malgre elle, l'amitie qu'elle avait prise pour ce jeune homme, quand si sottement elle le croyait une femme. Essay History Humanities Imperfect Past. Apres une intimite si douce, il fallait donc l'oublier ! Dans ses moments les plus raisonnables, Vanina etait effrayee du changement qui avait lieu dans ses idees. Writing A Personal Statement. Depuis que Missirilli s'etait nomme, toutes les choses auxquelles elle avait l'habitude de penser s'etaient comme recouvertes d'un voile, et ne paraissaient plus que dans l'eloignement.

Une semaine ne s'etait pas ecoulee, que Vanina, pale et tremblante, entra dans la chambre du jeune carbonaro avec le chirurgien. Old Man Sea Summary Essay. Elle venait de lui dire qu'il fallait engager le prince a se faire remplacer par un domestique. Writing. Elle ne resta pas dix secondes; mais quelques jours apres elle revint encore avec le chirurgien, par humanite. Collins Essay. Un soir, quoique Missirilli fut bien mieux, et que Vanina n'eut plus le pretexte de craindre pour sa vie, elle osa venir seule. Statement Phd. En la voyant, Missirilli fut au comble du bonheur, mais il songea a cacher son amour; avant tout, il ne voulait pas s'ecarter de la dignite convenable a un homme.

Vanina, qui etait entree chez lui le front couvert de rougeur, et craignant des propos d'amour, fut deconcertee de l'amitie noble et devouee, mais fort peu tendre, avec laquelle il la recut. Cover. Elle partit sans qu'il essayat de la retenir. Quelques jours apres, lorsqu'elle revint, meme conduite, memes assurances de devouement respectueux et de reconnaissance eternelle. A Personal Statement For A. Bien loin d'etre occupee a mettre un frein aux transports du jeune carbonaro, Vanina se demanda si elle aimait seule. Solicited Cover. Cette jeune fille, jusque-la si fiere, sentit amerement toute l'etendue de sa folie. Writing A Personal For A. Elle affecta de la gaiete et meme de la froideur, vint moins souvent, mais ne put prendre sur elle de cesser de voir le jeune malade. Missirilli, brulant d'amour, mais songeant a sa naissance obscure et a ce qu'il se devait, s'etait promis de ne descendre a parler d'amour que si Vanina restait huit jours sans le voir. Essay Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Source Theory. L'orgueil de la jeune princesse combattit pied a pied. For A. Eh bien ! se dit-elle enfin, si je le vois, c'est pour moi, c'est pour me faire plaisir, et jamais je ne lui avouerai l'interet qu'il m'inspire. Michael Essay. Elle faisait de longues visites a Missirilli, qui lui parlait comme il eut pu faire si vingt personnes eussent ete presentes.

Un soir, apres avoir passe la journee a le detester et a se bien promettre d'etre avec lui encore plus froide et plus severe qu'a l'ordinaire, elle lui dit qu'elle l'aimait. A Personal Statement For A Phd. Bientot elle n'eut plus rien a lui refuser. Si sa folie fut grande, il faut avouer que Vanina fut parfaitement heureuse. Essays Taylor. Missirilli ne songea plus a ce qu'il croyait devoir a sa dignite d'homme; il aima comme on writing for a, aime pour la premiere fois a dix-neuf ans et en Italie. Old Man Sea Summary Essay. Il eut tous les scrupules de l'amour-passion, jusqu'au point d'avouer a cette jeune princesse si fiere la politique dont il avait fait usage pour s'en faire aimer. Writing For A. Il etait etonne de l'exces de son bonheur.

Quatre mois passerent bien vite. Old Man And The Essay. Un jour, le chirurgien rendit la liberte a son malade. A Personal Statement Phd. Que vais-je faire ? pensa Missirilli; rester cache chez une des plus belles personnes de Rome ? Et les vils tyrans qui m'ont tenu treize mois en prison sans me laisser voir la lumiere du jour croiront m'avoir decourage ! Italie, tu es vraiment malheureuse, si tes enfants t'abandonnent pour si peu ! Vanina ne doutait pas que le plus grand bonheur de Pietro ne fut de lui rester attache; il semblait trop heureux; mais un mot du general Bonaparte retentissait amerement dans l'ame de ce jeune homme et influencait toute sa conduite a l'egard des femmes. Agency Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology. En 1796, comme le general Bonaparte quittait Brescia, les municipaux qui l'accompagnaient a la porte de la ville lui disaient que les Bressans aimaient la liberte par-dessus tous les autres Italiens. — Oui, repondit-il, ils aiment a en parler a leurs maitresses. Missirilli dit a Vanina d'un air assez contraint: — Des que la nuit sera venue, il faut que je sorte. — Aie bien soin de rentrer au palais avant le point du jour; je t'attendrai. — Au point du jour je serai a plusieurs milles de Rome. — Fort bien, dit Vanina froidement, et ou irez-vous ? — En Romagne, me venger.

— Comme je suis riche, reprit Vanina de l'air le plus tranquille, j'espere que vous accepterez de moi des armes et de l'argent. Missirilli la regarda quelques instants sans sourciller; puis se jetant dans ses bras: — Ame de ma vie, tu me fais tout oublier, lui dit-il, et meme mon devoir. For A. Mais plus ton coeur est noble, plus tu dois me comprendre. Vanina pleura beaucoup, et il fut convenu qu'il ne quitterait Rome que le surlendemain. — Pietro, lui dit-elle le lendemain, souvent vous m'avez dit qu'un homme connu, qu'un prince romain, par exemple, qui pourrait disposer de beaucoup d'argent, serait en etat de rendre les plus grands services a la cause de la liberte, si jamais l'Autriche est engagee loin de nous, dans quelque grande guerre. — Sans doute, dit Pietro etonne. — Eh bien ! vous avez du coeur; il ne vous manque qu'une haute position; je viens vous offrir ma main et deux cent mille livres de rentes. And The Sea Summary Essay. Je me charge d'obtenir le consentement de mon pere. Pietro se jeta a ses pieds; Vanina etait rayonnante de joie.

— Je vous aime avec passion, lui dit-il; mais je suis un pauvre serviteur de la patrie; mais plus l'Italie est malheureuse, plus je dois lui rester fidele. Statement. Pour obtenir le consentement de don Asdrubale, il faudra jouer un triste role pendant plusieurs annees. Film Essay. Vanina, je te refuse. Missirilli se hata de s'engager par ce mot. Writing For A Phd. Le courage allait lui manquer. — Mon malheur, s'ecria-t-il, c'est que je t'aime plus que la vie, c'est que quitter Rome est pour moi le pire des supplices. History Humanities Library Past. Ah ! que l'Italie n'est-elle delivree des barbares ! Avec quel plaisir je m'embarquerais avec toi pour aller vivre en Amerique. Vanina restait glacee. Writing Statement For A Phd. Ce refus de sa main avait etonne son orgueil; mais bientot elle se jeta dans les bras de Missirilli. — Jamais tu ne m'as semble aussi aimable, s'ecria-t-elle; oui, mon petit chirurgien de campagne, je suis a toi pour toujours. Solicited. Tu es un grand homme comme nos anciens Romains.

Toutes les idees d'avenir, toutes les tristes suggestions du bon sens disparurent; ce fut un instant d'amour parfait. Writing A Personal Phd. Lorsque l'on put parler raison: — Je serai en Romagne presque aussitot que toi, dit Vanina. Essays. Je vais me faire ordonner les bains de la Poretta. A Personal Statement For A Phd. Je m'arreterai au chateau que nous avons a San Nicolo, pres de Forli. — La, je passerai ma vie avec toi ! s'ecria Missirilli. — Mon lot desormais est de tout oser, reprit Vanina avec un soupir. On Edward Taylor. Je me perdrai pour toi, mais n'importe. A Personal For A. Pourras-tu aimer une fille deshonoree ? — N'es-tu pas ma femme, dit Missirilli, et une femme a jamais adoree ? Je saurai t'aimer et te proteger. Il fallait que Vanina allat dans le monde. Solicited Cover. A peine eut-elle quitte Missirilli, qu'il commenca a trouver sa conduite barbare.

Qu'est-ce que la patrie ? se dit-il. Writing A Personal Phd. Ce n'est pas un etre a qui nous devions de la reconnaissance pour un bienfait, et qui soit malheureux et puisse nous maudire si nous y manquons. On Edward Taylor. La patrie et la liberte , c'est comme mon manteau, c'est une chose qui m'est utile, que je dois acheter, il est vrai, quand je ne l'ai pas recue en heritage de mon pere; mais enfin j'aime la patrie et la liberte, parce que ces deux choses me sont utiles. Writing For A Phd. Si je n'en ai que faire, si elles sont pour moi comme un manteau au mois d'aout, a quoi bon les acheter, et un prix enorme ? Vanina est si belle ! elle a un genie si singulier ! On cherchera a lui plaire; elle m'oubliera. Plan Writing Contrast Essay. Quelle est la femme qui n'a jamais eu qu'un amant ? Ces princes romains que je meprise comme citoyens, ont tant d'avantages sur moi ! Ils doivent etre bien aimables ! Ah, si je pars, elle m'oublie, et je la perds pour jamais.

Au milieu de la nuit, Vanina vint le voir; il lui dit l'incertitude ou il venait d'etre plonge, et la discussion a laquelle, parce qu'il l'aimait, il avait livre ce grand mot de patrie . Writing Statement For A. Vanina etait bien heureuse. S'il devait choisir absolument entre la patrie et moi, se disait-elle, j'aurais la preference. L'horloge de l'eglise voisine sonna trois heures; le moment des derniers adieux arrivait. Agency Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Source. Pietro s'arracha des bras de son amie. Writing For A Phd. Il descendait deja le petit escalier, lorsque Vanina, retenant ses larmes, lui dit en souriant: — Si tu avais ete soigne par une pauvre femme de la campagne, ne ferais-tu rien pour la reconnaissance ? Ne chercherais-tu pas a la payer ? L'avenir est incertain, tu vas voyager au milieu de tes ennemis: donne-moi trois jours par reconnaissance, comme si j'etais une pauvre femme, et pour me payer de mes soins. Missirilli resta. Essay In Moral Psychology Source. Enfin il quitta Rome. Writing A Personal Statement. Grace a un passeport achete d'une ambassade etrangere, il arriva dans sa famille. Letter. Ce fut une grande joie; on phd, le croyait mort. Imperfect Library. Ses amis voulurent celebrer sa bienvenue en tuant un carabinier ou deux (c'est le nom que portent les gendarmes dans les Etats du pape). — Ne tuons pas sans necessite un Italien qui sait le maniement des armes, dit Missirilli; notre patrie n'est pas une ile comme l'heureuse Angleterre: c'est de soldats que nous manquons pour resister a l'intervention des rois de l'Europe.

Quelques temps apres, Missirilli, serre de pres par les carabiniers, en tua deux avec les pistolets que Vanina lui avait donnes. Writing A Personal For A Phd. On mit sa tete a prix. Vanina ne paraissait pas en Romagne: Missirilli se crut oublie. Collins. Sa vanite fut choquee; il commencait a songer beaucoup a la difference de rang qui le separait de sa maitresse. Writing. Dans un moment d'attendrissement et de regret du bonheur passe, il eut l'idee de retourner a Rome voir ce que faisait Vanina. Film Essay. Cette folle pensee allait l'emporter sur ce qu'il croyait etre son devoir, lorsqu'un soir la cloche d'une eglise de la montagne sonna l' Angelus d'une facon singuliere, et comme si le sonneur avait une distraction. Writing Statement For A. C'etait un signal de reunion pour la vente de carbonari a laquelle Missirilli s'etait affilie en arrivant en Romagne. History Imperfect. La meme nuit, tous se trouverent a un certain ermitage dans les bois. Writing A Personal Phd. Les deux ermites, assoupis par l'opium, ne s'apercurent nullement de l'usage auquel servait leur petite maison. Solicited. Missirilli qui arrivait fort triste, apprit la que le chef de la vente avait ete arrete, et que lui, jeune homme a peine age de vingt ans, allait etre elu chef d'une vente qui comptait des hommes de plus de cinquante ans, et qui etaient dans les conspirations depuis l'execution de Murat en 1815.

En recevant cet honneur inespere, Pietro sentit battre son coeur. Statement Phd. Des qu' il fut seul, il resolut de ne plus songer a la jeune Romaine qui l'avait oublie, et de consacrer toutes ses pensees au devoir de delivrer l'Italie des barbares (1) . Deux jours apres, Missirilli vit dans le rapport des arrivees et des departs qu'on lui adressait, comme chef de vente , que la princesse Vanina venait d'arriver a son chateau de San Nicolo. Essay Library Past. La lecture de ce nom jeta plus de trouble que de plaisir dans son ame. A Personal Statement Phd. Ce fut en vain qu'il crut assurer sa fidelite a la patrie en prenant sur lui de ne pas voler le soir meme au chateau de San Nicolo; l'idee de Vanina, qu'il negligeait, l'empecha de remplir ses devoirs d'une facon raisonnable. History Imperfect Past. Il la vit le lendemain; elle l'aimait comme a Rome. A Personal For A. Son pere, qui voulait la marier, avait retarde son depart.

Elle apportait deux mille sequins. Sea Summary Essay. Ce secours imprevu servit merveilleusement a accrediter Missirilli dans sa nouvelle dignite. Writing A Personal Statement Phd. On fit fabriquer des poignards a Corfou; on agency essay in moral moral psychology source theory, gagna le secretaire intime du legat, charge de poursuivre les carbonari. Statement For A Phd. On obtint ainsi la liste des cures qui servaient d'espions au gouvernement. C'est a cette epoque que finit de s'organiser l'une des moins folles conspirations qui aient ete tentees dans la malheureuse Italie.

Je n'entrerai point ici dans des details deplaces. Solicited. Je me contenterai de dire que si le succes eut couronne l'entreprise, Missirilli eut pu reclamer une bonne part de la gloire. Writing A Personal Statement. Par lui, plusieurs milliers d'insurges se seraient leves a un signal donne, et auraient attendu en armes l'arrivee des chefs superieurs. Cover. Le moment decisif approchait, lorsque, comme cela arrive toujours, la conspiration fut paralysee par l'arrestation des chefs. A peine arrivee en Romagne, Vanina crut voir que l'amour de la patrie ferait oublier a son amant tout autre amour. Writing. La fierte de la jeune Romaine s'irrita. Cover Letter. Elle essaya en vain de se raisonner; un noir chagrin s'empara d'elle: elle se surprit a maudire la liberte. A Personal For A Phd. Un jour qu'elle etait venue a Forli pour voir Missirilli, elle ne fut pas maitresse de sa douleur, que toujours jusque-la son orgueil avait su maitriser. — En verite, lui dit-elle, vous m'aimez comme un mari; ce n'est pas mon compte.

Bientot ses larmes coulerent; mais c'etait de honte de s'etre abaissee jusqu'aux reproches. Plan Writing. Missirilli repondit a ces larmes en homme preoccupe. Writing For A Phd. Tout a coup Vanina eut l'idee de le quitter et de retourner a Rome. Essays Taylor. Elle trouva une joie cruelle a se punir de la faiblesse qui venait de la faire parler. Writing Statement For A. Au bout de peu d'instants de silence, son parti fut pris; elle se fut trouvee indigne de Missirilli si elle ne l'eut pas quitte. Michael Film Essay. Elle jouissait de sa surprise douloureuse quand il la chercherait en vain aupres de lui. A Personal Statement Phd. Bientot l'idee de n'avoir pu obtenir l'amour de l'homme pour qui elle avait fait tant de folies l'attendrit profondement. Essay Freudian Psychology. Alors elle rompit le silence, et fit tout au monde pour lui arracher une parole d'amour. Statement For A. Il lui dit d'un air distrait des choses fort tendres; mais ce fut avec un accent bien autrement profond qu'en parlant de ses entreprises politiques, il s'ecria avec douleur: — Ah ! si cette affaire-ci ne reussit pas, si le gouvernement la decouvre encore, je quitte la partie. Vanina resta immobile. Old Man And The Essay. Depuis une heure, elle sentait qu'elle voyait son amant pour la derniere fois.

Le mot qu'il prononcait jeta une lumiere fatale dans son esprit. Statement. Elle se dit: Les carbonari ont recu de moi plusieurs milliers de sequins. Solicited. On ne peut douter de mon attachement a la conspiration. Vanina ne sortit de sa reverie que pour dire a Pietro: — Voulez-vous venir passer vingt-quatre heures avec moi au chateau de San Nicolo ? Votre assemblee de ce soir n'a pas besoin de ta presence. Writing Statement For A. Demain matin, a San Nicolo, nous pourrons nous promener; cela calmera ton agitation et te rendra tout le sang-froid dont tu as besoin dans ces grandes circonstances. Pietro y consentit. Vanina le quitta pour les preparatifs du voyage, en fermant a clef, comme de coutume, la petite chambre ou elle l'avait cache. Elle courut chez une de ses femmes de chambre qui l'avait quittee pour se marier et prendre un petit commerce a Forli.

Arrivee chez cette femme, elle ecrivit a la hate a la marge d'un livre d'Heures qu'elle trouva dans sa chambre, l'indication exacte du lieu ou la vente des carbonari devait se reunir cette nuit-la meme. Old Man And The. Elle termina sa denonciation par ces mots: Cette vente est composee de dix-neuf membres; voici leurs noms et leurs adresses. A Personal Statement For A Phd. Apres avoir ecrit cette liste, tres exacte a cela pres que le nom de Missirilli etait omis, elle dit a la femme, dont elle etait sure: — Porte ce livre au cardinal-legat; qu'il lise ce qui est ecrit et qu'il te rende le livre. Film Essay. Voici dix sequins; si jamais le legat prononce ton nom, ta mort est certaine; mais tu me sauves la vie si tu fais lire au legat la page que je viens d'ecrire. Tout se passa a merveille. Writing Phd. La peur du legat fit qu'il ne se conduisit point en grand seigneur. Essay History Humanities Imperfect Past. Il permit a la femme du peuple qui demandait a lui parler de ne paraitre devant lui que masquee, mais a condition qu'elle aurait les mains liees. Writing Statement Phd. En cet etat, la marchande fut introduite devant le grand personnage, qu'elle trouva retranche derriere une immense table, couverte d'un tapis vert.

Le legat lut la page du livre d'Heures, en le tenant fort loin de lui, de peur d'un poison subtil. Old Man And The Essay. Il le rendit a la marchande, et ne la fit point suivre. A Personal Statement For A. Moins de quarante minutes apres avoir quitte son amant, Vanina, qui avait vu revenir son ancienne femme de chambre, reparut devant Missirilli, croyant que desormais il etait tout a elle. Essays Taylor. Elle lui dit qu'il y avait un mouvement extraordinaire dans la ville; on writing phd, remarquait des patrouilles de carabiniers dans des rues ou ils ne venaient jamais. — Si tu veux m'en croire, ajouta-t-elle, nous partirons a l'instant meme pour San Nicolo. Missirilli y consentit.

Ils gagnerent a pied la voiture de la jeune princesse, qui, avec sa dame de compagnie, confidente discrete et bien payee, l'attendait a une demi-lieue de la ville. Arrivee au chateau de San Nicolo, Vanina, troublee par son etrange demarche, redoubla de tendresse pour son amant. Solicited Letter. Mais en lui parlant d'amour, il lui semblait qu'elle jouait la comedie. Statement For A Phd. La veille, en trahissant, elle avait oublie le remords. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay. En serrant son amant dans ses bras, elle se disait: Il y a un certain mot qu'on peut lui dire, et ce mot prononce, a l'instant et pour toujours, il me prend en horreur. Au milieu de la nuit, un des domestiques de Vanina entra brusquement dans sa chambre. Writing A Personal. Cet homme etait carbonaro sans qu'elle s'en doutat.

Missirilli avait donc des secrets pour elle, meme pour ces details. Agency Essay In Moral Moral Psychology Source. Elle fremit. A Personal Phd. Cet homme venait d'avertir Missirilli que dans la nuit, a Forli, les maisons de dix-neuf carbonari avaient ete cernees, et eux arretes au moment ou ils revenaient de la vente . And The Sea Summary. Quoique pris a l'improviste, neuf s'etaient echappes. Writing A Personal Phd. Les carabiniers avaient pu conduire dix dans la prison de la citadelle. Lesson Plan. En y entrant, l'un d'eux s'etait jete dans le puits, si profond, et s'etait tue. Writing For A. Vanina perdit contenance; heureusement Pietro ne le remarqua pas: il eut pu lire son crime dans ses yeux.

Dans ce moment, ajouta le domestique, la garnison de Forli forme une file dans toutes les rues. Old Man. Chaque soldat est assez rapproche de son voisin pour lui parler. Writing Statement For A Phd. Les habitants ne peuvent traverser d'un cote de la rue a l'autre, que la ou un officier est place. Apres la sortie de cet homme, Pietro ne fut pensif qu'un instant: — Il n'y a rien a faire pour le moment, dit-il enfin. Vanina etait mourante; elle tremblait sous les regards de son amant. — Qu'avez-vous donc d'extraordinaire ? lui dit-il. Puis il pensa a autre chose, et cessa de la regarder. Vers le milieu de la journee, elle se hasarda a lui dire: — Voila encore une vente de decouverte; je pense que vous allez etre tranquille pour quelque temps. — Tres tranquille , repondit Missirilli avec un sourire qui la fit fremir. Elle alla faire une visite indispensable au cure du village de San Nicolo, peut-etre espion des jesuites.

En rentrant pour diner a sept heures, elle trouva deserte la petite chambre ou son amant etait cache. Michael Essay. Hors d'elle-meme, elle courut le chercher dans toute la maison; il n'y etait point. Writing A Personal Statement For A. Desesperee, elle revint dans cette petite chambre, ce fut alors seulement qu'elle vit un billet; elle lut: Je vais me rendre prisonnier au legat: je desespere de notre cause; le ciel est contre nous. Essay Humanities Past. Qui nous a trahis ? Apparemment le miserable qui s'est jete dans le puits. A Personal For A. Puisque ma vie est inutile a la pauvre Italie, je ne veux pas que mes camarades, en voyant que, seul, je ne suis pas arrete, puissent se figurer que je les ai vendus. Humanities Library Past. Adieu, si vous m'aimez, songez a me venger. Writing A Personal. Perdez, aneantissez l'infame qui nous a trahis, fut-ce mon pere.

Vanina tomba sur une chaise, a demi evanouie et plongee dans le malheur le plus atroce. History Humanities Imperfect Library Past. Elle ne pouvait proferer aucune parole; ses yeux etaient secs et brulants. Enfin elle se precipita a genoux: — Grand Dieu ! s'ecria-t-elle, recevez mon voeu; oui, je punirai l'infame qui a trahi; mais auparavant il faut rendre la liberte a Pietro. Une heure apres, elle etait en route pour Rome. Writing A Personal Statement For A. Depuis longtemps son pere la pressait de revenir. Michael. Pendant son absence, il avait arrange son mariage avec le prince Livio Savelli. Writing A Personal For A. A peine Vanina fut-elle arrivee, qu'il lui en parla en tremblant. Lesson Writing Contrast. A son grand etonnement, elle consentit des le premier mot. Writing Phd. Le soir meme, chez la comtesse Vitteleschi, son pere lui presenta presque officiellement don Livio; elle lui parla beaucoup.

C'etait le jeune homme le plus elegant et qui avait les plus beaux chevaux; mais quoiqu'on lui reconnut beaucoup d'esprit, son caractere passait pour tellement leger, qu'il n'etait nullement suspect au gouvernement. Agency Essay. Vanina pensa qu'en lui faisant d'abord tourner la tete, elle en ferait un agent commode. Writing. Comme il etait neveu de monsignor Savelli-Catanzara, gouverneur de Rome et ministre de la police, elle supposait que les espions n'oseraient le suivre. Apres avoir fort bien traite, pendant quelques jours, l'aimable don Livio, Vanina lui annonca que jamais il ne serait son epoux; il avait, suivant elle, la tete trop legere. — Si vous n'etiez pas un enfant, lui dit-elle, les commis de votre oncle n'auraient pas de secrets pour vous. Michael Collins Film Essay. Par exemple, quel parti prend-on a l'egard des carbonari decouverts recemment a Forli ? Don Livio vint lui dire, deux jours apres, que tous les carbonari pris a Forli s'etaient evades. A Personal Statement For A. Elle arreta sur lui ses grands yeux noirs avec le sourire amer du plus profond mepris, et ne daigna pas lui parler de toute la soiree.

Le surlendemain, don Livio vint lui avouer, en rougissant, que d'abord on source, l'avait trompe. — Mais, lui dit-il, je me suis procure une clef du cabinet de mon oncle; j'ai vu par les papiers que j'y ai trouves qu'une congregation (ou commission), composee des cardinaux et des prelats les plus en credit, s'assemble dans le plus grand secret, et delibere sur la question de savoir s'il convient de juger ces carbonari a Ravenne ou a Rome. A Personal Statement. Les neuf carbonari pris a Forli, et leur chef, un nomme Missirilli, qui a eu la sottise de se rendre, sont en ce moment detenus au chateau de San Leo (2) . A ce mot de sottise , Vanina pinca le prince de toute sa force. — Je veux moi-meme, lui dit-elle, voir les papiers officiels et entrer avec vous dans le cabinet de votre oncle; vous aurez mal lu. A ces mots, don Livio fremit; Vanina lui demandait une chose presque impossible; mais le genie bizarre de cette jeune fille redoublait son amour. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay. Peu de jours apres, Vanina, deguisee en homme et portant un joli petit habit a la livree de la casa Savelli, put passer une demi-heure au milieu des papiers les plus secrets du ministre de la police. A Personal Phd. Elle eut un moment de vif bonheur, lorsqu'elle decouvrit le rapport journalier du prevenu Pietro Missirilli . Moral Psychology Source. Ses mains tremblaient en tenant ce papier. A Personal Statement For A Phd. En relisant son nom, elle fut sur le point de se trouver mal. Agency Essay Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Theory. Au sortir du palais du gouverneur de Rome, Vanina permit a don Livio de l'embrasser. — Vous vous tirez bien, lui dit-elle, des epreuves auxquelles je veux vous soumettre.

Apres un tel mot, le jeune prince eut mis le feu au Vatican pour plaire a Vanina. A Personal For A Phd. Ce soir-la, il y avait bal chez l'ambassadeur de France; elle dansa beaucoup et presque toujours avec lui. Collins Film Essay. Don Livio etait ivre de bonheur, il fallait l'empecher de reflechir. — Mon pere est quelquefois bizarre, lui dit un jour Vanina, il a chasse ce matin deux de ses gens qui sont venus pleurer chez moi. Writing Statement For A Phd. L'un m'a demande d'etre place chez votre oncle le gouverneur de Rome; l'autre qui a ete soldat d'artillerie sous les Francais, voudrait etre employe au chateau Saint-Ange. — Je les prends tous les deux a mon service, dit vivement le jeune prince. — Est-ce la ce que je vous demande ? repliqua fierement Vanina.

Je vous repete textuellement la priere de ces pauvres gens; ils doivent obtenir ce qu'ils ont demande, et pas autre chose. Rien de plus difficile. Essays. Monsignor Catanzara n'etait rien moins qu'un homme leger, et n'admettait dans sa maison que des gens de lui bien connus. Writing Statement For A Phd. Au milieu d'une vie remplie, en apparence, par tous les plaisirs, Vanina, bourrelee de remords, etait fort malheureuse. Imperfect. La lenteur des evenements la tuait.

L'homme d'affaires de son pere lui avait procure de l'argent. Phd. Devait-elle fuir la maison paternelle et aller en Romagne essayer de faire evader son amant ? Quelque deraisonnable que fut cette idee, elle etait sur le point de la mettre a execution lorsque le hasard eut pitie d'elle. Don Livio lui dit: — Les dix carbonari de la vente Missirilli vont etre transferes a Rome, sauf a etre executes en Romagne, apres leur condamnation. Solicited Cover Letter. Voila ce que mon oncle vient d'obtenir du pape ce soir. Writing A Personal Statement. Vous et moi sommes les seuls dans Rome qui sachions ce secret. Writing Contrast Essay. Etes-vous contente ? — Vous devenez un homme, repondit Vanina; faites-moi cadeau de votre portrait. La veille du jour ou Missirilli devait arriver a Rome, Vanina prit un pretexte pour aller a Citta-Castellana. A Personal Statement For A. C'est dans la prison de cette ville que l'on fait coucher les carbonari que l'on transfere de la Romagne a Rome. Freudian Moral Source. Elle vit Missirilli le matin, comme il sortait de la prison: il etait enchaine seul sur une charrette; il lui parut fort pale, mais nullement decourage. Writing A Personal. Une vieille femme lui jeta un bouquet de violettes; Missirilli sourit en la remerciant. Vanina avait vu son amant, toutes ses pensees semblerent renouvelees; elle eut un nouveau courage. Psychology Source Theory. Des longtemps elle avait fait obtenir un bel avancement a M. A Personal Statement For A Phd. l'abbe Cari, aumonier du chateau Saint-Ange, ou son amant allait etre enferme; elle avait pris ce bon pretre pour confesseur.

Ce n'est pas peu de chose a Rome que d'etre confesseur d'une princesse, niece du gouverneur. Le proces des carbonari de Forli ne fut pas long. Lesson Writing Contrast. Pour se venger de leur arrivee a Rome, qu'il n'avait pu empecher, le parti ultra fit composer la commission qui devait les juger des prelats les plus ambitieux. Statement For A. Cette commission fut presidee par le ministre de la police. La loi contre les carbonari est claire: ceux de Forli ne pouvaient conserver aucun espoir; ils n'en defendirent pas moins leur vie par tous les subterfuges possibles. Essays Taylor. Non seulement leurs juges les condamnerent a mort, mais plusieurs opinerent pour des supplices atroces, le poing coupe, etc. Writing Phd. Le ministre de la police dont la fortune etait faite (car on agency freudian source theory, ne quitte cette place que pour prendre le chapeau), n'avait nul besoin de poing coupe; en portant la sentence au pape, il fit commuer en quelques annees de prison la peine de tous les condamnes. Statement For A Phd. Le seul Pietro Missirilli fut excepte. Essay History Humanities. Le ministre voyait dans ce jeune homme un fanatique dangereux, et d'ailleurs il avait aussi ete condamne a mort comme coupable de meurtre sur les deux carabiniers dont nous avons parle.

Vanina sut la sentence et la commutation peu d'instants apres que le ministre fut revenu de chez le pape. Le lendemain, monsignor Catanzara rentra dans son palais vers le minuit, il ne trouva point son valet de chambre; le ministre, etonne, sonna plusieurs fois; enfin parut un vieux domestique imbecile: le ministre, impatiente, prit le parti de se deshabiller lui-meme. Statement Phd. Il ferma sa porte a clef; il faisait fort chaud: il prit son habit et le lanca en paquet sur une chaise. Collins. Cet habit, jete avait trop de force, passa par-dessus la chaise, alla frapper le rideau de mousseline de la fenetre, et dessina la forme d'un homme. Writing A Personal Statement Phd. Le ministre se jeta rapidement vers son lit et saisit un pistolet. Cover Letter. Comme il revenait pres de la fenetre, un fort jeune homme, couvert de la livree, s'approcha de lui le pistolet a la main. A Personal Statement For A. A cette vue, le ministre approcha le pistolet de son oeil; il allait tirer.

Le jeune homme lui dit en riant: — Eh quoi ! monseigneur, ne reconnaissez-vous pas Vanina Vanini ? — Que signifie cette mauvaise plaisanterie ? repliqua le ministre en colere. — Raisonnons froidement, dit la jeune fille. Cover Letter. D'abord votre pistolet n'est pas charge. Le ministre, etonne, s'assura du fait; apres quoi il tira un poignard de la poche de son gilet. Statement For A. (3) Vanina lui dit avec un petit air d'autorite charmant: Et elle prit place tranquillement sur un canape. — Etes-vous seule au moins ? dit le ministre. — Absolument seule, je vous le jure ! s'ecria Vanina. C'est ce que le ministre eut soin de verifier: il fit le tour de la chambre et regarda partout; apres quoi il s'assit sur une chaise a trois pas de Vanina. — Quel interet aurais-je, dit Vanina d'un air doux et tranquille, d'attenter aux jours d'un homme modere, qui probablement serait remplace par quelque homme faible a tete chaude, capable de se perdre soi et les autres ? — Que voulez-vous donc, mademoiselle ? dit le ministre avec humeur. History Humanities Library. Cette scene ne me convient point et ne doit pas durer.

— Ce que je vais ajouter, reprit Vanina avec hauteur, et oubliant tout a coup son air gracieux, importe a vous plus qu'a moi. Writing A Personal Statement. On veut que le carbonaro Missirilli ait la vie sauve: s'il est execute, vous ne lui survivrez pas d'une semaine. Writing Compare. Je n'ai aucun interet a tout ceci; la folie dont vous vous plaignez, je l'ai faite pour m'amuser d'abord, et ensuite pour servir une de mes amies. Writing For A. J'ai voulu, continua Vanina, en reprenant son air de bonne compagnie, j'ai voulu rendre service a un homme d'esprit, qui bientot sera mon oncle, et doit porter loin, suivant toute apparence, la fortune de sa maison. Le ministre quitta l'air fache: la beaute de Vanina contribua sans doute a ce changement rapide. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay. On connaissait dans Rome le gout de monseigneur Catanzara pour les jolies femmes, et, dans son deguisement en valet de pied de la casa Savelli, avec des bas de soie bien tires, une veste rouge, son petit habit bleu de ciel galonne d'argent, et le pistolet a la main, Vanina etait ravissante. — Ma future niece, dit le ministre presque en riant, vous faites la une haute folie, et ce ne sera pas la derniere. — J'espere qu'un personnage aussi sage, repondit Vanina, me gardera le secret, et surtout envers don Livio, et pour vous y engager, mon cher oncle, si vous m'accordez la vie du protege de mon amie, je vous donnerai un baiser. Ce fut en continuant la conversation sur ce ton de demi-plaisanterie, avec lequel les dames romaines savent traiter les plus grandes affaires, que Vanina parvint a donner a cette entrevue, commencee le pistolet a la main, la couleur d'une visite faite par la jeune princesse Savelli a son oncle le gouverneur de Rome. Bientot monseigneur Catanzara, tout en rejetant avec hauteur l'idee de s'en laisser imposer par la crainte, en fut a raconter a sa niece toutes les difficultes qu'il rencontrerait pour sauver la vie de Missirilli. Writing. En discutant, le ministre se promenait dans la chambre avec Vanina; il prit une carafe de limonade qui etait sur la cheminee et en remplit un verre de cristal.

Au moment ou il allait le porter a ses levres, Vanina s'en empara, et, apres l'avoir tenu quelque temps, le laissa tomber dans le jardin comme par distraction. History Humanities Past. Un instant apres, le ministre prit une pastille de chocolat dans une bonbonniere, Vanina la lui enleva, et lui dit en riant: — Prenez donc garde, tout chez vous est empoisonne; car on a personal statement, voulait votre mort. Cover. C'est moi qui ai obtenu la grace de mon oncle futur, afin de ne pas entrer dans la famille Savelli absolument les mains vides. Monseigneur Catanzara, fort etonne, remercia sa niece, et donna de grandes esperances pour la vie de Missirilli. — Notre marche est fait ! s'ecria Vanina, et la preuve, c'est qu'en voici la recompense ! dit-elle en l'embrassant. Le ministre prit la recompense. — Il faut que vous sachiez, ma chere Vanina, ajouta-t-il, que je n'aime pas le sang, moi.

D'ailleurs, je suis jeune encore, quoique peut-etre je vous paraisse bien vieux, et je puis vivre a une epoque ou le sang verse aujourd'hui fera tache. Deux heures sonnaient quand monseigneur Catanzara accompagna Vanina jusqu'a la petite porte de son jardin. Le surlendemain, lorsque le ministre parut devant le pape, assez embarrasse de la demarche qu'il avait a faire, Sa Saintete lui dit: — Avant tout, j'ai une grace a vous demander. Writing Phd. Il y a un de ces carbonari de Forli qui est reste condamne a mort; cette idee m'empeche de dormir: il faut sauver cet homme. Le ministre, voyant que le pape avait pris son parti, fit beaucoup d'objections, et finit par ecrire un decret ou motu proprio , que le pape signa, contre l'usage. Vanina avait pense que peut-etre elle obtiendrait la grace de son amant, mais qu'on tenterait de l'empoisonner. On Edward. Des la veille, Missirilli avait recu de l'abbe Cari, son confesseur, quelques petits paquets de biscuits de mer, avec l'avis de ne pas toucher aux aliments fournis par l'Etat. Vanina ayant su apres que les carbonari de Forli allaient etre transferes au chateau de San Leo, voulut essayer de voir Missirilli a son passage a Citta-Castellana; elle arriva dans cette ville vingt-quatre heures avant les prisonniers; elle y trouva l'abbe Cari, qui l'avait precedee de plusieurs jours. A Personal Statement For A. Il avait obtenu du geolier que Missirilli pourrait entendre la messe, a minuit, dans la chapelle de la prison. Cover. On alla plus loin: si Missirilli voulait consentir a se laisser lier les bras et les jambes par une chaine, le geolier se retirerait vers la porte de la chapelle, de maniere a voir toujours le prisonnier, dont il etait responsable, mais a ne pouvoir entendre ce qu'il dirait.

Le jour qui devait decider du sort de Vanina parut enfin. Writing A Personal For A. Des le matin, elle s'enferma dans la chapelle de la prison. Old Man Essay. Qui pourrait dire les pensees qui l'agiterent durant cette longue journee ? Missirilli l'aimait-il assez pour lui pardonner ? Elle avait denonce sa vente , mais elle lui avait sauve la vie. Statement Phd. Quand la raison prenait le dessus dans cette ame bourrelee, Vanina esperait qu'il voudrait consentir a quitter l'Italie avec elle: si elle avait peche, c' etait par exces d'amour. Essay History Imperfect Library Past. Comme quatre heures sonnaient, elle entendit de loin, sur le pave, les pas des chevaux des carabiniers. A Personal Phd. Le bruit de chacun de ces pas semblait retentir dans son coeur. Agency Essay Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Source Theory. Bientot elle distingua le roulement des charrettes qui transportaient les prisonniers. A Personal Phd. Elles s'arreterent sur la petite place devant la prison; elle vit deux carabiniers soulever Missirilli, qui etait seul sur une charrette, et tellement charge de fers qu'il ne pouvait se mouvoir. In Moral Psychology Source Theory. Du moins il vit, se dit-elle les larmes aux yeux, ils ne l'ont pas encore empoisonne ! La soiree fut cruelle; la lampe de l'autel, placee a une grande hauteur, et pour laquelle le geolier epargnait l'huile, eclairait seule cette chapelle sombre. Writing A Personal. Les yeux de Vanina erraient sur les tombeaux de quelques grands seigneurs du Moyen Age morts dans la prison voisine. Essay History Imperfect Library Past. Leurs statues avaient l'air feroce.

Tous les bruits avaient cesse depuis longtemps; Vanina etait absorbee dans ses noires pensees. Writing Statement For A. Un peu apres que minuit eut sonne, elle crut entendre un bruit leger comme le vol d'une chauve-souris. Plan Writing Compare. Elle voulut marcher, et tomba a demi evanouie sur la balustrade de l'autel. Writing Statement Phd. Au meme instant, deux fantomes se trouverent tout pres d'elle, sans qu'elle les eut entendu venir. Collins Essay. C'etaient le geolier et Missirilli charge de chaines, au point qu'il en etait comme emmaillote. Writing For A. Le geolier ouvrit une lanterne, qu'il posa sur la balustrade de l'autel, a cote de Vanina, de facon a ce qu'il put bien voir son prisonnier. Essay History Humanities. Ensuite il se retira dans le fond, pres de la porte. Statement Phd. A peine le geolier se fut-il eloigne que Vanina se precipita au cou de Missirilli. Lesson Plan Writing Essay. En le serrant dans ses bras, elle ne sentit que ses chaines froides et pointues. A Personal For A Phd. Qui les lui a donnees ces chaines ? pensa-t-elle. Lesson Compare. Elle n'eut aucun plaisir a embrasser son amant.

A cette douleur en succeda une autre plus poignante; elle crut un instant que Missirilli savait son crime, tant son accueil fut glace. — Chere amie, lui dit-il enfin, je regrette l'amour que vous avez pris pour moi; c'est en vain que je cherche le merite qui a pu vous l'inspirer. A Personal For A Phd. Revenons, croyez-m'en, a des sentiments plus chretiens, oublions les illusions qui jadis nous ont egares; je ne puis vous appartenir. History Past. Le malheur constant qui a suivi mes entreprises vient peut-etre de l'etat de peche mortel ou je me suis constamment trouve. Phd. Meme a n'ecouter que les conseils de la prudence humaine, pourquoi n'ai-je pas ete arrete avec mes amis, lors de la fatale nuit de Forli ? Pourquoi, a l'instant du danger, ne me trouvais-je pas a mon poste ? Pourquoi mon absence a-t-elle pu autoriser les soupcons les plus cruels ? J'avais une autre passion que celle de la liberte de l'Italie. Vanina ne revenait pas de la surprise que lui causait le changement de Missirilli.

Sans etre sensiblement maigri, il avait l'air d'avoir trente ans. Film. Vanina attribua ce changement aux mauvais traitements qu'il avait soufferts en prison, elle fondit en larmes. — Ah, lui dit-elle, les geoliers avaient tant promis qu'ils te traiteraient avec bonte. Le fait est qu'a l'approche de la mort, tous les principes religieux qui pouvaient s'accorder avec la passion pour la liberte de l'Italie avaient reparu dans le coeur du jeune carbonaro. A Personal Phd. Peu a peu Vanina s'apercut que le changement etonnant qu'elle remarquait chez son amant etait tout moral, et nullement l'effet de mauvais traitements physiques. Plan Writing Contrast Essay. Sa douleur, qu'elle croyait au comble, en fut encore augmentee. Missirilli se taisait; Vanina semblait sur le point d'etre etouffee par les sanglots.

Il ajouta d'un air un peu emu lui-meme: — Si j'aimais quelque chose sur la terre, ce serait vous, Vanina; mais grace a Dieu, je n'ai plus qu'un seul but dans ma vie: je mourrai en prison, ou en cherchant a donner la liberte a l'Italie. Il y eut encore un silence; evidemment Vanina ne pouvait parler: elle l'essayait en vain. A Personal Statement For A Phd. Missirilli ajouta: — Le devoir est cruel, mon amie; mais s'il n'y avait pas un peu de peine a l'accomplir, ou serait l'heroisme ? Donnez-moi votre parole que vous ne chercherez plus a me voir. Autant que sa chaine assez serree le lui permettait, il fit un petit mouvement du poignet, et tendit les doigts a Vanina. — Si vous permettez un conseil a un homme qui vous fut cher, mariez-vous sagement a l'homme de merite que votre pere vous destine. Sea Summary Essay. Ne lui faites aucune confidence facheuse; mais, d'un autre cote, ne cherchez jamais a me revoir; soyons desormais etrangers l'un a l'autre. Writing A Personal Statement For A Phd. Vous avez avance une somme considerable pour le service de la patrie; si jamais elle est delivree de ses tyrans, cette somme vous sera fidelement payee en biens nationaux. Vanina etait atterree. Contrast. En lui parlant, l'oeil de Pietro n'avait brille qu'au moment ou il avait nomme la patrie . Enfin l'orgueil vint au secours de la jeune princesse; elle s'etait munie de diamants et de petites limes. Statement For A. Sans repondre a Missirilli, elle les lui offrit. — J'accepte par devoir, lui dit-il, car je dois chercher a m'echapper; mais je ne vous verrai jamais, je le jure en presence de vos nouveaux bienfaits.

Adieu, Vanina; promettez-moi de ne jamais m'ecrire, de ne jamais chercher a me voir; laissez-moi tout a la patrie, je suis mort pour vous: adieu. — Non, reprit Vanina furieuse, je veux que tu saches ce que j'ai fait, guidee par l'amour que j'avais pour toi. Alors elle lui raconta toutes les demarches depuis le moment ou Missirilli avait quitte le chateau de San Nicolo, pour aller se rendre au legat. Michael. Quand ce recit fut termine: — Tout cela n'est rien, dit Vanina: j'ai fait plus, par amour pour toi. Alors elle lui dit sa trahison. — Ah ! monstre, s'ecria Pietro furieux, en se jetant sur elle, et il cherchait a l'assommer avec ses chaines.

Il y serait parvenu sans le geolier qui accourut aux premiers cris. Writing For A. Il saisit Missirilli. — Tiens, monstre, je ne veux rien te devoir, dit Missirilli a Vanina, en lui jetant, autant que ses chaines le lui permettaient, les limes et les diamants, et il s'eloigna rapidement. Vanina resta aneantie. On Edward Taylor. Elle revint a Rome; et le journal annonce qu'elle vient d'epouser le prince don Livio Savelli.

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SILK ROAD Dialogue, Diversity Development. Human beings have always moved from writing a personal place to place and traded with their neighbours, exchanging goods, skills and ideas. Throughout history, Eurasia was criss-crossed with communication routes and paths of trade, which gradually linked up to form what are known today as the Silk Roads; routes across both land and sea, along which silk and many other goods were exchanged between people from across the world. Maritime routes were an important part of this network, linking East and West by sea, and old man were used for phd the trade of spices in particular, thus becoming known as the Spice Routes. These vast networks carried more than just merchandise and precious commodities however: the constant movement and mixing of populations also brought about the transmission of solicited cover letter, knowledge, ideas, cultures and beliefs, which had a profound impact on the history and civilizations of the Eurasian peoples. Travellers along the writing a personal Silk Roads were attracted not only by trade but also by the intellectual and agency essay moral psychology source theory cultural exchange that was taking place in cities along the Silk Roads, many of writing for a, which developed into hubs of culture and learning. Science, arts and literature, as well as crafts and technologies were thus shared and essays taylor disseminated into a personal phd, societies along the lengths of these routes, and in this way, languages, religions and cultures developed and influenced each other. 'Silk Road' is in fact a relatively recent term, and for the majority of their long history, these ancient roads had no particular name. Humanities? In the mid-nineteenth century, the German geologist, Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen, named the trade and communication network Die Seidenstrasse (the Silk Road), and the term, also used in the plural, continues to stir imaginations with its evocative mystery. Silk Production and the Silk Trade.

Silk is a textile of ancient Chinese origin, woven from the protein fibre produced by the silkworm to make its cocoon, and was developed, according to Chinese tradition, sometime around the year 2,700 BC. Regarded as an extremely high value product, it was reserved for the exclusive usage of the Chinese imperial court for a personal phd the making of cloths, drapes, banners, and history imperfect other items of writing a personal statement for a, prestige. Its production was kept a fiercely guarded secret within China for some 3,000 years, with imperial decrees sentencing to death anyone who revealed to a foreigner the process of its production. Tombs in the Hubei province dating from the 4 th and source 3 rd centuries BC contain outstanding examples of statement for a phd, silk work, including brocade, gauze and embroidered silk, and the first complete silk garments. The Chinese monopoly on silk production however did not mean that the product was restricted to the Chinese Empire – on the contrary, silk was used as a diplomatic gift, and was also traded extensively, first of all with China’s immediate neighbours, and essay freudian psychology subsequently further afield, becoming one of China’s chief exports under the Han dynasty (206 BC –220 AD). Indeed, Chinese cloths from this period have been found in Egypt, in northern Mongolia, and elsewhere. At some point during the 1 st century BC, silk was introduced to the Roman Empire, where it was considered an exotic luxury and became extremely popular, with imperial edicts being issued to control prices. Its popularity continued throughout the Middle Ages, with detailed Byzantine regulations for the manufacture of writing phd, silk clothes, illustrating its importance as a quintessentially royal fabric and an important source of revenue for the crown. Additionally, the needs of the Byzantine Church for silk garments and hangings were substantial.

This luxury item was thus one of the and the sea summary early impetuses in the development of for a phd, trading routes from Europe to essay past the Far East. Knowledge about silk production was very valuable and, despite the efforts of the writing Chinese emperor to keep it a closely guarded secret, it did eventually spread beyond China, first to India and Japan, then to the Persian Empire and agency essay freudian moral psychology source finally to the west in the 6 th century AD. Writing Statement For A Phd? This was described by the historian Procopius, writing in and the sea summary essay the 6 th century: About the same time [ca. 550] there came from India certain monks; and when they had satisfied Justinian Augustus that the Romans no longer should buy silk from the Persians, they promised the emperor in an interview that they would provide the for a phd materials for making silk so that never should the cover Romans seek business of phd, this kind from essays on edward their enemy the Persians, or from any other people whatsoever. They said that they were formerly in Serinda, which they call the region frequented by the people of the Indies, and there they learned perfectly the art of making silk. Moreover, to the emperor who plied them with many questions as to whether he might have the secret, the monks replied that certain worms were manufacturers of silk, nature itself forcing them to keep always at work; the worms could certainly not be brought here alive, but they could be grown easily and without difficulty; the eggs of single hatchings are innumerable; as soon as they are laid men cover them with dung and keep them warm for as long as it is necessary so that they produce insects. When they had announced these tidings, led on by liberal promises of the writing emperor to prove the fact, they returned to India. When they had brought the eggs to Byzantium, the method having been learned, as I have said, they changed them by agency freudian in moral moral psychology theory, metamorphosis into worms which feed on the leaves of mulberry. Thus began the art of making silk from that time on in the Roman Empire.

Beyond Silk; a diversity of routes and cargos. However, whilst the silk trade was one of the earliest catalysts for the trade routes across Central Asia, it was only one of a wide range of products that was traded between east and west, and writing a personal for a phd which included textiles, spices, grain, vegetables and fruit, animal hides, tools, wood work, metal work, religious objects, art work, precious stones and much more. Indeed, the plan writing compare contrast essay Silk Roads became more popular and increasingly well-travelled over the course of the Middle Ages, and were still in use in the 19 th century, a testimony not only to their usefulness but also to their flexibility and adaptability to the changing demands of society. Writing A Personal For A Phd? Nor did these trading paths follow only one trail – merchants had a wide choice of different routes crossing a variety of regions of Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and the Far East, as well as the on edward taylor maritime routes, which transported goods from China and South East Asia through the Indian Ocean to Africa, India and the Near East. These routes developed over time and according to writing phd shifting geopolitical contexts throughout history. For example, merchants from the essay Roman Empire would try to avoid crossing the territory of the Parthians, Rome’s enemies, and therefore took routes to the north, across the Caucasus region and over the Caspian Sea. Similarly, whilst extensive trade took place over the network of rivers that crossed the Central Asian steppes in the early Middle Ages, their water levels rose and fell, and sometimes dried up altogether, and trade routes shifted accordingly. Maritime trade was another extremely important branch of this global trade network. Most famously used for the transportation of spices, the maritime trade routes have also been known as the Spice Roads, supplying markets across the world with cinnamon, pepper, ginger, cloves and writing statement phd nutmeg from the Moluccas islands in Indonesia (known as the Spice Islands), as well as a wide range of other goods. Textiles, woodwork, precious stones, metalwork, incense, timber, and saffron were all traded by the merchants travelling these routes, which stretched over 15,000 kilometres, from the west coast of Japan, past the Chinese coast, through South East Asia, and cover letter past India to writing a personal reach the Middle East and so to the Mediterranean. The history of these maritime routes can be traced back thousands of michael film, years, to links between the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization.

The early Middle Ages saw an expansion of this network, as sailors from the Arabian Peninsula forged new trading routes across the Arabian Sea and into the Indian Ocean. Indeed, maritime trading links were established between Arabia and China from a personal statement for a phd as early as the 8 th century AD. Technological advances in the science of navigation, in film astronomy, and also in the techniques of ship building combined to make long-distance sea travel increasingly practical. Lively coastal cities grew up around the for a phd most frequently visited ports along these routes, such as Zanzibar, Alexandria, Muscat, and Goa, and these cities became wealthy centres for the exchange of old man and the, goods, ideas, languages and beliefs, with large markets and continually changing populations of statement for a, merchants and sailors. In the late 15 th century, the Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama, navigated round the and the sea summary essay Cape of Good Hope, thereby connecting European sailors with these South East Asian maritime routes for the first time and initiating direct European involvement in this trade. By the 16 th and 17 th centuries, these routes and their lucrative trade had become subject of a personal for a phd, fierce rivalries between the Portuguese, Dutch, and British. The conquest of and the sea summary, ports along the maritime routes brought both wealth and security, as they effectively governed the statement passage of maritime trade and also allowed ruling powers to claim monopolies on these exotic and highly sought-after goods, as well as gathering the substantial taxes levied on merchant vessels.

The map above illustrates the great variety of routes that were available to merchants bearing a wide range of goods and humanities past travelling from different parts of the world, by both land and sea. Most often, individual merchant caravans would cover specific sections of the routes, pausing to rest and replenish supplies, or stopping altogether and selling on their cargos at points throughout the length of the roads, leading to the growth of lively trading cities and ports. The Silk Roads were dynamic and porous; goods were traded with local populations throughout, and local products were added into merchants’ cargos. This process enriched not only the merchants’ material wealth and a personal for a the variety of their cargos, but also allowed for exchanges of culture, language and ideas to plan writing take place along the Silk Roads. Perhaps the most lasting legacy of the Silk Roads has been their role in bringing cultures and peoples in contact with each other, and facilitating exchange between them. On a practical level, merchants had to writing a personal phd learn the languages and customs of the michael film countries they travelled through, in for a phd order to negotiate successfully. Cultural interaction was a vital aspect of material exchange. Moreover, many travellers ventured onto the Silk Roads in order to partake in this process of intellectual and cultural exchange that was taking place in cities along the routes. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay? Knowledge about science, arts and literature, as well as crafts and technologies was shared across the Silk Roads, and in this way, languages, religions and statement for a phd cultures developed and influenced each other. Contrast Essay? One of the writing statement for a phd most famous technical advances to have been propagated worldwide by the Silk Roads was the technique of making paper, as well as the development of printing press technology.

Similarly, irrigation systems across Central Asia share features that were spread by travellers who not only carried their own cultural knowledge, but also absorbed that of the societies in which they found themselves. Indeed, the on edward taylor man who is often credited with founding the Silk Roads by opening up the first route from China to the West in the 2 nd century BC, General Zhang Qian, was on for a phd a diplomatic mission rather than a trading expedition. Sent to the West in collins film 139 BC by the Han Emperor Wudi to writing a personal statement ensure alliances against the Xiongnu, the hereditary enemies of the Chinese, Zhang Qian was captured and imprisoned by them. Thirteen years later he escaped and made his way back to China. Pleased with the solicited wealth of detail and accuracy of his reports, the for a emperor sent Zhang Qian on another mission in 119 BC to visit several neighbouring peoples, establishing early routes from China to Central Asia. Religion and a quest for knowledge were further inspirations to travel along these routes. Buddhist monks from China made pilgrimages to India to bring back sacred texts, and their travel diaries are an extraordinary source of information. The diary of Xuan Zang (whose 25-year journal lasted from 629 to 654 AD) not only has an enormous historical value, but also inspired a comic novel in the sixteenth century, the 'Pilgrimage to the West', which has become one of the great Chinese classics.

During the Middle Ages, European monks undertook diplomatic and religious missions to the east, notably Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, sent by Pope Innocent IV on a mission to the Mongols from on edward taylor 1245 to 1247, and William of Rubruck, a Flemish Franciscan monk sent by King Louis IX of France again to writing a personal for a the Mongol hordes from 1253 to 1255. History Imperfect Library? Perhaps the most famous was the Venetian explorer, Marco Polo, whose travels lasted for more than 20 years between 1271 and 1292, and whose account of his experiences became extremely popular in writing a personal statement for a phd Europe after his death. The routes were also fundamental in the dissemination of religions throughout Eurasia. Buddhism is and the sea summary essay one example of a personal phd, a religion that travelled the Silk Roads, with Buddhist art and shrines being found as far apart as Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Mount Wutai in China, and and the sea summary Borobudur in Indonesia. Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Manicheism spread in writing phd the same way, as travellers absorbed the cultures they encountered and then carried them back to their homelands with them. Thus, for example, Hinduism and lesson contrast essay subsequently Islam were introduced into Indonesia and Malaysia by Silk Road merchants travelling the maritime trade routes from India and Arabia. Travelling the statement Silk Roads. The process of travelling the Silk Roads developed along with the roads themselves.

In the Middle Ages, caravans consisting of horses or camels were the standard means of and the sea summary, transporting goods across land. Caravanserais, large guest houses or inns designed to a personal statement welcome travelling merchants, played a vital role in facilitating the passage of lesson plan compare essay, people and goods along these routes. Writing A Personal Statement Phd? Found along the Silk Roads from Turkey to China, they provided not only essay past, a regular opportunity for merchants to eat well, rest and prepare themselves in safety for their onward journey, and phd also to exchange goods, trade with local markets and buy local products, and to meet other merchant travellers, and in doing so, to and the essay exchange cultures, languages and ideas. As trade routes developed and became more lucrative, caravanserais became more of a necessity, and their construction intensified across Central Asia from the for a phd 10th century onwards, and continued until as late as the 19th century. This resulted in a network of caravanserais that stretched from China to the Indian subcontinent, Iran, the Caucasus, Turkey, and as far as North Africa, Russia and Eastern Europe, many of which still stand today. Caravanserais were ideally positioned within a day’s journey of each other, so as to prevent merchants (and more particularly, their precious cargos) from spending days or nights exposed to the dangers of the road. On average, this resulted in a caravanserai every 30 to 40 kilometres in well-maintained areas. Maritime traders had different challenges to writing compare face on their lengthy journeys. The development of sailing technology, and in particular of ship-building knowledge, increased the safety of sea travel throughout the Middle Ages.

Ports grew up on coasts along these maritime trading routes, providing vital opportunities for merchants not only to trade and disembark, but also to take on fresh water supplies, with one of the greatest threats to a personal phd sailors in the Middle Ages being a lack of drinking water. Pirates were another risk faced by all merchant ships along the maritime Silk Roads, as their lucrative cargos made them attractive targets. The legacy of the Silk Roads. In the nineteenth century, a new type of traveller ventured onto the Silk Roads: archaeologists and agency essay in moral moral psychology source geographers, enthusiastic explorers looking for adventure. Coming from France, England, Germany, Russia and Japan, these researchers traversed the Taklamakan desert in western China, in what is now Xinjiang, to explore ancient sites along the Silk Roads, leading to many archaeological discoveries, numerous academic studies, and most of all, a renewed interest in the history of these routes.

Today, many historic buildings and monuments still stand, marking the passage of the Silk Roads through caravanserais, ports and cities. However, the long-standing and ongoing legacy of this remarkable network is reflected in writing a personal statement the many distinct but interconnected cultures, languages, customs and religions that have developed over lesson plan writing compare essay, millennia along these routes. Writing Phd? The passage of merchants and travellers of many different nationalities resulted not only in commercial exchange but in a continuous and widespread process of cultural interaction. As such, from their early, exploratory origins, the writing contrast essay Silk Roads developed to become a driving force in statement phd the formation of diverse societies across Eurasia and far beyond.

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american essay west This essay will explore the three dominant paradigms in a personal the history of the American West. The first paradigm, the Frontier Thesis, was developed by Frederick Jackson Turner and presented by him at the Chicago World#8217;s Columbian Exposition in July 1893 and was intended to serve as a model for the development of American institutions in general. However, it also greatly impacted the study of the American West. The work of new western historians, especially Patricia Nelson Limerick, is the second paradigm and emphasizes four themes within the field of western history including convergence, conquest, complexity, and continuity. Finally, world-systems analysis will be examined through the work of William G. Robbins and other historians who argue that the role of capitalism in the development of the American West is a necessary and important field of inquiry.

Paradigm I: The Turner Thesis. Background of the Frontier Thesis. In his study of American historical interpretations, Gerald Nash argues that there are several important factors to consider in tracing the evolution of film, Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. First, Turner#8217;s personal experiences growing up in a frontier region of a personal statement phd, Wisconsin between 1870 and 1890 shaped his thoughts and left lasting impressions. [1] Second, Turner was influenced by agency essay psychology, the intellectual climates at the University of Wisconsin and Johns Hopkins, where his instructors shaped his thinking of historical processes. At Johns Hopkins, for example, Turner studied under Herbert Adams who taught him the germ theory of American institutions. According to this theory, American institutions evolved from Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic origins in Europe that were centuries old. [2] Based on his experiences in Wisconsin, Turner rejected most of Adam#8217;s theory. Turner wanted to focus instead on the forces that made American institutions exceptional. Finally, Turner#8217;s concerns with contemporary events found expression in phd his professional writings. Turner was concerned about the decline of the agrarian character of the on edward, nation in the face of industrialism, the writing a personal statement phd, rise of lesson contrast, cities, and the changing face of the United States as immigrants continued to arrive in writing statement for a phd the late 19 th century. These concerns, and others, found an outlet in essays on edward taylor Turner#8217;s nostalgic writings on frontier life and the Old West. The Frontier Thesis.

In his highly influential essay, The Significance of the Frontier in American History , Frederick Jackson Turner proposed a paradigm to explain the development and expansion of American institutions. According to Turner, the development of these institutions could be explained by #8220;the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward.#8221; [3] There are several important component parts related to the frontier thesis which require discussion. These include American exceptionalism, the phd, frontier as both a process and place, the significance of the frontier for American history, and post-frontier anxiety. American exceptionalism, the belief that America is the agency essay freudian psychology source, model for freedom and liberty in statement phd the world, is a key part of collins film essay, Turner#8217;s paradigm. In the process of westward migration, Turner argues that a unique American identity was created where wilderness conditions gave way to American national vitality. Through their interaction with an untamed wilderness environment, settlers were forced to develop unique institutions to survive. This process resulted in the development of a specific American type, one largely characterized by individualism, pragmatism, and egalitarianism. [4] In the immediate decades following the publication of his famous 1893 essay, many American historians believed that the Turner thesis explained American development; however, historians today have shown that a number of nations experienced periods of frontier and territorial expansion. [5] In describing the frontier in his essay, Turner avoided monolithic definitions, choosing instead to describe the frontier as both a process and a place.

Turner argues that the frontier process is illustrated by a personal statement for a, the struggle with wilderness that turned Europeans into Americans. In adapting to the demands of the frontier, Americans had to be innovative, individualistic, and agency essay moral theory rugged, among other traits. Statement Phd! The frontier was also a place, one that moved westward throughout the agency essay freudian source theory, early history of this nation. In terms of nailing down a definition of #8216;frontier#8217; Turner argues that it is the place where civilization meets savagery. The collision of different cultures produced uniquely American characteristics and institutional forms; because of this, Turner argues that the center of American history could be found at its edges. As Americans migrated westward, the frontier represented the outer edge of a wave of civilization; this line represented the most effective and rapid force for the Americanization of foreigners. The western environment is central to this theme of transformation and writing a personal phd is of great importance for Turner#8217;s overall thesis, which is national rather than regional in explanatory aim.

While the criticisms of Turner and his essay have been effusive, especially during the last three decades, there are aspects of his paradigm that remain useful today. Foremost among Turner#8217;s key points is a focus on the role of the environment and geography in shaping Americans and their institutions. As William Cronon points out, #8220;it is essay history humanities library, no accident that much of writing for a, what we today call #8216;environmental history#8217; has been written in this country under the film, guise of western history.#8221; [6] Turner believed that the writing a personal for a phd, environment or #8216;free land#8217; west of the writing compare, Mississippi River, exerted a transformative influence on immigrants, turning Europeans into Americans; this is statement for a, one of the major themes of his thesis. Historians were influenced by the Turner thesis for decades following its publication. The work of historians such as Walter Prescott Webb, Frederick Logan Paxson and Ray Allen Billington added depth and imperfect nuance to Turner#8217;s original thoughts. Theme: The Transformative Power of the Environment. Beginning in the early 20 th century, historians including Frederic Logan Paxson wrote extensively using Turner#8217;s model. These historians focused on the American West specifically, while developing and augmenting Turner#8217;s basic thesis. Paxson, for example, did not break with the statement phd, Frontier thesis; however, after Turner#8217;s death in 1932, many historians began to reassess the validity and application of the thesis.

One of these individuals was Walter Prescott Webb, who more than Turner, saw the frontier and film essay the West as a place rather than a process. [7] Webb#8217;s conception of the writing phd, American West was centered on the arid plains west of the 98 th meridian. Webb defined the freudian in moral moral psychology theory, West as a specific and locatable area on a map, which marks an important difference between him and Turner. Webb was a regionalist while Turner was attempting to offer an explanation for the development of the entire country. There were also similarities between the two men. For instance, both believed that the natural environment was responsible for innovation within American institutions. Webb argues that when Americans encountered the mostly level, treeless, and semi-arid environment of the writing statement for a phd, plains, they were forced to transform their institutions in order to settle the region. In adapting to the environmental conditions of the Great Plains, American settlers relied heavily on new technologies imported from the East. Adapting to michael collins life on the Great Plains shaped the American character, requiring settlers to writing a personal statement be innovative in solving problems while making them stronger in their efforts to cling to the land in the absence of material comforts. The transportation problem on the Great Plains was solved with the arrival of railroads, a process that intensified following the collins film, Civil War. [8] The significance of the railroad is that it made communication and transportation over large areas possible, while bringing construction materials from the East that enabled settlers to build communities. [9] The issue of fencing was resolved with the introduction of Joseph Glidden#8217;s barbed wire invention of 1874. [10] Webb argues that the invention of barbed wire revolutionized land values on the Great Plains and without it, the plains homestead could never have been protected from the writing a personal phd, grazing herds of neighboring ranches. [11] Webb#8217;s emphasis on the natural environment as a field of study links him to new western historians, including Elliott West and others.

The overriding influence in old man and the Webb#8217;s work was his focus on the study of civilizations and cultures from the physical foundation on which they rested. [12] In the late 1940s, Ray Allen Billington began a career dedicated to preserving Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. Writing A Personal Statement Phd! Throughout his long career, Billington modified Turner#8217;s thesis to essay humanities imperfect library past say that the frontier was not the only factor in the development of American institutions. For example, Turner had long argued that the spread of democracy owed its origins to the forests of New England, one of the earliest frontiers. Billington understood that he would need to compromise with Turner#8217;s critics if he was going to a personal phd salvage the frontier thesis. Therefore, Billington admitted that there had long been a trend toward democracy in the western world; the plan writing compare contrast essay, American environment was important, but not as important as Turner and other frontier historians had originally argued.

The more Billington was forced to modify the thesis, the more people questioned which aspects were still valid for historical explanation and analysis. A Personal For A! Earl Pomeroy offers an excellent segue from old western historians to a discussion of new western historians. Long before the publications of Patricia Limerick, William Cronon, Richard White, and collins film essay Donald Worster, Pomeroy called for a personal for a phd a reappraisal of the #8220;Turner-Webb environmental-deterministic#8221; paradigm. Michael Film! [13] Where Turner saw innovative, nation-building frontiersmen, Pomeroy saw class stratification and hierarchies of power. Foreshadowing the new western history, Pomeroy argued against the significance of Turner#8217;s closing frontier. Instead, he chose to stress the continuity of history in the West from the 19 th to the 20 th centuries. [14] Paradigm II: New Western History. The origins of the new western history movement can be traced to the new social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s. [15] Many within the post-war generation who grew up in the 1960s became alienated by the crimes of our society, including nuclear testing, the violation of civil rights, the assassination of writing a personal, JFK, and essay freudian moral psychology source theory especially the war in Vietnam. Practitioners of the new western history generally advocate new perspectives that illuminate the writing for a, experiences of lesson plan, diverse groups of people. Gender, race, class, and the environment are some of the important lenses western historians began employing in the 1980s. Writing Statement! The accomplishments of agency freudian moral psychology source, four new western historians have added a great amount of a personal statement for a phd, depth and old man and the clarity to the field; they include William Cronon, Richard White, Donald Worster, and Patricia Nelson Limerick.

Each of a personal for a phd, these historians emphasizes distinct ways to writing compare practice the new western history. In explaining his take on writing statement phd, the new western history, William Cronon argues that there remains some value in Turner#8217;s thesis. Cronon believes that one of essays on edward taylor, Turner#8217;s most fruitful suggestions was that invasion, settlement, and community formation followed certain broad, repeating patterns throughout most of North America. Statement For A Phd! [16] Turner described a large-scale process referred to as parallel historical change through his argument about the ways in which the frontier process repeated itself as it moved westward. Cronon links his conception of collins film essay, western history to Turner while simultaneously striking out on for a phd, his own by stating that he believes that Turner#8217;s comparative study of collins, parallel regional changes has much to offer the field today, especially in formulating new approaches. According to Cronon, a new approach that stresses the connectedness of frontier areas, as opposed to their isolation, will help to make sense of western history in the broader context of European colonialism. Writing A Personal Statement! [17] Richard White argues that the frontier thesis remains a source of environmental history and a window to the popular mind. Essays! [18] For White, the major source of writing statement phd, continuity and the source for discontinuities between the old western and new western histories is the way that each group has formulated the role of the environment in creating a western region. [19] While both groups of historians acknowledge the importance of the environment, White argues that old western historians continue to wear #8216;frontier blinders#8217; that restrict and narrow their view of the past. The narrative of the old western history is the story of a journey, a challenge, and a dual transformation of land and people. However, White argues that new western historians have abandoned #8216;frontier blinders#8217;, choosing instead to focus on three things in essay history library constructing western environmental history narratives. First, they look at the contesting groups, second, they examine the various perceptions of the land and ambitions for it, and finally, they examine structures of power that shape these contests over writing a personal statement for a, land use that result in environmental change.

While this model goes beyond the simple dichotomy of the old western historians, it does retain the focus of the importance of the environment as a foundational belief. In his book, It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own , White presents a new history of the American West. He argues that the West is a distinct region, however, for reasons other than those presented by Turner, Webb and others. Agency Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Source! White argues that the West is characterized by distinct sets of relationships that set the region apart from other regions in the nation. [20] Of great importance is the relationship between the federal government and the West, a dual labor system based on race, and patterns of political participation and organization. Taken together, these relationships have combined to make the writing a personal, American West a distinct region. In his book, Under Western Skies , Donald Worster presents his understanding of the goals and direction of the michael film, new western history. [21] Worster argues that with the new western history, we are beginning to get a history that is beyond myth, beyond the writing, traditional consciousness of the white conquerors, and beyond a primitive emotional need of heroes and essay history imperfect past heroines. [22] According to a personal Worster, there are four important arguments that the new western history makes. The first argument is that the invaded and subject peoples of the West must be given a voice in the region#8217;s history. The second argument is the admission that the drive for the economic development of the West was often a ruthless assault on nature, and it has left behind it much death, depletion and ruin. [23] The third argument is that the West has been ruled by concentrated power, though here, as in other places, power has often hidden itself behind beguiling masks. [24] Finally, the single most important and michael most distinguishing characteristic of the new western history is its determination not to offer cover for the powers that be#8212;not to become subservient to statement them, by silence or consent. [25] While Worster takes Turner to task for history humanities past his focus on process rather on writing statement, fixing a specific geographic definition for the American West, he argues that Webb attempted to fix firm coordinates to the West as early as the 1950s. Essay Imperfect! [26] This illustrates the link between old western historians and Worster#8217;s understanding of western history today.

Worster argues that Webb used aridity in defining his West, the area west of the 98 th meridian; an idea that Webb took from John Wesley Powell. Writing A Personal! Webb#8217;s definition of the West, the region#8217;s aridity, fits with Worster#8217;s own experience of growing up in cover Kansas and California. This experience has led Worster to accept Webb#8217;s definition due in large part to his own understanding of the region as a place where people struggle for survival under a variety of circumstances, especially aridity. [27] As has been demonstrated, the a personal statement for a phd, new western history coalesced in the 1980s in the writings of William Cronon, Richard White and Donald Worster; however, the work of sea summary, Limerick is among the most expressive in terms of defining this new paradigm. Writing A Personal Statement Phd! Limerick argues that she did not create this paradigm; rather, she was a part of a larger movement of western historians who believed in trusting their own experiences and beliefs and who questioned the authority of the Turner thesis. Limerick articulates her understanding of the new western history in several groundbreaking books and plan writing articles. [28] It is helpful to compare and contrast Limerick#8217;s understanding of the new western history with Turner#8217;s frontier thesis. For Turner, the frontier is both a process and a place; it is the place where civilization meets savagery and it is the process in which settlers wrestle with wild nature and become Americanized. Limerick also sees the West as both process and place. The West is a place, the region west of the writing for a, 100 th meridian and michael film she stresses both aridity and the natural environment as barriers to negotiate. For A Phd! The West is a process due to the convergence of races, ideas, and solicited letter environmental factors that come together to form something new. Like Turner, Limerick is making an exceptionalist argument about the statement for a, West; however, she states that the West has characteristics that make it unique, not better.

Among these characteristics are the border with Mexico, the presence of large Native American populations on plan contrast essay, their homelands, aridity, and a personal statement the fact that the bulk of the land remains under federal control. On Edward! The Four C#8217;s of New Western History. According to a personal statement for a phd Limerick, new west historians employ new terms that reflect new perspectives; among these terms are the four C#8217;s of the lesson plan writing contrast essay, new western history: conquest, convergence, continuity, and writing a personal statement phd complexity. Supporters of the Turner thesis utilized a vague definition of essay history humanities imperfect library past, #8216;frontier#8217;, in writing statement phd which they envisioned an ever-expanding zone of freedom, opportunity and democracy. Limerick argues that such a definition exempted the United States from global history while attempting to downplay the significance of agency essay freudian moral psychology, European actions. Limerick prefers to use the word #8216;conquest#8217; rather than frontier because she believes that this is a more accurate description of what transpired. Using conquest as a lens to study the history of the American West allows historians to make sense of the seizure of resources, the imposition of colonial dominance, intermarriage, and syncretism and to recognize these events when they see them. Limerick utilizes the theme of convergence to uncover and understand how the American West looked historically in terms of writing a personal for a phd, race, class, gender, etc.

In the traditional narrative of Western history, the doings of white people, especially white men, controlled center stage. Native Americans were recognized as obstacles or barriers to the big process of michael collins, frontier expansion, while Chinese and Mexican workers could find relevance only as they contributed to the building of writing statement for a, railroads and the development of agriculture. Contrary to this traditional narrative, the West was a place of extraordinary convergence; people from all over the world met, negotiated for position, and tried to old man and the better understand one another. A criticism of the Turner thesis is that this paradigm places too much importance on the closing of the frontier in 1890 as an event that marks the end of Western history. Supporters of the new western history see no gap between the 19 th and for a phd 20 th centuries; they argue that narrative and causal ties link the two centuries. For example, there was more homesteading after 1890 than before, major extractive industries saw their principle boom and bust cycles during the 20 th century, conflicts and old man sea summary essay dilemmas stirred up in the late 19 th century have remained to haunt Westerners in the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. Limerick argues that by stressing continuity within Western history, it will be possible to for Westerners to better understand and navigate through their dilemmas. The final #8216;C#8217; of new western history is aimed directly at many of writing a personal statement, those individuals who desire to see history in black and white; good guys and agency essay in moral moral source theory bad guys. Contrary to many of the myths and romanticized notions, Limerick argues that human behavior in the American West, both past and present, has shown the same level of moral complexity as human behavior in any other part of the planet. This is an important theme of the new western history; it is brutally honest, not romanticized. Limerick goes so far as to state that those who want to preserve their myths enjoy #8220;appealing and colorful legends.#8221; Migration and settlement are illustrative topics within the new western theme of convergence.

The massive influx of migrants to the American West during the 19 th and 20 th centuries brought together different races and cultural groups that resulted in distinct challenges for the communities in writing a personal for a phd which they settled. [29] White Americans and former slaves migrated West while Asians migrated East and Mexicans continued moving north; at the same time, the prior presence of and the, thousands of Native Americans in the region set the stage for statement for a phd cultural and economic exchange, new understanding, and violence as these groups converged and agency essay in moral theory interacted. Richard White argues that historically, there have been three types of western migration, including community or kinship based, utopian (Mormons), and modern. The first two types of migration saw their destination, whether Oregon or Utah, as a site for the re-creation of an statement for a phd existing way of cover letter, life or for the establishment of a new and better life. [30] The journey to California is an example of modern migration; this was often seen as a temporary migration with the purpose of accumulating portable wealth and property. The question of who took part in western migration remains contentious. White argues that networks of information ultimately determined which communities were likely to send migrants to a personal statement for a California, Oregon, and points in between. History Imperfect! [31] However, Susan Lee Johnson argues that it was the tentacles of capitalism that determined who could and ultimately would migrate to the California gold fields. Capitalist market economies around the globe linked people, places, and products together in the search for writing a personal statement wealth; those individuals who ventured to the California gold fields were grappling with monumental economic changes. [32] During the post-Reconstruction period in the South, a mass exodus of former slaves was launched with the hopes of evading the cultures of terrorism and poverty that characterized their existence after 1877. Beginning in 1878, thousands of history past, #8216;exodusters#8217; migrated to Kansas in the hopes of finding their personal Liberia or Canaan. This movement was one of the first migrations of African Americans westward and as such, it is an excellent example of the convergence of different racial and cultural groups. According to the historian Nell Irvin Painter, exodusters encountered discrimination in Kansas; however, by 1900, blacks in the state were generally better off economically than their southern counterparts were.

As far as their impact on Kansas communities, Painter argues that the biggest fear many whites held was that Anglo-American migrants would choose to settle in Nebraska or Minnesota once word got out writing a personal phd, that thousands of former slaves had taken up residence as farmers and laborers in Kansas. [33] Irish migrations to the copper town of Butte, Montana followed the same general pattern of other mining communities in terms of push and pull factors; however, there were some unique aspects, including the fact that the owner of the agency freudian in moral moral psychology source theory, Anaconda Mine was born in statement Ireland. In an essay history humanities past article on the Irish in writing a personal statement for a Butte, David M. And The Sea Summary Essay! Emmons argues that the Irish in this mining community were representative of migrants who wanted to gain portable wealth and move on, perhaps back to writing a personal for a phd their hometown or country of essays on edward taylor, origin. [34] Josef J. Barton demonstrates that European immigrants in the American West also sought to recreate and maintain their traditional ways of life in this country without the intention of going back to their home countries, which was impossible for writing statement for a phd some groups. [35] Barton#8217;s study of Czech farmers in south Texas details the steps taken by this group to maintain decent and secure lives. The history of migration in the American West demonstrates that the 20 th century saw more migration, in pure numbers, than did the 19 th century. Migration to the East Bay in California has been well documented and discussed by historians. Solicited Cover Letter! Marilynn S. Johnson traces the development of the East Bay during World War II with an emphasis on how government spending transformed the region. Johnson focuses on the convergence of different races, genders, and generations as new migrants mixed with old settlers and as all of these groups worked and lived in the same area. A Personal Statement For A! [36] The tension between newcomers and old time residents was palpable, as old timers attempted (successfully) to lesson plan writing compare essay shape public policy decisions on everything from housing, to land use and the prosecution of criminals with the goal of writing a personal for a, maintaining traditional social patterns and limiting the influence of migrants. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay! Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo provides an in depth examination of African American female migrants to the East Bay during World War II. She argues that migrant women were critical agents in the larger migration and settlement process. [37] Many minority migrant groups faced racism and discrimination as they intermingled with Anglo-American migrants and the older inhabitants.

Santangelo argues that black women were essential to the process of devising coping strategies that enabled themselves and minority males to adjust to this difficult aspect of settlement. Central to this strategy were transplanted Southern values, including economic autonomy, hard work, education, worship, family ties, charity, and independent self-help institutions. The hard work of black female migrants resulted in the formation of viable communities that continue to exist today as well as social problems that continue to demand resolution. In Something in the Soil , Limerick discusses how people around the globe see the American West as a place where one can go to escape complexity. Many individuals, known as tourists, explore the West hoping to find this romanticized and mythologized past still in existence. The reality of the situation, of course, is that the West and its inhabitants are as morally complex as any other region and group of people. This section will explore the ways in which tourism in the American West both masks and writing a personal statement phd exemplifies moral complexity. Hal K. Rothman sets the tone for the history of tourism in the West by providing a language that gives meaning and coherence to the activities related to tourism. In his book Devil#8217;s Bargains , Rothman argues that the costs of tourism far outweigh the benefits. The zeal of many western civic leaders who have focused on tourism as their salvation from financial collapse belies a truth about tourism, that the industry transforms local culture into essay past something new and foreign and all the writing a personal statement for a phd, while it may or may not rescue the local economy it was supposed to save. [38] Modern tourism conceals the michael collins film essay, complex nature of most western states in several ways.

First, and this is one of the primary functions of tourism, romanticized visions of the writing statement, past are created and marketed to tourists. Rothman argues that the restrictive building codes in Santa Fe and the romantic imagery of letter, southwestern tribes are examples of how people and places were commodified for the tourist trade at the expense of understanding. Second, the actual costs of tourism are often hidden from a personal tourists who were led to believe that as a region, the West was both unformed and malleable. Therefore, according to Rothman, the West served as a canvas on which the new nation was constructed following the Civil War. The act of tourism in the West would enable some of the voids regarding the on edward, idea of America and its institutions to be filled. [39] Some Western towns have turned to gambling tourism to save themselves from financial collapse, which in itself has been a gamble. In communities that traditionally relied on entertaining seasonal tourists with their historic pasts, gambling was seen as a year-round, stable, and writing a personal for a dynamic solution to their problems. [40] The struggle to survive illustrates the complexity of the American West today. Far from solicited being the romanticized West that many tourists envision encountering and exploring, communities throughout the region continue to struggle with the collapse of the industries responsible for their creation, e.g., mining, and the success of tourism, which has greatly added to a personal for a phd the complexity of and the sea summary essay, existence in tourist towns. Leah Dilworth confronts the romantic mythology of western tourism in her book, Imagining Indians in writing a personal the Southwest . Dilworth#8217;s work focuses on essay freudian moral psychology source, the idea of ethnic tourism, specifically involving Native Americans from the Southwest and the ways in which these individuals have been commodified and simplified for tourist consumption. [41] According to Dilworth, the statement for a phd, quest encounters with Native Americans during tours of the Southwest is part of the search for simplicity or authenticity that the primitive represents in American culture; however, that simplistic past is unattainable. Tourism constructs a simplified version of history and essays on edward taylor contemporary life in such a way that it is visible but is never attainable. In the a personal statement, search for what she refers to as the #8220;imperialist nostalgia,#8221; in other words, the sea summary, search for a simplistic lifestyle that Americans are complicit in destroying, realistic Indians are undetectable. Complexity is statement for a, difficult to commodify and package for tourist consumption.

The history of mining in the American West illustrates the theme of continuity in several important ways. First, the volume of minerals extracted in Western mines increased during the 20 th century. Second, communities and governmental agencies are still dealing with the freudian in moral source theory, environmental impact of writing a personal statement phd, 19th and essays on edward taylor 20th century mining operations. Finally, the mining industry continues to play an important role in communities throughout the American West. These are some of the key connections in the unbroken historical narrative of the writing a personal statement for a phd, American West. Histories of 19 th century mining usually emphasize several key themes, including the role of technology in the extractive process, economic and political struggles, and the transition miners undergo from letter gold-seekers to wage-laborers as the writing a personal statement phd, placer gold in streams plays out. Michael Collins Film Essay! In his book Mining Frontiers of the Far West , Rodman W. Paul examines both the technological and economic aspects of mining rushes in several western states. [42] Paul examines the mining movement in its totality through the identification of statement phd, two unifying forces that occurred across widely scattered mining settlements. The first of these, the role of miners as they moved from discovery to discovery and in the process bringing with them extractive techniques and social relationships for the creation of new communities. Paul acknowledges the fact that the development of mining communities set the solicited cover, stage for the displacement of indigenous groups, people of color, and whites; however, it was Elliott West who finally added the story of the a personal statement, displaced to Paul#8217;s narrative.

Paul continues to develop his theme relating to the impact of new technology on the industry in his final book, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition . In this excellent book, Paul examines the era of rapid change in the West ushered in with the mining advance. The impact of new technologies on the mining industry is illustrated by his analysis of hydraulic mining and the changes it brought to placer mining, usually the first stage of mining before more capital intensive hard rock mining begins. Old Man And The! Hydraulic mining enabled massive amounts of dirt to writing for a be worked on a fast scale; however, it brought with it environmental destruction and waste. [43] As the surface deposits played out, subsurface deposits were developed; this combination of new technology and the necessity for capital in hard rock mining turned gold seekers into wage laborers. [44] Historians have continued to and the essay analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution not only on the mining industry but also on miners. In his book Hard Rock Epic , Mark Wyman focuses broadly on Western miners as they experienced economic and technological transformations during the Industrial Revolution. [45] Wyman examines the response of miners to the introduction of a wide range of new technologies, such as the Burleigh drill. [46] The author reveals that the romanticized image of the miner is completely out of tune with the reality of the situation, which by the late 19 th century was characterized by industrialized techniques and writing statement phd wage-laborers. Mining corporations developed during the Industrial Revolution in cover letter this country and most came to dominate the communities and states in which their mines were located. One example of writing a personal statement phd, this historical era that straddles the 19 th and michael film 20 th centuries is Butte and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company. [47] Michael Malone#8217;s narrative focuses on the perspective of competing mine owners within the Butte area as they struggled for control of the copper during the a personal statement for a phd, late 19 th century. Malone argues that miners benefited tremendously in the four-way struggle for power early on; however, with the consolidation of Butte copper mines under the Amalgamated Holding Company in 1899, that all changed. [48] Not only were miners forced to adapt to new technologies that rendered their skills unnecessary (e.g., hard rock miners) but they were also forced to adapt to agency in moral psychology new corporate management structures of concentrated power. In such a relationship, the for a phd, new face of mining in cover letter Butte was one in which the workers and the people themselves, #8220;lay at the mercy of a much more powerful and writing a personal less sensitive corporation.#8221; [49] Historians of 20 th century Western mining continued to chart the development of the industry and to michael collins film essay demonstrate the continuity of the historical narrative long after the closing of the frontier in 1890.

Historians continue to examine relationships between workers and owners, the influence of both groups in writing statement phd terms of economics, politics, and michael film essay culture, as well as the impact of changing federal policies on mining communities, among others. James W. Byrkit, in writing a personal phd his book Forging the Copper Collar , examines the essay, mining industry in a personal phd Bisbee, Arizona during the first two decades of the 20 th century. [50] Bisbee serves as the backdrop to his argument regarding the sea summary essay, role of eastern power in sponsoring and writing a personal statement for a manipulating economic, political, social and cultural life in the American West. Byrkit#8217;s book details the ways in which Arizona#8217;s early statehood period was dominated politically and economically within a colonizer/colonized relationship. And The Sea Summary Essay! This book represents an excellent narrative bridge between the Industrial Revolution and the Wagner Act of the New Deal, which gave labor the right to organize. Reflecting the new western history#8217;s desire to a personal statement for a phd uncover the history of previously ignored groups, Mary Murphy#8217;s Mining Cultures explores the social clubs, barrooms, sporting life, and other aspects of public leisure within Butte. [51] Similar to the narrative told by Byrkit, Murphy argues that during the solicited cover, interwar years, labor lost a great deal of their power. A Personal Statement For A! They occupied a world in which their working lives, political choices, and michael collins essay economic outlooks were constrained by the Anaconda Company. However, Murphy argues that Butte was different from other mining towns in which the controlling company would build towns and seek to control the morals of the workers. Because of this, a male-centered social landscape developed during the writing statement, late 19 th century in Butte. The changes to that landscape are the focus of this book, as Murphy discusses the essay freudian moral, re-creation of Butte as part of the writing statement for a phd, struggle between women and men to adjust to new gender roles after World War I. And The! [52] That Western mining is an writing a personal example of continuity should be clear by essay moral source, now, especially when the history of uranium mining communities are examined and compared to statement for a phd older mining communities. In his book Yellowcake Towns , Michael Amundson analyzes and compares the old man sea summary essay, impact of changing federal policies on statement phd, four uranium mining and milling communities in the states of history humanities imperfect, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and a personal statement for a Colorado. [53] As Amundson argues, yellowcake towns are excellent examples of continuity in essay humanities past the West for several reasons, including the remoteness of the writing a personal for a phd, places in which the mining took place and writing compare essay the lack of a personal, control those distant communities had on the trade networks that controlled the boom and essays bust nature of the industry. Similarly, male prospectors often first settled yellowcake town sites and only later would their families join them.

In short, Amundson argues, #8220;the persistence of continuity suggests that as unique as the history of uranium mining and yellowcake towns appears, strong undercurrents link them to writing a personal statement for a phd major themes in the history of the American West.#8221; [54] The theme of humanities library, conquest includes a wide range of behaviors, including the conquest of the natural environment and a personal statement phd extraction of freudian moral theory, resources. Writing A Personal For A! A definition of resources could include animals, crops, and minerals; the cattle, logging, and copper mining industries are examples of the diversity of conquests that have taken place in the American West. History Imperfect Past! Conquest also refers to the colonial dominance of a personal statement phd, minority groups in the West, including Asians, Mexicans, African Americans, and Native Americans. The conquest of humans in the American West will be the focus of this section of the essay. In his groundbreaking work of Native American history, The Roots of Dependency , Richard White examines the economic structures of three tribes in order to better understand why their economies eventually failed to lesson writing compare essay meet their basic subsistence needs by statement phd, the late 19 th century. White studies agricultural systems, hunting methods, as well as their work as ranchers in attempting to explain the economic conquest of the old man sea summary essay, Choctaw, Pawnee, and Navajo. [55] The conclusion which White draws from his examination of the changing Indian economies is writing statement phd, that attempts by whites to bring indigenous resources, land and labor into the market was the primary cause of the resulting economic dependency and conquest by old man and the sea summary essay, the United States. In arriving at this conclusion, White attacks the statement for a, traditional belief that military supremacy and force were responsible for these changes.

Jeffrey Ostler#8217;s work on the history of Lakota-U.S. interactions during the 19 th century, culminating in the massacre at Wounded Knee in December of 1890 provides an excellent example of the new western history#8217;s focus on conquest and film essay indigenous perspectives. [56] Ostler utilizes colonialism as a lens through which to a personal statement for a phd view Indian agency and resistance at a time when the Lakota were experiencing many political, social, and solicited cultural changes. Ostler explains the development of U.S. colonialism among the Lakota while also discussing the ways that the Lakota developed policies and thereby were not simply acted upon by outside influences. An example of Lakota agency was the way the tribe reacted to the invasion of their lands by Euro-American settlers using the Oregon Trail beginning in the 1840s. According to Ostler, the Lakota began to feel the indirect effects of agrarian expansion in the 1840s as settlers and writing a personal for a phd cattle destroyed or consumed the food supply of indigenous animals, especially the buffalo. Essay In Moral Moral Psychology Source! In retaliation, the Lakota decided to charge settlers for the damage they were doing to their economy; this was a good policy in terms of holding those responsible for the damages responsible for statement phd fixing them, but the normal reaction of the United States was to call out the cavalry and attack local Lakota villages for #8220;harassing#8221; settlers. By discussing the various ways in which the Lakota formulated responses to colonialism and attempts to conquer their land, Ostler strips away the myth that their demise as a power on the northern plains was inevitable. Tearing down myths is old man and the, one of the goals of the new western history and this book is an excellent example of how it should be accomplished. Conquest and dispossession also occurred during the early conservation efforts within the writing, American West, but for reasons other than seizing land for agriculture or ranching. On Edward Taylor! In his excellent book, Dispossessing the Wilderness , Mark David Spence states that wilderness preservation went #8220;hand in hand with native dispossession#8221;. [57] Spence#8217;s argument is based on the experiences of a handful of Indian tribes that were dispossessed from certain parts of their traditional homelands by the federal government so that national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite and writing a personal statement for a Glacier) could be established.

These tribes include the Bannock, Shoshone, Crow, Yosemite, and Blackfeet. Spence argues that #8220;uninhabited wilderness had to be created before it could be preserved#8221;. [58] The reason that these tribes were dispossessed had a great deal to do with changing American perceptions about old man and the sea summary essay wilderness, including debates on how to define it and how it should be preserved. Writing! According to Spence, in the first half of the agency essay freudian in moral, 19 th century, nascent conservationists such as George Catlin, Washington Irving, Henry David Thoreau, and a personal for a phd John Audubon believed that Indians and wilderness areas should be set aside from the influence of civilization. Spence explains that antebellum America did not conceive of wilderness and Indians as separate, but saw them as fundamentally linked. [59] All of that changed, however, in essays the years following the Civil War. Spence believes that frontier hostilities between the army and Indian tribes located throughout the a personal phd, Great Plains was one cause for America#8217;s changing perceptions of Indians to the popular belief that they were #8220;evil savages#8221;. No longer seen as living in harmony with nature, due to the fact that they were impeding America#8217;s manifest destiny, setting fires in sea summary essay forests, and hunting game in areas intended for protection, conservationists of the second half of the a personal statement phd, 19 th century began to reconsider the ideas of earlier conservationists, that is, placing Indians in essays protected wilderness areas. At the same time that Indians were forced off of their traditional homelands onto reservations in order to make the land uninhabited so that it could be preserved, a myth began to circulate that Indians had not inhabited the now-protected wilderness areas located throughout the West for decades. Spence provides evidence linking Indian tribes to phd each of the three national parks discussed in this book, detailing how that land was used over several centuries and the ways that the various tribes attempted to preserve their treaty rights to practice religious customs and economic tasks in those parks today, long after their ancestors were dispossessed. Paradigm III: World-Systems Analysis.

The final paradigm examined in this paper is world-systems analysis. Immanuel Wallerstein developed this mode of analysis during the 1970s; however, within the discipline of agency essay freudian psychology source theory, history, William Robbins has been one of the most vocal advocates for its use and acceptance. Statement For A! According to Wallerstein, at old man and the sea summary, its most basic level, world-systems analysis characterizes the global world-system in which we live as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. Phd! In his terminology, Wallerstein describes a #8216;core#8217; as a developed, industrialized part of the world and a #8216;periphery#8217; as an underdeveloped, raw materials exporting, poor part of the world. Core regions exploit periphery regions through the functions of the market. [60] In a series of books and articles, Robbins has built an interpretive model of history which states that the best way to understand change and interactions in the American West is through a capitalist framework. The key is his definition of capitalism, which he defines as a system of social relations expressed in characteristic class structures, modes of consciousness, patterns of authority, and humanities imperfect library past relations of power. Writing A Personal Statement! [61] Robbins#8217; work bears some similarities and shares some intersections with both old and cover new western historians. Writing A Personal For A Phd! Like new western historians, Robbins rejects the idea of American exceptionalism. [62] Robbins sees the region as a unique arena for scholarly endeavor, insisting that the essays, American West can be seen as a prototype for a personal phd modern capitalism. [63] In his emphasis on the association between capitalism and its revolutionary consequences for a particular place, Robbins#8217; work can be seen to closely resemble that of solicited letter, Donald Worster, ( Dust Bowl , Rivers of Empire ); William Cronon, ( Changes in the Land , Nature#8217;s Metropolis ); and Richard White, ( Roots of Dependency ). However, Robbins pursues a global perspective on events in the American West by advancing two interrelated themes throughout much of his work.

First, the history of the statement, West should be examined as a part of the worldwide expansion of corporate capitalism. Second, outside managers, financiers, and capitalists often dictated the fates of western communities and determined the fortunes of agency essay freudian moral source, western residents. Writing For A! In short, Robbins is arguing that the development of the West is the story of the region#8217;s integration into film essay a global economic system. As Robbins explains, the fur trade, settler movement, mineral rushes, and the transportation revolution were all manifestations of the a personal statement for a phd, influence of global capitalism. In seeking to break from the exceptionalist narrative of western history, Robbins again finds common ground with new western historians. Like Limerick and White, Robbins discovers a West characterized by relationships of power and dependency. The celebrated freedom and autonomy of the history humanities past, West, if it existed, was the writing a personal statement for a, province of the few, of essay library, those individuals with power, influence, and especially capital. The adoption and a personal statement for a use of freudian in moral moral theory, world-systems analysis in the writing of a personal phd, western history has produced several admirable volumes, two of which will be discussed in this section. The first, William G. Robbins#8217; Colony and Empire has already been briefly mentioned. Robbins#8217; analysis stretches from the film, mid-nineteenth century to the present, and takes on writing a personal for a, the entire West, from the 98th meridian to the Pacific, exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, but inclusive of the Mexican and Canadian borderlands. This is a macrocosmic study divided into four parts in which the author makes his case by outlining the complexity of capitalist networks in the West, the relationship of hinterlands to metropolises, and humanities imperfect library past of eastern and foreign capital to western development.

As Robbins makes clear, part of his rationale for writing this book is that scholars have yet to forge an analytical tool to explain the transformation of the American West from an writing a personal for a area dominated by collins film essay, pre-industrial societies to a region that is an integrated segment of a modern world capitalist system. [64] The basic, broad framework advanced by Robbins reads as follows: the penetration of market forces in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries, the subjugation and a personal for a colonization of native people between 1840 and 1890, the re-peopling of the western landscape during that same period, and the progressive integration of the West into national and international exchange relationships. [65] In his book, Capitalism on the Frontier , Carroll Van West provides a microcosmic analysis of the Clark#8217;s Fork Bottom region of the Yellowstone River Valley; a 25 mile long region including the city of Billings, Montana. The focus of Van West#8217;s study are the revolutionary impacts of capitalism in transforming the landscape from a pre-industrial site of economic activity to its absorption into the mainstream of American capitalism. [66] There are parallels between the works of Robbins and Van West, including their examination of the impact of outside capital on the West. Also, both authors chronicle boom-bust cycles and document the late 19 th century transition from an individualistic capitalism to an impersonal corporate capitalism by agency freudian in moral source theory, the turn of the 20 th century. However, Van West#8217;s narrative actively seeks out the human element, the people, institutions, and economic forces that guided the settlement and development of writing statement for a, Billings through the end of the century. [67] When Frederick Jackson Turner wrote his famous essay in 1893, he was seeking to explain the development of American institutions and history, not the American West specifically. Such a lofty goal, broad historical synthesis, omitted some groups and privileged others. The work of new social historians during the 1960s can be seen as an attempt to broaden the focus of lesson plan, historians by increasing the number of research lenses to include topics such as race, gender, and class. While new social history theories were brought to the field of western history only in the 1980s, well after other regional specialists began using them, the impact was widely and immediately felt. The final paradigm discussed in this essay, world-systems analysis, provides a further conceptual tool for writing for a western historians, capitalism. Supporters of this model argue that the margins and old man sea summary essay peripheries of our stories lack coherence because they lack an writing a personal statement for a phd interpretive synthesis to unify them. [68] Both new western historians and supporters of world-systems analysis argue that we need to move beyond American exceptionalism as a form of interpretive synthesis.

The frontier thesis encourages triumphalist narratives and obscures the connections between regions and nations. The theoretical lenses used in new western history and world-systems analysis for the production of historical narratives should provide a powerful new synthetic model to challenge American exceptionalism. [1] Gerald D. Nash, Creating the West: Historical Interpretations, 1890-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 6-7. [3] Ray Allen Billington, ed., The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1977), 9-20. [4] William Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 18 (Apr., 1987): 157-176. [5] Patricia Nelson Limerick, Something in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000). [6] Cronon, #8220;Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner,#8221; 171. [7] William R. Cover Letter! Jacobs, John W. Writing A Personal Statement For A Phd! Caughey, and Joe B. Frantz, Turner, Bolton, and essay history imperfect library past Webb: Three Historians of the American Frontier (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965), vi 83-85. [8] Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1931), 273-280. [13] Richard Etulain, ed., Writing Western History: Essays on Major Western Historians (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 320. Writing For A Phd! [15] Gene M. Gressley, ed., Old West/New West: Quo Vadis? (Worland, Wyoming: High Plains Publishing Company, 1994), 3-4. Sea Summary! [16] William Cronon, et al., ed., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America#8217;s Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton and writing statement Company, 1992), 6. [18] Michael Steiner, #8220;From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History,#8221; The Pacific Historical Revew 64 (Nov., 1995): 500. [19] Patricia Nelson Limerick, Clyde A. Milner II, and Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward A New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991), 27. [20] Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of essay humanities imperfect library, My Own#8217;: A New History of the American West (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991). [21] Donald Worster, Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). [28] See, for example, her books, The Legacy of Conquest and Something in the Soil . [29] Richard White, #8216; It#8217;s Your Misfortune and None of My Own#8217; , 183-211. [32] Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: W.W. Statement! Norton and Company, 2000), 58-59. [33] Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1979), 258-260. [34] David M. Essays Taylor! Emmons, #8220;Irish Miners: From the Emerald Isle to Copper Butte,#8221; in European Immigrants in the American West: Community Histories , ed.

Frederick C. Luebke (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998), 49-64. [35] Josef J. Barton, #8220;Czech Farmers and Mexican Laborers in South Texas,#8221; in Ethnicity on writing for a, the Great Plains , ed. Frederick C. Luebke (Lincoln: University of essay humanities imperfect past, Nebraska Press, 1980), 190-209. [36] Marilynn S. Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley: University of writing statement, California Press, 1996) . Agency Essay Moral Psychology! [37] Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996). [38] Hal K. Rothman, Devil#8217;s Bargains: Tourism in the Twentieth-Century American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), 10. [40] Katherine Jensen and writing Audie Blevins, The Last Gamble: Betting on the Future in Four Rocky Mountain Mining Towns (Tucson: University of essay, Arizona Press, 1998), 72. Statement Phd! [41] Leah Dilworth, Imagining Indians in the Southwest: Persistent Visions of a Primitive Past (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 78-82. [42] Rodman W. Paul and Elliott West, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001). [43] Rodman W. Agency Essay Freudian In Moral Moral Psychology Source! Paul, The Far West and the Great Plains in Transition, 1859-1900 (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 35-38. [44] Patricia Nelson Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1988), 106. For A! [45] Mark Wyman, Hard Rock Epic: Western Miners and solicited letter the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979). [47] Michael P. Malone, The Battle for Butte: Mining and Politics on the Northern Frontier, 1864-1906 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981). [50] James W. Byrkit, Forging the Copper Collar: Arizona#8217;s Labor-Management War of 1901-1921 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1982). [51] Mary Murphy, Mining Cultures: Men, Women, and Leisure in Butte, 1914-1941 (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997). [53] Michael Amundson, Yellowcake Towns: Uranium Mining Communities in the American West (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002). [55] Richard White, The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and for a phd Social Change among the history humanities imperfect library past, Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983). [56] Jeffrey Ostler, The Plains Sioux and U.S.

Colonialism From Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). [57] Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the Making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 3. Writing Statement Phd! [60] Immanuel Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2004). [61] William G. Robbins, Colony and Empire: The Capitalist Transformation of the American West (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994). [62] William G. Solicited Cover Letter! Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 20 (Nov., 1989): 429-449. [63] Robbins, Colony and writing a personal for a phd Empire , 19. [64] Robbins, Colony and Empire , 11-12. [65] Robbins, #8220;Western History: A Dialectic on the Modern Condition,#8221; 434. [66] Carroll Van West, Capitalism on agency essay in moral source, the Frontier: Billings and the Yellowstone Valley in the Nineteenth Century (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 2. [68] William G. Robbins, #8220;In Pursuit of a personal statement phd, Historical Explanation: Capitalism as a Conceptual Tool for Knowing the lesson writing essay, American West,#8221; The Western Historical Quarterly 30 (Autumn, 1999): 277-293.

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choice art homework As teachers, we know how hard our students work each day. We also know that fine-motor, gross-motor, and social-emotional skills are just as important as academic skills…especially with our young learners. These critically important skills are often pushed to writing a personal phd the side at school and at essays, home. I created these EDITABLE experience-based homework calendars to statement for a address the non-academic skills my students were missing, as well as, comply with our school’s “Homework Policy”. Additionally, these. Homework Choice Boards - No More Boring Homework Assignments this Year! Homework Choice Boards! NOW COMPLETELY EDITABLE! Tired of assigning homework and history humanities past they don't do it?

Tired of assigning homework and MOM does it? Tired of assigning homework for the sake of it? You have come to the right place! Homework Choice Boards is your answer! Let the writing a personal statement for a, kids decide which assignments they want to turn in. Each board has nine different assignments to pick from. Michael Film Essay. The student picks four of them to complete and writing a personal statement for a phd turn in on Friday. It puts them in charge of their homework and.

Homework Choice Boards for Kindergarten: Family-Friendly. Young children learn best through play and hands-on experiences! These homework choice boards provide parents with suggestions to help them engage with their children in ways that will promote success in school. mayteacherdeals These activities are designed to and the sea summary encourage academic learning as well as turn-taking, curiosity, physical fitness, social skills, observation, problem solving skills, and good character. This product comes in a zipped folder including a PDF file as well an a partially. Differentiated Spelling Tiered Spelling Assignment Homework Choice Boards. Enjoy this freebie, which includes 3 different Spelling Assignments! Two Spelling Tic Tac Toe Choice Boards One tiered spelling homework, with four different tiers--students complete one in each tier (or you can change the directions to fit your need.) Includes a wide variety of a personal phd activities that are engaging and educational. Homework Choice Board Grid. 10 Themes, No Prep!! Aus/ Uk Ed; BUNDLE. NO PREP!

Homework Choice Board or Grid Bundle. Stress free homework for both teachers and parents. They relate to Literacy, Numeracy and Health/ Art tasks. Psychology Theory. It comes with a range of for a choices for students to complete, including; working by myself, working with others and acts of history humanities kindness. AUSTRALIAN/ UK SPELLING EDITION This homework choice board, or homework grid, has been designed to take the stress out of homework for both teachers and parents. A Personal Statement Phd. This Mega bundle includes the following 10.

This freebie gives students choice with their spelling homework. You can use it every night or on and the, designated student choice nights. It could also be used in the classroom for writing for a phd independent practice or centers. Essays. There are both color and blackline options. You can use this menu with my First Grade Phonics pack, which provides differentiated spelling lists spanning basic phonics skills for the entire year. It can also supplement this short vowel unit in kindergarten, early first grade, or remedial. Year-Long Homework Choice Boards - ALL SUBJECTS! Homework can be a BEAST - for parents and teachers alike. For the writing for a phd, past three years I've used homework choice boards - three weeks of michael collins essay assignments given ahead of time, with students spending no more than 30 minutes a day on the work (plus reading). IT'S MAGICAL!

This product includes: - Eleven sets of homework choice boards with assignments for reading, writing, science/social studies - Eleven differentiated math choice boards - An parent guide to homework - Homework Choice Board or Grid. 10 Themes, No Prep!! USA Ed: BUNDLE. NO PREP! Homework Choice Board or Grid Bundle.

Stress free homework for both teachers and parents. They relate to Literacy, Numeracy and Health/ Art tasks. It comes with a range of choices for students to complete, including; working by myself, working with others and acts of writing for a kindness. AMERICAN SPELLING EDITION This homework choice board, or homework grid, has been designed to take the stress out of homework for michael collins film essay both teachers and parents. *This mega bundle includes the following 10 themed. Spelling Homework Choice Boards - Entire Year by Month. Included in this file are: 1. Teacher Directions to statement phd set up a spellingcity.com account how to use it weekly. 2. Suggestions for how to use the Choice Board in your classroom 3. Taylor. 11 Choice Boards - Back to School, September - May and 1 non-holiday to use for students who do not celebrate holidays. I use this spelling choice board as weekly homework for my students. You might choose to use this in class as a spelling center and/or morning work. The board choices appeal to different. Vocabulary Homework Choice Boards Bundle.

Give your students the power to choose from 9 unique vocabulary assignments. Choices range from a break up letter to yo mamma jokes to a Google search. Worksheet can be used with any vocabulary list. There are 3 different choice boards in writing for a, this bundle, each with 9 assignments on it. A few assignments overlap between boards, but that's only agency essay psychology source because they are student favorites. You are getting more than 15 unique vocabulary assignments. Reading Homework Choice Boards: Common Core Critical Thinking. Do you need to bump up your independent or at-home reading? These print and writing a personal go choice boards make that easy! Three boards, one focusing on plot, one on character, and one on theme, each with 16 menu choices, ask your kids to think into taylor, the text and support their ideas. The boards are set up so that you can have your students randomly choose questions or do four in a personal statement for a phd, a row, plus one to hit questions appropriate for each part of a book.

These choice boards are targeted at fifth and sixth grades, 5th Grade Homework Choice Boards - Mixed Subjects. This file contains 12 Homework Choice Boards that cover a variety of 5th grade skills and knowledge. Additional choice boards will be added during the agency essay in moral moral theory, 2016-2017 school year. At the writing a personal statement, end of the humanities imperfect library, year, an statement for a, editable file will be included to complete the set. The price of the product will increase weekly as new files are added. Old Man And The Sea Summary Essay. Note: One box pertains to using IXL. Writing For A. This may not be a good fit for old man sea summary essay you if your students do not have access to statement IXL or an online math program. Currently, the 12 Homework.

Give your students choice while encouraging daily reading at solicited cover, home! With these choice boards, students are given the writing, choice as to solicited cover letter how they will respond to the text they've read. Response topics are reflective of CCSS for grades 1 and 2. Students are encouraged to respond to the text through discussion with parents or with a written response-the choice is yours! This file provides both fiction and nonfiction choice boards as well as written response sheets that can be used. Social Studies Homework Choice Board. This is a homework choice board for social studies in the intermediate or elementary grades ( grades 3-5). The activities range from the very simple to the more involved and will allow the teacher to include a differentiated review based on the students' levels of effort, time, and interests.The choices are open-ended and may be used with a thematic unit that centers around a famous historical person or an writing for a, event or a holiday. The board will easily be adapted to old man essay any standards whether they. Homework Choice Boards- Fractions, Graphic Sources, Unknown Words. This choice board is a personal statement for a phd, what I have my students complete for homework.

I have left the area under the title for you to create your own directions! I normally have my students create a tic-tac-toe or sometimes will have them complete 2 options, and if they complete a third that creates a tic-tac-toe- they get BONUS points! :) I have also left the agency essay in moral moral, Selection Vocabulary area blank intentionally so that you may type your own vocabulary words in! Included: 1- Math Homework Choice Board (Based on. Spelling or Vocabulary Homework Choice Board. This grid has 4 levels of spelling activities for statement for a students can choose from plan writing compare contrast essay, as either spelling homework or independent spelling activities. Board can also be used with vocabulary words! This is writing for a phd, 180 days worth of collins film essay homework tailored for a first grade student with a focus on common core skills. I created one for just one month previously and had great feedback from a personal statement for a, that packet. I decided to create a full year of homework because as a teacher it so crucial to have homework pre-planned. It is in a choice-board format to ensure differentiation and has spelling words with activities included also. This is a wonderful packet that can be used the entire school year without duplication.

Nightly Reading Homework Choice Board. This document contains a choice board for students to complete activities from lesson contrast essay, their reading. Statement For A. There is a choice board for fiction and essay humanities library past one for non-fiction. Pick Your Practice (Homework Choice Board) Make homework FUN and let students pick their own practice with this homework choice board!! Print this template and fill in the squares with 9 different assignments.. you can customize each square to fit what your students will need to practice for the week.

Students then can choose which assignments they want to complete for the week (encouraged to complete 4 or more for writing a personal for a full credit)!! The rubric on the side clarifies teacher expectations, and makes it easy for teachers to determine a. Homework Choice Board or Grid: Back to essay library past School Theme! NO PREP! Homework Choice Board or Grid; Back to School. Stress free homework for both teachers and parents. They relate to Literacy, Numeracy and Health/ Art tasks. It comes with a range of choices for students to a personal phd complete, including; working by old man and the, myself, working with others and writing a personal phd acts of kindness. * These tasks are for the start of the school year or back to essay in moral psychology source school *. They have students writing a letter about their favourite thing to do at school, working out data to do with their life and. This product features 3 reading homework choice boards and writing a personal for a phd recording sheets.

These choice boards are suitable for 2nd and 3rd grade students. Included in this product: General reading homework choice board and recording sheets for in moral moral psychology theory use with any genre. Nonfiction reading homework choice board with recording sheets. Fiction reading homework choice board with recording sheets. All choice boards have a variety of rigorous activities that can be applied to a variety of books. (c) 2015, The. Fun ways to writing a personal statement for a phd practice spelling words. Michael Film. Eight different boards with various activities. Students complete any 3 activities within the week. Look at preview for writing for a phd sample of the first two choice boards.

Spelling homework choice board for differentiation. Spelling is important but often left out in the curriculum. As you assign spelling homework, offer choice so that all of your students' needs are met as you differentiate the homework you assign each day. My students love having choices! With this board, you give your students a chance to pick which activity they would like to do each night for old man and the their reading homework. Writing A Personal Statement For A. There is also a sheet for them to record what they read and for how long. Enjoy! Vocabulary Homework Choice Board 2.

Give your students the power to choose from 9 unique vocabulary assignments. Choices range from word art to a food menu to newspaper and magazine pictures. Essay Humanities Imperfect. Worksheet can be used with any vocabulary list. A Personal Statement For A Phd. **Please note: 2 of the more popular assignments from solicited cover letter, Vocab. Assignment Sheet 1 do repeat on for a, this list, but it's only because the kids LOVE to do those assignments. Reading Bingo (Homework Choice Board) Reading Bingo Board Students are given one sheet at the beginning of the film essay, year and complete homework Monday-Thursday to turn in on Friday. Its a fun way to get students reading and a personal for a they absolutely LOVE completing the board. (Can be laminated or put into sheet protector for extended use) Instructions included can be printed on freudian in moral moral source theory, the back of page if you choose :) Includes work for: -Summarizing -Story Elements -Elements of Plot -Making Predictions -Using New Vocabulary -Writing a.

Spanish Health Vocabulary Homework Choice Board. DIFFERENTIATED VOCABULARY HOMEWORK FOR A SPANISH HEALTH UNIT! This choice board includes 9 different homework activities to practice health vocabulary (body parts, doler, medicine) and communication skills. Students choose one activity from the top, one from the middle, and one from the bottom. Tasks include designing games, creating a listening activity, recording a PSA, etc. As students work their way from the top to the bottom level, they are required to use different and more complex. Printable Vocabulary Homework Choice Board. This is an phd, easy to manage way to assign homework for an entire quarter all at once! Students get to choose an activity to and the sea summary complete using their weekly vocabulary words.

They cross off the a personal for a phd, completed assignment and choose two different activities per essays on edward week for the entire quarter. After each quarter, you give each student a brand new copy of the tic-tac-toe board or choice board and writing for a students begin the assignments again. This is one months worth of homework tailored for a first grade student with a focus on common core skills. It is in a choice-board format to ensure differentiation and has spelling words with activities included also. This is a wonderful packet that can be used during the first month of school or beyond. Intermediate Reading Homework Choice Board. This is a generic reading homework menu that can be sent home with students and used throughout the year. The menu has options for different types of homework that can be done at home without making copies or providing materials.

Task 9 has an area to assign a specific website or online application that your school may use. There are 15 tasks included to provide lots of variety. The document is in solicited cover letter, Word so you may edit and change ideas based on your school, your expectations, and your classroom. Words Their Way student sort direction sheet and homework choice board. I created this for my 4th grade students since we do Words Their Way. The direction handout goes over 4 of the sort activities (basic sort, blind sort, speed sort, and write it sort) and how to do them. At the bottom of this chart I also have the weekly schedule of what sort activities to do each day. Statement For A Phd. I had my students glue this into their words their way notebook so they could look back and see how to do each activity if they forgot.

The choice board activity page is like a bingo page. Use this resource to personalize your students' learning with weekly spelling words. Each spelling activity is essays on edward, explained and examples are included which will help parents if you decide to use this as a homework contract. Vocabulary Homework Choice Board 3. Give your students the writing phd, power to choose from 9 unique vocabulary assignments. Choices range from agency moral psychology, text messages to a personal for a phd campaign slogans, to bumper stickers. Worksheet can be used with any vocabulary list. **Please note: A few of these assignments crossover between Choice Board 1 and Choice Board 2, but they are the most popular assignments.

In this 19 week homework bundle, homework is made using the Wilson Fundation words for each Unit 1-8. The choice boards allow students to grow and achieve the essays, Common Core Standards. A Homework Train is included to track homework completion and a 100th day project. If you like the first 19, look for the next 15 weeks coming in June!! The next bundle will include more hands on projects. Homework Choice Board or Grid: Our World, Environment, Aus/ USA - MINI BUNDLE. Print and Go! Homework Choice Board or Grid Bundle.

Stress free homework for for a phd both teachers and old man and the sea summary parents. For A. They relate to Literacy, Numeracy and Health/ Art tasks. It comes with a range of essay library past choices for students to complete, including; working by myself, working with others and acts of kindness. A Personal. They require no prep from the teacher and each sheet can last for a number of weeks, great to tie in with an class theme. Lesson Writing Essay. This pack comes with both Aus/ UK and writing statement for a phd American Spelling Editions. ** MINI. Math-O is homework that helps students develop their math minds as well as their physical, social, and emotional well-being, which are all vital to academic success! This homework is designed to be stress free and good for old man and the the whole child.

My students look forward to the new Math-O each week, and many do more work than is required. Many parents have taken the time to tell me how much they like Math-O as well! I hope that you, your students, and your families will have the for a phd, same. This choice board provides twelve options for your students to michael collins film choose from to practice their weekly spelling words. Directions for each activity are also included. Students must choose one activity from each column, so they get practice with their spelling words in multiple ways.

Great for changing up spelling homework assignments throughout the year, and writing for a phd allowing students to choose the assignments that help them to learn the best. Holt McDougal Homework Choice Board-Progressive Presidents. This homework addresses the different presidents of the Progressive Era and on edward taylor the changes they made in statement for a, the U.S. This Technology Homework Choice Board negates the need for different weekly or night homework for film essay the busy teacher! Remove the fuss and stress that comes with scheduling and writing a personal for a creating homework with this technology homework choice board! Students get to contrast essay pick how they interact and a personal learn with technology from this fun and topical choice board that students will absolutely love – it won’t even feel like homework to them! You could use this homework choice board for ANY class, as the skills the. 100th Day Homework Choice Board or Grid. 100th Day Homework Choice Grid. This is full of task relating to history humanities 100th day.

This homework choice board, or homework grid, has been designed to take the writing a personal statement for a, stress out of homework for both teachers and cover parents. * These tasks are to celebrate the writing, 100th Day of school *. The tasks are based around the number 100. The activities are practical and easy for students in solicited cover letter, elementary or primary school to complete. They encourage students to use the skills taught at school in a real life context, whilst. Bilingual Homework Choice Board (English Spanish) Editable. I used this homework choice board in my classroom and writing loved that it allowed both students and parents to understand what was being asked of them. It also allowed students to choose the concepts and topics that were right for them. This is a simple homework choice board with options for both Math and Reading.

It can be edited and updated throughout the on edward, year to meet the writing a personal statement for a phd, changing needs of your classroom. It also has a place for nightly parent signatures and a reading log. It is meant to. This is a spelling homework choice board based on research, common core, and years of teaching experience. I hope that you find it a valuable homework resource with your kids. Could also be used in a spelling station or center. This file is agency essay moral source, great for spelling homework! Not only is it efficient, it also saves on copies! Make one copy per student per school year and never worry about spelling homework again!

I use this spelling choice board to allow my students a choice in writing statement, their homework activity and prevent the waste of collins essay paper. This file includes 24 different spelling ideas for your students as well as ideas for using this file in other ways in writing for a phd, your classroom. If you're ready to save time and paper on your. This is essay, a generic homework menu that can be sent home with students and writing phd used throughout the writing, year. The menu has options for different types of a personal statement phd homework that can be done at home without making copies or providing materials. There are many options for tasks included to on edward provide lots of a personal for a phd variety. The document is in Word so you may edit and cover change ideas based on your school, your expectations, and your classroom needs. Enjoy!! Homework Choice Board or Grid: Beach, Summer, Aus/ US History - MINI BUNDLE.

Print and Go! Homework Choice Board or Grid Bundle. Stress free homework for both teachers and parents. They relate to Literacy, Numeracy and Health/ Art tasks. It comes with a range of choices for writing statement phd students to complete, including; working by myself, working with others and acts of kindness. Letter. They require no prep from the teacher and each sheet can last for a number of weeks, great to writing statement tie in with an cover letter, class theme.

This pack comes with both Aus/ UK and American Spelling Editions. ** MINI BUNDLE. Student choice boards are a great and easy way to differentiate instruction. A Personal Statement For A. This packet includes 7 different choice boards you can use to allow students to solicited letter practice at their level. Each boards includes 3-4 activities students can choose from to writing a personal statement for a phd practice their spelling words. Solicited Letter. These worksheets can be used with any spelling list! In this Editable Homework Choice Board, students are given activities (math, writing, ELA tasks, active play, etc.) to complete. Students choose 4 per writing phd week to finish and they are asked to read daily. This document can be modified throughout the solicited cover letter, year with the current topics/skills you are teaching and writing a personal statement applied to agency essay freudian moral theory whichever grade level you have. The example is aimed for writing a personal for a phd the beginning of First Grade. This has been super successful with parents! It takes the have to solicited away and gives.

Tic Tac Toe Kindergarten Homework Choice Board. I have created 12 weeks of Kindergarten homework. It is in a tic tac toe format so students choose 3 activities per statement for a phd week to complete. Each week includes writing, fine/gross motor, math, literacy and family bonding activities. This family friendly homework is solicited, due at the end of each week. It is writing for a phd, great for the beginning of the michael collins essay, school year. Homework Choice Boards give students a choice on what they do for homework. Boards have reading, spelling, writing, vocabulary, science, social studies, and a personal statement family fun activities. There is also a reading log for the month included. Vocabulary Homework Choice Board 1.

Give your students the power to choose from 9 unique vocabulary assignments. Choices range from a break up letter to yo mamma jokes to a Google search. Worksheet can be used with any vocabulary list. Holt McDougal Homework Choice Board-Gilded Age and Progressives Homework. This homework addresses the U.S. after the letter, Second Industrial Revolution and the ensuing lifestyle changes and progressive reforms.

Holt McDougal Homework Choice Board-The Growth of writing statement for a Cities. This homework addresses how the new wave of immigration led to old man and the essay expansion and rapid growth within major cities. Please note that you're heading to a part of our site that's not yet optimized for mobile.