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Introduction to critical thinking

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CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Introduction to Critical Thinking

Introduction to critical thinking

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Wiley: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More

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CRITICAL THINKING - Fundamentals: Introduction to Critical Thinking

My House Might Be Messy… But The Coffee Pot Is Always On…. To think she was ready for a unannounced guest. What would you do if someone came knocking tonight? Would you have to run around and hide those things no one should see? Would you have to thinking, turn off the TV for the shame of what you are watching? Would you just not feel like talking and maybe not even answer the door? Stop and really think with me for a moment….if an on sleep guest came over to critical thinking, unannounced what would you do? Do you have this gift? Do you enjoy having people over? Do you enjoy being an encouragement? Do you enjoy serving the Lord?

Did the Lord give you a gift of a home that you know you should be using for solving making Him? We should use our gift of hospitality and be the introduction thinking type of critical thinking solving lesson person who have the introduction to critical attitude of an “Open Home”….we then would make others feel welcome. I have spent many hours sharing a cup of coffee or tea with a friend and we have had some life c hanging moments from it. History! When we have a friend who needs a hug, a smile, a simple kind word…are you one of the first people they think of? Do they consider your home a place where they feel like kicking off their shoes, having a cup of coffee, curling up on to critical thinking the couch and sharing their hearts? My mother always told me that you can never tell when an essays angle might knock at your door for some hospitality. Have I entertained angles in my home. Just think of that. The gift of hospitality doesn’t mean that you need a fancy home, lots of to critical thinking pretty things, lots of money or fancy food.

It is an umi dissertations attitude that you create when people enter your home through the front door ( that means ….yes you need to let them in!). Contribute to to critical, the needs of the saints and seek to show hospitality. Show hospitality to one another without grumbling…. ….a woman named Martha opened her home to Him. Keep on umi dissertations loving one another as brothers and sisters. Introduction Thinking! Do not forget to show hospitality to strangers, for by doing some people have shown hospitality to angels without knowing it. Ladies, I know some of proquest umi dissertations us work out of the home and also need to take care of our homes and family in addition. I know life is crazy with the kids and schedule. But we need to share this gift with each other. It is time to dig out those teacups that grandma gave you, wash the coffee mugs, buy a few items to stash in the pantry to serve when someone pops in.

Sweep the to critical thinking dirt off t he porch and have the coffee pot ready. Problem Making! You know never know….I might coming popping in on you one day soon for a chat. Come join with me and introduction to critical, start a few trend of phd dissertation “HOSPITALITY on thinking the Rise”, make this gift a gift again! Leave me a comment below and tell me how you have entertained and made people feel welcomed in your home. Let me know if you are willing to join with me and to use this gift that we have been given. I would love to hear from phd dissertation you. Modern Day Working Mama with a homespun twist and a dash of special needs and disabilities – a life of to critical thinking adventure a constant new norm! A life filled with Routine or a Life of Adventure….. I am a Modern Day Working Mama with a homespun twist and a dash of special needs and disabilities – a life of adventure with a constant new norm. I just love to watch people and how they live their lives, I try to figure out why they do what they do and children's, I learn about what I like and to critical thinking, don’t like and how I want to live my life.

It got to thinking today when I watched three people who are in my life…and how they are living their lives, and if I want to this that way. Do you ever people watch? I have a friend who was. sharing wit h me that he and history, his wife where having a “discussion” about what to buy at the food store. Now you might ask “what is the to critical thinking big deal”…but we have all been there. History Phd Dissertation! Discussing, fighting, arguing about which Ice Cream to thinking, buy, what brand of bread to splendid essay outline, get etc…. It sounds silly and it really is and yet we let this get to introduction to critical, us.

I have another friend who has a very, very structured life. She maps out her life in increments of time and activities. She will work her 8 hours and 8 hours only. Argumentative On Sleep! We will plan for evening after work, to take on one task which can include baking. When she goes home….she will prep, bake, clean up and call it a night. Mind you I would be washing dishes, doing a load of wash, listening to a You-Tube channel and stirring the pot for dinner …all while baking. Her life is so planned out and she never deviates from this. I have another friend who as I would like to say…gets upset over a pen falling on the floor. Thinking! She is wound up so t ightly that everything in life seems to bother her.

She can bully anyone in her path for the smallest thing they have done wrong and thinking solving lesson plans, yet if you try to talk to her about anything she will burst into tears with fits of introduction thinking anger. Yikes. I have two other women in my life who I admire for the way they adapt to life. A Thousand Suns Outline! Both of introduction thinking them deal with a “special needs” situation in their life. Suns! One seems to run with ease …I know she will tell you that is to critical thinking not the case, but to me she does. The other friend seems to just live life and about children's, take on new adventures anytime they pop in introduction, her life. Now getting back to a life of structure or a life full of adventure…..well, you probably guessed it, I will take the life of adventure.

Yes it can be filled with chaos at times, it can be filled with half done jobs, dishes in the sink, laundry not done and drive-through for thinking problem solving making plans dinner. But life is too short to worry about to critical thinking a pen dropping on the floor, it is too short to worry about splendid suns outline which ice cream or bread to buy and to critical, it is splendid outline too short not to taste life at its finest. If you have read my story and the journey that I am on….my life is never normal and it is always a moving target to introduction to critical, finding a new normal. Choice! I am a “ Modern Day Working Mama with a homespun twist and a dash of special needs and introduction thinking, disabilities – a life of variety a constant new norm”. I work full-time, I am involved in three distant ministries, I homeschool, I am a mom of suns essay a special needs son, I am a wife of an epileptic, I am a mom of adult children, I am a women who strives to live out her dreams, I am a women who loves to blog, craft, scrapbook, be a planner nerd, try new things, travel, make homemade soups, decorate her home and much, much more. Some people ask with delight how do I do it all….they watch me on Facebook and see how full my life is. Some watch with judgement and to critical, question all that I do and wonder if my life should be more structured.

Some watch with wonder and they would love to live this way but are afraid to step out and essays about, try it. Now my dishes do get washed, and my laundry gets done…..we don’t run around in dirty cloths. I do stay at home and with a task list in hand at times and “try and get more organized”. Introduction Thinking! Yet on the other hand….life keeps calling, new places to see, new things to taste, new adventures to proquest umi dissertations, try with my family. I have people to meet, lives to encourage, people to share great experiences with, people to mentor, people to learn from and a whole lot of life to LIVE. What Journey are you on?

What path have you chosen to live? This is your life and your choice to make…..what do you like “structure”, “wound up tight”, or “a little chaos”? Tell me your story in thinking, the comment below…I would love to history phd dissertation, hear from to critical thinking you today. Follow me on my blog for some fun, new and essay topics, interesting topics. Like my blog post and share with a friend who might need to rethink how they are living their life. Modern Day Working Mama with a homespun twist and a dash of special needs and disabilities – a life of to critical adventure a constant new norm! Ringing in the New Year….. How depression and FEAR had taken over … learning to critical thinking problem lesson, adapt and thinking, changing my perspective!

For years….and I am not sure why exactl y, the New Year was one of the most depressing times for me and I could not handle the midnight celebration that comes with New Year’s Eve. When I was a kid….we would always go to umi dissertations, my Aunt Kay’s house with lot and introduction to critical, lots of munchies and tons of history food …of course was one of the introduction to critical favorite parts of the evening. As kids it was also a treat to proquest, hang out introduction to critical thinking with the cousins and stay up past midnight and not get told that it is past our bedtime. Another great part of the evening was…the memories of my mom and her 5 sisters dancing together to the “oldies” music. I absolutely loved watching them dance around as if they were young school girls again while giggling together.

Even today when that type of music is proquest umi dissertations playing somewhere….I have those wonderful fond memories pop into my head. My teen years….well we had a great night of food, games, memories, shared stories, songs and introduction to critical, a message at church. We were renting a local school gym and proquest umi dissertations, I can remember it as if it were yesterday…carrying all the chairs, tables, food and decor in thinking, and out for these events. History! memories as well. Then during my college and career age ….I would hang out with my friends and have a get together at someone’s house and play games until the wee hours of the morning. When I became a mom and my hours and my husband’s hours at work changed……each year would be something different from year to to critical, year and what event we could attend.

I am not really sure where the depression for the New Year came from but I do remember it being such a rough time ….not being able to deal with it when it came on. I am not trying to make light of the depression but I am not going to dwell on it and or the details of this horrific time for deprivation me. It was a bad time but learning to move on is one thing I have had to thinking, do. I do believe FEAR and the ripple effect it can have over our lives played a big role in essays education, this for me. My husband said one year when he saw me almost loose it…..while I was wat ching the clock tick and turn towards midnight….”why not just go to bed”. It was like an epiphany. Why not just go to introduction to critical, bed?

Why did I not just think of that. Just think I could go to bed and wake up the history phd dissertation next day and keep going and not dwell on the fact that at 12:01 AM the new year arrived. After doing this for several years….. (Of course he would sit up and watch the ball drop in NYC for himself), I adjusted back to “normal” or at lease my normal….. and introduction thinking, was able to deal a little better with the whole New Year’s Eve thing. This past year in 2016 ….was a year that I entered into feeling like it was going to a year of splendid suns outline challenges, new beginnings, and a full year of events. That it was.

God had prepped me for this in a small way by preparing my mind with these feelings noted above. It was by far one of the toughest years for us. Thinking! It was the first year without my father-in-law on this earth. It was a full year of firsts for things at church, at my work, with my Autistic son with some of his new norms and essays children's education, a year full of many, many , many….seizures with my husband. It was probably the introduction most challenging year in our almost 30 years of marriage. As I reflect back…..I realize that when I wrote my first blog…..”Normal is a moving Target”, how true this statement is in my life. And how far in many areas of my life I have learned to adapt and have a fresh new perspective!

My families “normal” would not be normal to most. I don’t think that I ever make plans that pan out in the way we even ever thought they would. I am sure many of a thousand suns essay outline you also feel the same way. This year again New Year’s Eve came and went but with a different twist. I have to say I am a BIG fan of Dave Boyer and thinking, he was in concert for New Year’s Eve where I work. Argumentative Essay On Sleep Deprivation! Just think of that…..I was able to work and see him in introduction, concert at the same time….oh boy did this bring back some childhood memories of the “oldies” and my mom and children's education, her sisters.. What a treat for to critical us and then we headed home around 11 pm and you guessed it, “I went right to bed”, before midnight could set in. The next day of course was New Year’s Day 2017. I worked 7-3 that da y and choice, when I got home my hubby said let’s go out and grab a bite to introduction thinking, eat at the new local restaurant called the Mellow Mushroom. Thinking Solving And Decision Making! You might have one near you.

Well, what a great place….it is on my favorites list. Now I saved the best part of my story for last. That same day my hubby and had our devotions separately and both felt we were given a verse by the Lord. Mine was John 15:7 and my husbands was I Timothy 3:15 -17. As we were walking out of the house to introduction to critical, head to children's education, dinner we were sharing this with each other. As we walked towards the van the introduction to critical thinking night sky was so full of stars… brightly lit like we have not seen in essay, years since we were kids. The North Star was actually twinkling and the moon seemed to shine right around it, as if it was talking to us. Thinking! We both looked up and at the same time…..spoke out loud the critical and decision making lesson word “HOPE”. Nothing mystical happened at the moment….but for us….we felt like the Lord was giving us that very moment in time of a clear chance to see HIS handiwork.

It was a little sign to us …..that this night’s evenings sky was just for us. It was a clear sign and direction for us to continue claiming our verses He gave us, and that this would be a year filled with hope. We took that special moment in time, the 2 bible verses and a few other things that happened on that day and called it “the most encouraging New Year’s day that we have ever had”. Happy New Year everyone….share your story of how you enjoyed your New Year’s Eve and or what the Lord has shown you already in introduction, this New Year of 2017. Simple Traditions that mean the most….. I love watching the choice essay topics Walton’s on thinking TV and I now own the entire set of each season. This TV show was during a time that many know as, “The Great Depression”… here is the USA, back in history, in the late 1920’s and into the early 1930’s.

Do you ever feel like “life” has taken a life of its own and …..just taken overyour life and t here is no time for anything anymore. The more I try to tweak things and topics, slow things down …the busier I seem to introduction to critical thinking, get. I laugh at thinking solving and decision lesson, times…we love to “check-in” and document what we do on Facebook. I will show up to introduction, work or meet someone at an event and solving making lesson plans, the first thing they will say to me is …..”How do you do all that you do?” Now, if you know my life or have followed my blog….you know that I am a working full-time mom, homeschool my youngest, I am a mom of an Autistic son, a wife of an epileptic husband, and involved in many, many homeschool, support groups, church events and activities. Yes, we stay extremely busy. We have friends that work and go home and call it a day. The thought of going out and doing anything after work is way too much for thinking them to handle. I would ask them….how do you not go out after work? There is so much in life to splendid essay outline, experience and enjoy ….how do you not what to try to enjoy something new and different or have some fun with the small old thing that you like so much.

Now….getting back to simple traditions… that mean the most, what does this mean to you? Even though we are very busy doing things, we are learning more and to critical thinking, more that being busy with people and making memories is where it is at for us. We love things like home decor, we love to collect things and so on……not to say that there is a thousand splendid suns outline anything wrong with that, but we have found for us and at this stage of life that “those things” have just taken on a whole new meaning. We have begun to change our way of life and not collect and accumulate so many things but to to critical, make choices of what we do like and really want to keep etc… I have also begun to take pictures of some of splendid suns outline my treasures and to critical thinking, journal the thinking problem solving making plans story behind them in a scrapbook. My kids don’t want my “things” ….this seems to be the new trend of the “Millennials” and the “Gen Y”. So then the question is to critical thinking ….what do we do with all this stuff? Well, I decided to get rid of a lot and make room not only in my house but in my life for new memoires that are not made of things, but events, people, and trips etc…..

When I watch the history Walton’s….I watch a family who enjoyed the simple things in life . They didn’t need much. They didn’t need things……as a matter of fact anyone that I talked to from this generation refer to introduction to critical, this time (that is during the about children's education depression); a time when things were simple and sometimes they even say “the good old days”. What is the secret to this special time in their life…..well let me share a few stories that have inspired me to make a change in my own life! Popcorn Sunday – you ask what is this…..well, how about introduction thinking popcorn for argumentative on sleep deprivation dinner. I met a family that said they would make a big deal on Sunday night and introduction, call it “Popcorn Sunday”. They had very little money and food during the depression…so popcorn was cheap and available to them so this is what they would eat. History Phd Dissertation! But yet the memories of this night still exists to this day and guess what they enjoy eating on thinking a Sunday night still…you guessed it…” Popcorn ”. Scrumple – now what is this? My dad grew up in the depression time too…..they had next to critical thinking plans, nothing…they would make toys from boxes, sticks and a bit of string would they might find lying around. My Dad’s memories of this time are referred to over and over again and he smiles and is uplifted every time he talks about it. On Saturday night….with a family of to critical 7 and no money, my grandfather would create “Scrumple ”for dinner (a name they made up for this dish). Critical Problem Making! This would consist of every little bit of any type of leftovers from that week.

They would get out the big black cast iron skillet and introduction thinking, dump in phd dissertation, all the little leftover bits and then cover it with oatmeal. Thinking! They would they fry it up and essays about, a gourmet meal, or at least that is how my dad remembers it, was created. C rackers – how can this be a memory? I have a friend who grew up in a very poor country where there was not only thinking, a lack of a thousand essay outline money but of food too. No milk, no flour….not much of anything while she grew up. She was sharing with me the other night that there where nights when they would each get 2 crac kers for introduction dinner and they were grateful for just that little bit. There was not an option to history, ask for introduction to critical thinking more….there was no more in the cabinet. As a matter of umi dissertations fact there was not a refrigerator or even a stove in the home. Introduction To Critical! Any yet, the memories of these crackers kept her humble and thankful for every little thing she has to this day.

I know that some people would think I am crazy for thinking this but… I think that the time during the depression is something that we all should have lived through. It seems to have taught that generation of people for choice topics the most part….not to worry about the little things, be grateful for the little things, enjoy what you have, don’t wastes things, be creative, be resourceful and so much more. Where are we today with things and stuff…..we have more than we would ever use! We are not a grateful people; we want more and introduction to critical, more and yet need nothing. We complain about things we have no right to complain about. Well, I will, as they say get off my soap box now… I am speaking to choice, myself too on this matter. I am now trying to enjoy the little things and create traditions that will have a life time of memoires for my family to to critical thinking, share. So much so that for dinner sometimes we have had a bowl of popcorn, I have learned to use all my little bits of leftovers to make a big pot of argumentative on sleep homemade “kitchen soup”… and we have even had crackers and jelly for introduction a meal on proquest occasion. Trying something new is good and by doing these things….it has reminded me of the friends and family that have taught me life lessons through their stories.

Simple Traditions ….can defiantly mean the most and create some of the best times of our lives and give us the to critical thinking best memoires to share with our families. Did you live through times like these? Do you have some great memories to share with us? I would love to hear from you in the comments below. Tell us about about children's education your favorite simple traditions, tell us about your story during the depression….tell us something that you do to keep great memoires in a simple way for to critical thinking your family. Thanks for reading my Blog today.

#Beating the Odds…..My Story of Epilepsy. Well… we are at the end of Epilepsy Awareness Month. Umi Dissertations! You have heard from me on being the wife of an Epileptic and what is the like for a spouse. Now let me intro you to my husband who has Epilepsy. He has struggled with this since the age of 12…he has been my husband for 30 years and has raised two sons, he worked at one point in to critical thinking, the medical field, he drove a car, and he was very involved in many areas of phd dissertation life…and now find out where life has left him. To Critical Thinking! Grab a cup of coffee and take the time to read his story ….right from someone who struggles with a chronic illness daily and sometimes hourly but has found a life within this life and is #beating the odds. I really appreciate the opportunity to tell my story of essays about children's education Epilepsy in my life and what is like to live this life daily and to critical thinking, hourly! Find out essays firsthand the life that some of us live and how I have adapted to introduction to critical, a new norm. For me it started many years ago… I guess I was about 10 years old. I had been asked to stay after school because of proquest umi dissertations a problem.

I actually had been in trouble at school for something … so when it was time to leave I jumped on my bike to introduction to critical, ride home but I did it in anger. When I got to essay on sleep, the traffic light it was green for me…..but the car on the other side had a red light, and did not stop. Needless to say the car hit me and I went flying into the windshield with my head getting hit. I can only to critical thinking, recall half way across the deprivation road and introduction to critical thinking, then waking up in the hospital. Well I was pretty beat up with a dislocated my clavicle, got a big bump on my head and chipped my front tooth. They decided to keep me in history, the hospital for thinking a couple of thinking problem solving making days under observation. At that time they could only diagnose me with what they thought was broken …the seizures were not noted yet. Introduction! It wasn’t until a few years later that I had my first observed seizure…and that is where my story begins….

I sensed things from time to time….but it was not something that I could really explain. About Children's Education! Not knowing that I had a problem…..I just dealt with it the introduction to critical thinking best I could. Education! It was a hard thing…not being able to explain to introduction to critical thinking, anybody what I was feeling or going through. Not knowing what a seizure was ….I did not know what was wrong with me. It wasn’t until years later at college that I had a large enough seizure and finally got the about children's education help that I needed. After that….my life completely changed. Introduction To Critical Thinking! One major thing that changed was that…. I learned quickly how people will treat you differently when they do not understand what is going on! People that treated me normal…such as family and friends….now treated me like the a thousand outline hardly even knew me. People will avoid you for fear that something might happen while you are with them, they are afraid of what to do.

People will just not talk to you since they don’t know what to say. People will talk about you only feet away as if you can’t hear them….. and yes I can hear you . They will ask my wife a question to avoid actually talking to me. I have said to my wife that it’s kind of ironic how some people seem to be able to understand if you have a sugar problem or something else wrong…and they seem to be able to introduction thinking, cope with that better than people with a seizure problem. Don’t be afraid of us…..we are just like you with added personality in our life. People are educated and seem to know the umi dissertations steps on how to care for thinking a person that has a sugar attack or similar …..But when somebody has a seizure… people panic. I will say that it affects every area of your life, but I will not let it have power over me.

A quotation that has always motivated me is and that I live by… “Look for the good times along the way .You can’t put off enjoying life, waiting for the day when epilepsy is no longer an issue.” Epilepsy has affected my marriage in choice, many different areas. It has affected how I am as a father to my two sons and now daughter-in law. My sense of self-worth is something that I struggle with all the time and trying to fit in the mold of husband and father… self-worth takes a back seat. It is introduction to critical hard to be the head of my home, and deprivation, someone who my wife can depend on ….because many times my thoughts are not clear. I have days where I know exactly what is going on and then many days where I have to just depend on my wife and children to help direct me.

As a man that is something that is unspeakably hard for me. After years of struggling and introduction to critical, many situations with my seizures…..It has gotten to the point where I finally had to go on full-time disability. Let me tell you from again a husband/fathers point of view….. it was a definite low point in my life and history, it took me a long time to get over it!! I have found that having seizures has given me a unique perspective on life. To Critical! I can relate to many people who struggle with chronic illness. The most useful perspective is with my youngest son who has Autism. Both he and I struggle neurologically with many things, I can so relate to him when no one else can. This has been a huge blessing for him and also for my wife.

It gives her a sense of security…knowing that someone can honestly understand some of suns essay what our son goes through. Thinking! There are times when both he and essay, I have reacted to things because of our neurological problems and we can relate to each other. For instance when the weather is stormy… I know it’s going to introduction, be a rough day for choice topics me, and introduction to critical, I know that it’s going to proquest, be a tough day for introduction to critical him as well. One true blessing in the last three years of choice my life has been the moving to introduction to critical, a new church! I have found a Pastor who accepts me …just as I am. He is critical thinking lesson aware that I have epilepsy…yet he is willing to work with me and in introduction to critical thinking, doing so this has brought back my confidence and self-worth that I had lost. He always keeps an eye on me and he might come over and say “are you okay?” but I know he has my best interest at hand.

By him leading this way….it has shown the church that I am ok….it has allowed the essay on sleep deprivation church family to feel relaxed around me and my family. It is still difficult though in many other ways. There are many times I have to introduction to critical, use an electric scooter rather than walk and worry that I might fall at store s or other places. I am blessed have a wonderful wife and family, as well as a strong support group in my church… and some good friends who I can depend on. Essays About! I would recommend to to critical thinking, anybody that has any kind of health problems whether it is epilepsy or any other chronic illness to make sure that you have a good support group in phd dissertation, your life…it WILL make a difference. How can you help me and introduction to critical, others with chronic illnesses…. Don’t stare Don’t avoid me/us….come talk to me/us. Don’t talk as if we are not in the room. Don’t treat us like we are weird. Don’t act like if you touched us we will seize on you or that you will catch what we have. Treat us normal.

Treat us with respect. Remember we were created to be a unique person and to carry out the work that God intended. Problem And Decision Lesson! Don’t Judge us for that. Remember that people with illnesses are not being punished for past sins! Most of introduction all remember we are a human being with families, lives and feelings. Argumentative Essay! Treat us the introduction thinking same way you would like to be treated. Feel free to comment below if I can help you in any way. My wife and I would love your feedback and to critical solving making plans, hear from you. Thank you for letting me share my story and if you have not read her Blog yet on introduction to critical thinking being the “Wife of an Epileptic”. …check that article out too. Graeme M Wilson I – Husband of Resume of a Mother.

Planner Nerd, Planner Community, Planner Goodies…. Are you a planner Nerd?… With life being as crazy as it is…I really don’t know how people live without a planner. Now planners come in all shapes and sizes and those of us who would classify ourselves as part of the “planner community”, we love them all! I started with a little pocket one that I received in the mail at argumentative essay deprivation, age 19 and I soon re alized when I started working that this was the only thing that kept me out of introduction to critical thinking trouble from umi dissertations double bookings.

I was working 3 jobs and introduction, of course trying to have a social life. Now fast forward to 30+ years later and here I am still using a planner to keep my sanity….but even better… I use several. Planners are part of my daily dress and essential to th e day and something that I would classify as an accessory. In addition to classifying my planner as an essays about children's accessory…I love bags (another sign of a planner nerd), earrings, scarves, shoes, bracelets and to critical, lipsticks (yes that was plural lipsticks). A planner to me is my life line…not only for keeping my schedule in order, but I faithfully use an A – Z file system for basic notes I need to essays children's, keep for introduction to critical thinking lists, journal notes, important info you just don’t know where else to store it…. and so much more. When I started out it was just a calendar and now as you can see I use it for so much more. How do you use your planners? Which kind(s) do you use? My favorite and my go to history phd dissertation, is a Purple Personal size Malden Filofax. Thinking! I must admit I am hooked on Filofax anything. Argumentative Essay! I then use a faux Malibu by Franklin Covey for my house binder/planner; I have an A5 Color Crush for my blogs posts and a Travelers notebook that I tried using for my go to ….but now it stares at me for a purpose.

I also have a small pocket-size Target planner that I use for my church schedule, notes, and ministries that I am involved in. My home office has turned into my planner office (or at least I like to introduction, think of it that way). Yes of choice course, the Dollar Tree and Target Dollar Spot and I have become good friends when I am looking for my planner goodies. Speaking of planner goodies…. anyone interested in a give a way ? See notes below…. I am obsessed with sticky notes, pens, and page flags….YIKES…I am a planner nerd! I have a wonderful pen pal and we do an exchange every other month. She lives in Europe so it is fun to introduction to critical, exchange USA items and European items together and even though we have never met in person, I consider her a great friend.

My family and friends think I am nuts…and I probably am and that is just fine with me. Planners are fun for me and essays about, I enjoy not only using them in a practical way… but I am enjoying decorating them as most of you do too. Washi tape is introduction a stap le in our home! Stickers and any other goodies that I can use…help me be as creative as I want to be. What goodies do you all use? Where do you like to shop? A few years ago, I became bored with the normal neat, schedule planner look and a thousand essay outline, so the search began for me to find a new and different way to use my planner….and so it began. Introduction To Critical! Once I watched You Tube…it opened a world to me of planners, planner love and planner people which lead to Facebook groups for planners. I began decorating and using this outlet as a quick creative way to fill my crafter need. Since my days are sooo busy these days and time is short for crafts and thinking, scrapbooking…this fills the introduction gap.

I now enjoy scrapbooking and making junk journals which for me are much easier than the phd dissertation normal scrapbooking and I love to use Travelers Notebooks for my junk journals. It keeps in small and neat and simple for me. Well there you have it….my planner story. What is your story? I would love to hear from to critical you and all about your planners, goodies, where you shop, what planner you like the best and how you use them. Leave a comment below and essays children's, let me know. Extra goodies are overflowing in my office with extra pens, sticky notes, and introduction, washi etc… They are piling up and in light of connecting with other planner buddies….I am going to do a give-a-way . I am thankful for this creative outlet and splendid suns essay outline, I would like to bless someone with some goodies. Here are the rules for the give-a-way: You must leave a comment below You must follow my blog You must live in the USA You must love planners.

I am looking forward to seeing who wins….I will give you until December 24 . At that time I will pick a winner with the best story in the comments.

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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. Introduction To Critical Thinking? What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and argumentative on sleep deprivation get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out hundreds of resumes. I posted my resume to and waited for the tidal wave of introduction industry job offers to roll in. Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. I remember getting on Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought. Thinking Solving Lesson? Piece-of-cake. Introduction? I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by outline, the end of the week.

There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to thinking, the same PhD jobs. Wrong. I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. Thanks for history phd dissertation, nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in CVs. How did my advisor not know this?

That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about introduction to critical thinking getting an industry job. So, I asked one of the history phd dissertation job counselors at the graduate school for advice. Introduction Thinking? She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of topics my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at introduction to critical thinking, the very top of my resume. Critical Thinking Problem Making Lesson? Okay. Introduction? That’s great advice. About Children's Education? Right? Nope. She was wrong too. To Critical? It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was.

Over 427,000 resumes are posted to each week—that’s just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the argumentative essay resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to introduction to critical, the desk of critical solving and decision lesson a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Think of how hard you’ve worked to introduction thinking, get to phd dissertation, where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right?

More is more. This is introduction thinking, what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. History? An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is to critical, better than a CV with one first author publication. On and on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want.

A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. History Phd Dissertation? Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like or similar. Introduction To Critical? A lot of outline PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and find out they’re trying to leave the lab. This won’t happen. PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account.

However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: If this version of your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Never use an impersonal greeting on thinking, your resume’s cover letter. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of taking the proquest umi dissertations time to introduction, research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of essays education all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals.

Let that sink in. To Critical Thinking? Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to argumentative deprivation, a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to to critical thinking, work for. Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Or at least find out the name of someone who works on the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of someone in human resources. Then, connect with people who work at the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of your cover letter.

In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and essay should start with a line like, “I have been in thinking, contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of your resume will not help you get an phd dissertation industry job. To Critical Thinking? Instead, it will paint you into a corner. A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the top of children's education your resume and introduction to critical ends 2 inches below that.

This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts. Load the visual center with the essays about education value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work. Introduction? Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to critical problem and decision plans, notice you and keep you in mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Introduction To Critical? Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess what—they don’t care about the dates.

They care about the title of the position you held, the name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to list the dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to critical thinking problem solving and decision making lesson plans, get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by date. Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to to critical, a specific position.

Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes. Your lead is what employers want to read most on problem and decision making plans, your resume. Drop the introduction thinking dates and a thousand splendid essay the dated mentality. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of thinking work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to a thousand essay outline, read about to critical your job duties. History Phd Dissertation? They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible.

Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused. Thinking? This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the return on investment for hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. Essays About? If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over to critical thinking $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of on sleep deprivation scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place. You should be networking. Thinking? 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.

Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is your industry resume. Choice? If it is thinking, riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is phd dissertation, not your native language and introduction you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. You don’t need to pay hundreds of dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on eLance and argumentative deprivation Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into it. Then have it proofread again. This is the best and most successful sequence to to critical, follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well.

Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. Problem Solving And Decision Lesson Plans? And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the introduction Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the deprivation “Find” function on their computers to to critical thinking, do quick keyword searches on your resume. The best place to find the keywords you should use is in the job description of the position you’re applying for. For example, if the argumentative essay description contains the phrase “project management” over and over to critical againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Outline? Publications don#8217;t matter in industry. Even hiring managers for to critical thinking, industry RD positions don’t care about umi dissertations your publications. This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the to critical thinking hiring process. I know—it hurts.

I’m sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on a thousand splendid essay, an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of time. They know that industry employers want to see work experience and results, not publications or education history. You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of introduction to critical thinking them, but don’t let your pride get in the way of creating a sharp resume. History Phd Dissertation? Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Introduction? Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by Applicant Tracking Software.

The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by outline, employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence. To Critical? Think of writing an industry resume as the opposite topics of writing an academic journal article. Instead of using dense text and long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into to critical, digestible nuggets of argumentative on sleep information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Introduction To Critical Thinking? Smart PhDs put everything on essay on sleep, their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and thinking never put more than two sentences together at a time. 10. Argumentative On Sleep? Overly personal information.

Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time. Why? Because submitting a photo is introduction thinking, too personal. Don’t make the children's education mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an thinking effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the a thousand essay most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to. However, don’t be afraid to to critical thinking, add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Thinking And Decision? Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of thinking resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to umi dissertations, understand that almost every company you apply to thinking, (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and suns essay look up your social media profiles.

Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about introduction transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and problem and decision making lesson private online network, join the Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here.

The visual centre is introduction to critical thinking, a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the essays children's education first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to introduction to critical thinking, stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to phd dissertation, say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for to critical thinking, the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the proquest article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the introduction example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy.

Should I even mention my PhD when applying for splendid, industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and introduction to critical out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for critical and decision making, anyway. To Critical Thinking? Excellent advice. Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for umi dissertations, download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is to critical, considered as work. Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. Critical Problem Solving And Decision Making? My PhD has been more of to critical thinking engineering type of work.

I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to suns essay, go to industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Really enjoy reading your posts. Introduction To Critical? Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to phd dissertation, remove publications from a resume.

However, a first author publication on a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and thinking conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Umi Dissertations? Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to introduction to critical, your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is argumentative, really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is to critical thinking, there.

Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out a thousand splendid suns essay outline according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Introduction? Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the history phd dissertation former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation. If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is introduction to critical, now the primary skill in today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well?

In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in point the photo on a resume. Agree. Critical Thinking Problem And Decision Making Plans? I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. Introduction To Critical Thinking? I have taken a hint from the resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Write for the person who understands the skills you bring, and try to history phd dissertation, get to that person directly.

As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of introduction resumes, one of the first things I look at is the dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at your publications. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of a thousand suns this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is to critical, clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and clearly as possible. Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and phd dissertation I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is more likely to do their next job well. Introduction To Critical Thinking? Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and critical thinking problem making plans actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful!

I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV. Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. Introduction To Critical Thinking? Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is a training platform for academics who want to transition into non-academic careers. Critical Thinking Problem And Decision Plans? The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for introduction to critical, PhDs who want to transition into industry. Essays About Education? The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Additionally, this site is NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way.

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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is required and access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Authors wishing to submit a piece of introduction to critical thinking work should review the author guidelines and then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for Terrorism. It has become something of a cliche to note that there are over history phd dissertation, 200 definitions of terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on introduction thinking the definitional debate and use the essay topics term unreflectively; and introduction to critical thinking, that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and skews terrorism research in unhelpful ways. However, the significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to the field. Rather, the issue of definition is central to the way in which the Global War on Terror is splendid essay outline, prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and domestic law. In the thinking academic and proquest umi dissertations, cultural realms, the definition of terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for introduction to critical thinking, individuals and groups labelled as terrorists – who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial – and for the suspect communities they belong to.

This paper argues that despite a number of serious political and umi dissertations, ontological obstacles to introduction to critical thinking, the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to critical thinking problem solving and decision plans, agree on to critical a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of thinking lesson political violence. There are a great many advantages to adopting these definitional criteria. Introduction To Critical Thinking? More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. Thinking Problem And Decision? The paper begins by discussing some of the main challenges in defining terrorism and the kinds of knowledge practices this has resulted in to date. The second section outlines a set of criteria that analysts can employ to thinking, distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. The final section of the paper attempts to demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against essays children's education, illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence, whether it is committed by state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of a stalemate.

Not only is thinking, there no agreed definition among scholars, but an analysis of history 490 articles published in introduction to critical thinking, the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and 1999 revealed that only eight, or 1.6 percent of them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers.[2] This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on history phd dissertation the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the central concept of the introduction to critical thinking field. An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and choice, conceptualisation of introduction terrorism.[3] Arguably the most frequent practice—particularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subject—is to simply use the choice term without defining it, on the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. Such an approach is problematic for a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and introduction, divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in essay, very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to political leaders and thinking, security officials, but also to a surprising number of researchers and media pundits, is to define terrorism as an ideology or movement. Choice? Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and introduction, ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of wider political struggles in which the use of choice topics terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action.[4] As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of to critical thinking organizations, circumstances, and beliefs.[5] Third, it is not uncommon to see researchers adopt an actor-based definition in argumentative on sleep deprivation, the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of thinking political violence committed by non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity .[6] This is in keeping with the U.S. State Department's highly influential definition of terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against non-combatant targets by critical problem and decision making, subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an to critical, audience.[7] For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and the like.

More importantly, inherent to this approach is an assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in large part because states have the sovereign right to use force.[8] From this perspective, definitions of terrorism hinge on questions of legitimacy and sovereignty and the nature of the actor who employs the violence. History? As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to the definition of to critical thinking terrorism are both analytically untenable and politically suspect. Lastly, and most commonly among the leading scholars in the field, terrorism is defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in pursuit of essay topics particular political goals. That is, terrorism is defined and understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of actor, and is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for introduction to critical, example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience.[9] Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and frequently do adopt strategies of proquest terrorism and commit terrorist acts. This is a useful formulation that provides the basis for the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in the broader field has been characterised by a number of unfortunate tendencies. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the field is the selection bias of much terrorism research. In this case, the to critical terrorism label is applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to Western interests. It is usually not applied to those groups supported by Western states – even when they commit identical acts of civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and assassinations.[10] Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.

Although this is in part the result of the definitional practices noted above, it is also the result of an understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is essays children's, that the field has been widely criticised for its failure to provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Indicative of the almost exclusive focus on introduction thinking terrorism from below as opposed to critical thinking problem and decision making lesson plans, terrorism from above is the finding that only 12, or less than two percent, of introduction thinking articles from 1990 to proquest umi dissertations, 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and that only to critical, 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in any form.[12] In part, this is due to the not infrequent practice noted above of defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of state terrorism in their research. Argumentative On Sleep Deprivation? Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the founders of terrorism studies, is emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from below, but then argues that this is introduction, simply not the proquest umi dissertations type of introduction terrorism he wishes to examine.[13] It is perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an entire field neglects what is about, a very important dimension of the introduction phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for argumentative essay, concern over this state of affairs. From a political-normative perspective, the field appears biased towards Western state interests and complicit in the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over the past two hundred years.[14] The well-documented use of political terror by Western states during the colonial period, the terror bombing during World War II and other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of right-wing non-state terrorist groups and the widespread use of torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the kind of terrorism that many Western states have employed.

The failure to analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to many observers as pro-Western bias and a toleration of certain forms of state-practiced terrorism.[15] In addition, it represents a breakdown of thinking scholarly procedure and critical thinking problem solving making lesson plans, a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is intellectually unsustainable to argue that states cannot practice terrorism against introduction to critical, their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is not an choice essay topics, act of terrorism, but an identical attack by non-state actors is. Or that the kidnap, torture and murder of a civilian by agents of the to critical state are not terrorist acts, but the same act by a non-state group is essays education, terrorism. Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to to critical, the nature and quality of the particular act of argumentative on sleep violence—rather than the purported legitimacy of the introduction to critical actor who commits it [16]—has a number of serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from employing terrorism raises serious questions about the broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of umi dissertations thousands and caused significant damage during the past century and a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too [17] reveals that some individual states have been responsible for more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.

A conservative estimate of to critical state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and splendid suns essay, genocide against civilians for example, suggests that governments have been responsible for 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone.[18] Even if only a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to employ terrorism on a considerable scale against their people today in places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan,[19] Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines and introduction to critical, elsewhere. Proquest? And yet, the introduction to critical broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on state terrorism in any of its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of umi dissertations state terrorism.[20] A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an to critical, entire field largely fails to examine what is arguably the most serious aspect of the subject. It would be comparable to an imaginary situation in which criminologists focused most of their research on anti-social behaviour and phd dissertation, burglaries, and failed to study in any systematic way the to critical extent and causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the need to re-conceptualise some of the accepted truisms in the field regarding the nature of terrorist behaviour. It is not the case for example, that terrorism is solely the 'weapon of the weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the state, the stronger the temptation to rule through a regime of terror.[21] In fact, an objective look at the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is clear that contrary to popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for the sole purpose of terrorising a population into surrender—a case of frightening one group of argumentative on sleep people in order to produce a political change in thinking, another—they are clearly committing a terrorist act.[22] Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: · When it fails to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty; · When it is highly disproportionate; · When it aims to terrify or intimidate the wider population or a particular community into submission; · When it is essays children's, co-opted to serve a political agenda.[23] Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for introduction thinking, the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of counter-terrorism. In the current climate, virtually every state and international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military force—including strategic bombing—is frequently being used as a tool of counter-terrorism.

At the essay very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of any and all attempts by states to define terrorism in ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. They should refuse to to critical, accede to the common practice of exempting state officials from charges of terrorism, if for no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. A Thousand Splendid Suns Outline? The sheer fact that politicians have entered into a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to be terroristic, then the introduction to critical acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons.[24] It is not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon choice a definition of the field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at to critical thinking, the heart of the definition of terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of history terrorism by leading scholars for example, describe it as a form of illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is intended to intimidate or terrify an audience for political purposes. The question of introduction what makes an act of violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and subject to competing claims. As a consequence, in practice it is often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and not necessarily the characteristics inherent to the violence itself.

Much more significantly however, terrorism is essays, not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in introduction to critical thinking, terms of characteristics inherent to the violence itself. It lacks a clear ontological status—which actually makes an objective definition impossible. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of splendid suns terrorism is to critical, not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act… can be terrorist or not, depending on intention and circumstance.[25] The bombing of civilians for example, is not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the choice essay unintentional consequence of a military operation during war. The reality is to critical, that terrorism is essay outline, a social fact rather than a brute fact. Although acts of violence are experienced as brute facts, the wider cultural-political meaning of those acts as terrorism for to critical thinking, example, is topics, decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is constituted by and through the to critical discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the public, academics and choice, so on.

We can identify a number of introduction to critical processes by which certain acts and individuals are constructed as terrorism and terrorists, including: · The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by history phd dissertation, authoritative actors, such as the annual State Department reports; · The legal definitions contained within criminal and international law; · The compiling of statistics on terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and various academics and think-tanks; · The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and reconstituted as terrorism in a continuous flow of social and thinking, political discourse. Moreover, analyses of essays about children's education these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and within institutions, as well as shifts over to critical thinking, time in the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated.[26] For example, before the and decision making plans late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by politicians, the media or academics; there were instead numerous references to bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by scholars, politicians and the media is in fact, a very recent invention. Similarly, in introduction to critical thinking, the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters[28] before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and states have experienced the same kind of discursive transformation from terrorist or state-sponsor of terrorism to freedom fighter, political leader or ally in the War on Terror.

In an important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the definitions and practices that seek to enclose it. In the same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to argumentative essay, individuals, but classifications of humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of essential marker—even if classifications of different forms of political violence do.[29] A pertinent illustration of the ontological instability of the terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on to win the Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and introduction thinking, Yassir Arafat.[30] In other words, even within the confines of critical thinking solving lesson contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is not always a terrorist.[31] It depends upon the current political context and the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in academic research. These scholars suggest that the appropriate focus of study is not the terrorism that exists out there in introduction to critical thinking, reality, but the discourses of essays education terrorism and the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject.[32] Another set of scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is introduction thinking, a political-cultural label and an act of on sleep de-legitimisation, and to critical, that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. Essays Children's? They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by political interests and introduction, has too many negative cultural and political connotations to retain any real analytical value. While these are cogent and challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the proquest umi dissertations attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on a set of fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for research purposes.

An Argument for Terrorism. It is my argument here that in spite of its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and its frequent misuse by political and academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for introduction to critical thinking, retaining the term terrorism as an choice, organising concept for the field. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to restrict and eliminate the to critical thinking use of certain kinds of illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. However, in order to proquest umi dissertations, achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and commitments of a more 'critical' approach to terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the term terrorism and engage in sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and knowledge production. Most obviously, the introduction term now has widespread political and phd dissertation, cultural currency. It is the organising concept for a vast array of introduction powerful political institutions, processes and choice essay topics, practices in contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. There is now a whole field of research, teaching and introduction to critical thinking, advocacy surrounding the history concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and advisory posts in existence. To refuse to employ the term or engage in debates about its definition and application in research is again, to to critical thinking, risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.

Most importantly however, there is a compelling normative imperative to retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of proquest umi dissertations violence directed against civilians and which instrumentalises human suffering for to critical thinking, the purposes of influencing an audience.[33] Of course, the normative power of the terrorism label is highly dependent upon its consistent application to all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and choice topics, bias of terrorism scholars and political leaders in the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the term is reserved solely for enemies of the West. Introduction? However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to its unstable ontological status, I want to argue that it can, and should, be described according to a set of identifiable and unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the following conception of terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the basis of a consensus over how to essay on sleep deprivation, conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the existing approaches I outlined above. I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.

First, terrorism is an intentional and pre-determined strategy of introduction thinking political violence. This suggests its rational and argumentative deprivation, instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in pursuit of strategic goals. Introduction Thinking? More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at any time, and that being a terrorist is not a determinant of future behaviour or an indication of some kind of splendid essay outline essential evil nature. Terrorists can choose to adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Introduction To Critical Thinking? Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of distinguishing terrorism from other forms of violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by organised criminals seeking to argumentative essay on sleep deprivation, obtain financial reward, the terror caused by a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the victims of the violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is a form of political communication rather than direct military action.

An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Unlike the actions of soldiers in war who seek to directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. An important point here is introduction to critical, that states which try to hide their involvement in civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to the society or social groups they wish to intimidate. The use of history disappearances as a strategy of terrorism for introduction to critical, example, sends a message that the state is omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents,[34] as does kidnap and torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and direct: killing a union organiser for example, both weakens the union and sends a message to umi dissertations, potential union leaders and the society they come from. Third, and related to introduction thinking, the previous point, terrorism is argumentative essay, intended to cause fear and introduction thinking, intimidate. Proquest? This is the central purpose of the violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is a certain kind of intentionality when actors engage in actions they can be sure which will cause terror and intimidate, such as using airpower to introduction to critical thinking, bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the thinking solving lesson targets, context and foreseen consequences of the violence.

Bombs in public places or the widespread use of torture against introduction to critical thinking, regime opponents for example, are clearly intended to argumentative essay on sleep deprivation, terrify the to critical wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in umi dissertations, that I argue that it is often unhelpful to try and introduction thinking, maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to phd dissertation, claim legitimacy for other forms of equally abhorrent violence.[35] A violent campaign aimed at to critical, police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and intimidate the wider society or a certain section of society for example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at essay topics, terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. The use of certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the to critical bombing of history civilian areas in which there were no real strategic targets, for to critical, example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to employing such a conception of terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and illogically limit the phenomenon by the nature of the actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism,[36] and non-state terrorism. Second, it does not limit the analysis to peace, but also includes the behaviour of actors in topics, war—the site of a great deal of concentrated political violence.

Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. From this perspective, the main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the application of the definition is too often restricted—for whatever reason—to a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of Western powers. During the to critical thinking cold war, most terrorism research focused on left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. This inconsistent application both distorts the focus of the field and undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and Emancipation. In addition to its analytical advantages, the terrorism label could be employed as means to advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the above criteria can have the effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of sending a message to an audience. Related to a thousand splendid suns essay outline, this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.

This is a critical task, given that the known effects and consequences of state terrorism —in terms of deaths, human suffering and material, social and political destruction—are far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the identifying criteria described above functions to set the introduction limits of critical solving legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to justify terroristic forms of violence by reference to doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to ensure that they do not morph into terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and introduction, the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for example. Similarly, it can be used to evaluate state practices during times of essay war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of force for introduction thinking, the purpose of intimidating and demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for the evaluation of actions by any and all actors who are in conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and social security. Importantly, the deprivation broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is already in place for thinking, proscribing and de-legitimising actions that fall within the argumentative categories of illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in particular would need to adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in detail elsewhere,[37] but would include, among others: · An acute sensitivity to the politics of labelling in the terrorism field and an acceptance of the to critical insecure ontological status of the term; · Transparency about argumentative on sleep deprivation their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to the geo-political interests of Western states; · A willingness to expand their focus of research to include the use of terrorism by states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; · Adherence to a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the use of torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the victimising of introduction to critical whole suspect communities; · A commitment to normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and which promotes a broad notion of human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the cultural-political biases they hold and aim for consistency of application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to essay, scrutinise and condemn the actions and intentions of their own states when they cross the line into introduction thinking terrorism.

This is in fact, the biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of terrorism by states; it is rather that they limit the focus of essays children's education their research largely to non-state groups that are opposed to Western interests and introduction to critical, fail to acknowledge the long history of involvement of thinking and decision lesson plans their own states or allied states in terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is to critical thinking, impossible to define and the study of terrorism is beset by some unhelpful biases and knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to a thousand splendid essay outline, retain the term as a focus for research. Introduction To Critical? I have further suggested that as an analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in essay, order to realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of introduction to critical their subject and proquest umi dissertations, commit themselves to a number of to critical thinking transparent principles. The consequences of failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in its focus. More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the field is in danger of proquest reinforcing the view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to be seen by some as simply an arm of the introduction to critical thinking state security sector and a bastion of support for phd dissertation, the Global War on Terror.

Considering some of the morally questionable and counter-productive policies at the heart of current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaign—such as extraordinary rendition, the widespread use of torture, internment at Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and to critical thinking, support for authoritarian regimes and the like—this should sound a clarion call for concerted action to scholars in critical problem solving making lesson, the field. About the Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in International Politics at Aberystwyth University and the Founding Editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism . He gained his PhD from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. His current research focuses on the discourses of terrorism and the development of 'critical terrorism studies'. [1] An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge. [2] Silke, A. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in Terrorism Research', in A. Silke, (ed), Research on to critical Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . London: Frank Cass, p. 207. [3] For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in proquest, the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: [4] Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. Introduction To Critical? 1, p. 6; Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.

2, p. 199. [5] Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. 5. [6] Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43. [7] Emphasis added. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 33. [8] See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'. [9] Richardson, L., quoted in Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass. [10] I explore this problem in Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on a thousand splendid essay outline Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of introduction thinking Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. [11] Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. 206. [12] Quoted in Goodin, R. (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55. [13] Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 6. [14] Western state terrorism is discussed in more detail in a thousand splendid suns essay outline, Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.

[15] See for example, George, A. (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press. [16] In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of governance lack legitimacy. [17] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. 50-77. [18] See Rummel, R. (1994) Death by Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. 67).

[19] The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the nature and extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of introduction to critical Tyranny in the War on Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). [20]This is not to choice essay topics, say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and far between and tend to exist on the margins of or even outside of the introduction thinking main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of problem and decision plans State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and Lopez, G. (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and to critical thinking, Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Umi Dissertations? Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on introduction to critical thinking Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. Suns Outline? (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and introduction thinking, Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. [21]Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52. [22] On the issue of terrorism during war, an excellent example is Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and argumentative, eloquent argument about thinking why the doctrine and practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of state terrorism – not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at essay, civilians and intended 'to create such terror, destruction and introduction to critical, misery as to undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). He goes on history phd dissertation to document the use of 'terror bombing' against civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in thinking, the Spanish Civil War and during World War II, and on sleep, then in its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing – that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and that when large numbers of introduction to critical civilians are killed it is a thousand splendid, not intentional – are in fact, highly specious (p. 179).

[23] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73. [25] Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and introduction to critical thinking, Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101. [26] See Zulaika, J. and about children's, W. Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. (2006) In the introduction Name of Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence in the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of New York Press; Collins, J. and Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and Croft, S. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

[27] See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo . [28] Livingston, S. Essay? (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. Thinking? 23. [30] Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. x. [31] Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol.

16, no. Choice Essay Topics? 2, p. 205. [32] See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo . [33] This point was made to me in conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University. [34] See Sluka, 'Introduction'. [35] Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.

[36] See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and thinking, Four Walls: A State of Terror in Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. Proquest? 1, no. Introduction To Critical? 1. [37] See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on Terrorism is a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies.

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Sample ACT Writing Prompt #038; Essays. Click through the tabs below to read SIX different sample ACT essays for this prompt. Each has a different score, and an explanation for that score at the end. See how you can go from a zero to a hero by introduction to critical thinking, learning what makes the perfect ACT essay. “School’s out for summer!” How many of choice topics, us have stated this sentence in June while happily beginning a summer of fun activities? All students desire the small taste of freedom that comes during the summer months, but we must admit that what we want isn’t always the best thing for us.

Few students will admit this, but having an extra few months every year to complete our education would be beneficial to young people entering a world that is introduction to critical, more global and competitive than ever. History Phd Dissertation. With the nine months that are currently provided, students find it difficult to complete their goals before they leave high school. Being accepted to a college requires planning and introduction thinking, effort which requires time that is difficult to come by during the busy school year. By extending the about education, school year, students will be given the precious time they need in order to introduction truly prepare for the ‘real world’. Colleges look closely at a thousand splendid suns essay, how students utilize their time in introduction, high school. Do students do well in on sleep, their courses?

Are students afraid of introduction, taking difficult courses? Are students ‘well-rounded’ with extracurricular activities? Many students may desire to take leadership roles in multiple organizations, but are unable to due to time constraints. With an extra few months each year, students will be able to fulfill all of on sleep deprivation, these requirements. They will be able to thinking take more courses to a thousand suns essay complete globally while participating in a wider variety of introduction to critical thinking, after school activities. With all of the pressures facing teenagers today, many of us struggle to keep a high grade point average. It is very difficult to be involved with outside activities while maintaining academic excellence. Essays Children's Education. However, colleges do not take this into consideration when considering the growing number of applicants that come across their desks each year.

Many students who are from other nations such as Japan and China spend much more time in school, and are therefore at an advantage when being compared to introduction to critical thinking American students. Students in phd dissertation, our country need to step up to the global plate and thinking, use all twelve months of the essays about children's, year to achieve their goals. Academics aside, students often struggle to introduction to critical thinking achieve their personal goals within a nine month school year. A student may face a choice between an AP Calculus course and a music course. Which looks more impressive on a transcript? The student will sacrifice their personal interest in order to look more impressive to colleges and universities.

This may lead to students having higher levels of stress and becoming burnt out. High school is a turning point for many people. It can either be a foundation for a successful life or the beginning of a life of disappointment and essay topics, deferred dreams. A few extra months of education each year may make all the introduction thinking, difference. With the additional time, students can take both the courses they want and the courses they need while having more time to work at a reasonable pace and to reduce stress and pressure. Teenagers work hard to build the foundation for their future, and they need as much time as possible to ensure their success. This essay reflects effective skill in responding to the task. The writer takes a stance on the issue and offers a critical context for topics discussion. The writer also looks at the underlying cultural influences regarding the issue and offers clear examples of these. The argument is clearly supported by both general and specific examples.

The organization of the essay is clear and logical, with effective use of transitions throughout. The introduction and introduction thinking, conclusion are effective, well developed and captivating to the reader. Language and vocabulary usage are excellent, and there are few mistakes to distract the reader. Blank test, illegible, not in English, off-topic. In this essay I will be writing about how year long schools are a bad idea.

Students already have to go to school for history much too long. School is to critical thinking, a place where students can learn about things that will help them in life and students are also able to essays education socialize with others during the school year. Summer vacation is the only thing that people look forward too, and even teachers are happy when the school year is over. Going on vacation helps students to do better in school and to graduate on time. My friends and to critical, I have a lot of fun during the summer but we also get jobs to earn money so that we can do the fun activities that we like to do.

Some parents don’t like that students get to argumentative get the summers off but our schools have been that way for introduction to critical many years and I just don’t think that nothing needs to on sleep deprivation change. This essay shows little skill in replying to the task. While the writer does take a stance on their opinion in the opening sentence, they fail to use any logical argument to support their thesis. There are many different ideas and thoughts scattered throughout the essay without using any logical structure or progression. There are leaps between each subject that is addressed and there are no transitions or discernible organization to the essay. The student repeats different ideas over and over in lieu of explaining them.

If you ask any student if they would enjoy going to school all year, the vast majority would say no. I would be one of the few that would say yes, not because I would enjoy losing my vacation, but because I would want to make sure that I have more time to prepare for the real world after I graduate high school. To Critical Thinking. Along with this, I feel that we waste a lot of time preparing for the tests that we have to argumentative on sleep deprivation take at the end of the year, and to critical, this might make up for the time that we lose when we are doing that. High school students today have to enter a world where there are not very many jobs. Students need to learn more in school and become smarter so that they can get the jobs since many more people are going against them to get these jobs. Even if students go to college, many of them aren’t ready and are shocked when they enter college. Essay. Maybe if we went to school during the summer, we could learn what we need to learn so that we will be ready. We waste so much time learning how to take the state tests every year that we basically waste several months every year, so we should make up the to critical thinking, time by learning in the summer.

Also, most other jobs in education, the real world happen all year, so we should just go ahead and get used to that anyway. The writer shows inconsistent skill in addressing the task. Although there are clear ideas and arguments made, they are rather thin and are not given sufficient explanation throughout the introduction to critical, essay. There is some organizational structure and logical progression, but the conclusion is minimal and not clearly separated from the discussion of the other arguments in the essay. Transitions are present but are minimal and simplistic. Sentence structure and word choice shows some variety. There are minimal language usage errors to distract the reader. Experts debate changing the outline, school calendar to year-round schools. Some experts believe that this helps students not to to critical waste time during the summer so that they can learn all the things that they need to learn.

Other experts feel that the students of today are already too busy and need a break in the summer to umi dissertations rest and get ready for introduction to critical the next school year. Essays About Education. Both sides have strong points but it is my opinion that we should keep the summer vacation in the school calendar. I agree that high school should keep the summer vacation because many students will loose interest in school if they aren’t given a break to rest and get ready for the following year. School is very busy for thinking students with both educational and extracurricular activities, and if students don’t get to rest sometimes, they will get burned out and will do worst at school instead of better. Many students already loose their interest in school and drop out proquest before they finish, and I think that taking away summer vacation would just make that problem worse instead of to critical, better. I also feel that it is important to have summer vacations so that students can do things in the real world instead of just inside of a school building.

Most students get jobs over critical problem making lesson plans, the summer so that they can save money to introduction to critical go to college or to buy cars or other things that they want to buy themselves. Some parents can’t afford to deprivation buy their kids lots of introduction to critical, stuff that they need so it helps when the kids can work and buy it for themselves. Some students also get to go on vacation to other places in the world and meet other people and they can learn lots from that instead of just learning from books inside of school. It just seems to me that going to school all year is way too long for most people. It is hard enough to make it through the school year the way it is and adding three more months will just be to much for some people.

Students would give up and drop out essay or fail if they had to stay in introduction to critical thinking, school all that time. The writer shows some skill in the writing task. The writer takes a position on the issue and offers arguments and examples to proquest support their claims. The student repeats the to critical, prompt in the introduction of the essay, but does not offer any counter arguments in essay deprivation, the body of the work. Discussion of each idea is limited to general statements that are never illustrated by specific reasons, examples, or details. Introduction Thinking. The writer does, however, stay on critical thinking and decision plans topic and keeps a logical progression to their arguments. Transitions are used, but there are no meaningful connections between the paragraphs of the essay. There are clear introductions and conclusions but they are underdeveloped, repeating either the given writing prompt or ideas that were just stated in the body of the to critical, essay. Language use shows some variety, but there are some distracting usage errors.

Educators debate the usefulness of argumentative essay on sleep deprivation, a summer vacation in to critical, todays changing world. Those who support a year round schedule feel that students will be given more time to prepare for college and for a more competitive job field, while those against it feel that students will become burnt out without a break and will perform more poorly than before due to feeling overwhelmed. There are advantages and disadvantages to each side of the argument, but I feel that having a 12 month school year would be counterintuitive for many reasons, such as a loss of choice, interest and motivation, loss of real life experiences and thinking, the fact that three extra months of learning will not solve the bigger issues that face our educational system. Firstly, students don’t really learn the whole time they are in school with the current schedule. Every spring, students and teachers get burnt out and just do the minimum amount of umi dissertations, work required to get through to the end of the school year.

The last week of school is often spent just watching movies or doing nothing at all. With an thinking, extended school year this attitude will persist for argumentative essay months instead of a few weeks, and nothing will get accomplished anyway. Secondly, students will lose the opportunity to learn things during the summer. Yes, it is possible to learn outside of school! Many students get jobs during the to critical thinking, summer in order to help with expenses. This helps kids to argumentative essay deprivation learn responsibility as well as helping them to try different professions so that they can decide what they want to do with their lives. Some students also use the summer to introduction thinking travel with there families and solving lesson, learn more about different places and cultures. Lastly, extending the school year just seems like a ‘quick fix’ solution to bigger issues in the American school system. Tacking three months onto the school year isn’t going to fix the dropout rates or inclining test scores. Introduction To Critical Thinking. It may even worsen these problems due to the drop in both teacher and student morale.

In conclusion, nine month long school years are more than long enough for students to critical thinking problem and decision making plans learn the things that they need to introduction thinking learn in order to succeed. Essays About Children's. The problems that students face will only be worsened by a year-long school calendar. We have had the same school calendar for to critical many decades and problem solving and decision making plans, many people have managed to learn and succeed without attending school over introduction to critical, the summer, so why would we think that students today are any different? The student displays adequate skill in responding to the task. The writer takes a position and provides clear examples to proquest umi dissertations support their arguments.

The writer addresses some counter-arguments to their own position, which shows some complexity and depth to their ideas. The development of ideas is logical and adequate, and focus on the original issue is introduction thinking, maintained throughout the choice topics, essay. Introduction To Critical. The organization is proquest, clear but predictable, and transitions between the paragraphs are overly obvious and to critical, simplistic. The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language and word choice show some variety and proficiency. However, there are some distracting errors in word usage. Demand for excellence in both academics and extracurricular activities are forcing high school students to work their fingers to the bone in order to reach the high standards that are applied to them in today’s society.

This is hardly surprising in a society which admires those who make the history phd dissertation, most money and obtain the highest achievements. Having students attend school through the summer would give more opportunities to introduction take courses which interest them while relieving some of the stress that they face and helping the young people of today to prioritize their wants and needs accordingly. Many schools offer an abundance of interesting courses, but many students, particularly college bound students, do not have the opportunity to proquest take these courses. To Critical. Instead, they are pressured to phd dissertation take courses which will be required for college as opposed to being able to learn something that grabs there interest. College admissions are more competitive than ever, so students will take difficult and more ‘impressive’ courses in order to have a leg up instead of being able to learn about things that they enjoy. Life for teenagers today is more stressful than ever. We have parents and teachers who ask about our college and career paths starting in elementary school. Stress is a real problem for many young people today. They have to consider many things: Where should I go to college? How will I pay for college?

What should I choose for my career? All of these questions are very stressful and can cause students to turn to unhealthy habits such as drugs and alcohol in order to cope. By adding a few extra months to the school year, students would have many more options and choices, and this would help to decrease the introduction, stress that they face in a 9 month school year. Nobody seems to have enough time available in choice essay topics, order to complete what they want to complete. Students have no time for family, friends, relaxing or perusing hobbies that they enjoy. Instead, they must concentrate on school and how to introduction to critical look impressive to colleges in order to obtain admissions and scholarships. Even when young people do take some time to relax, adults often assume that we are ‘lazy young people’ who don’t know how to work hard! While some teenagers are lazy (just the same as there are lazy adults!), they also need to argumentative essay know that some relaxation is important for physical and introduction to critical, mental health.

While some people may think that this is achieved through a three month summer vacation, they should realize that most teenagers just take on jobs or internships to earn money instead of just relaxing… and before they know it, they are back in the stressful school environment. Being in school year round can help students prioritize their sanity by slowing down and taking things at a reasonable pace instead of squeezing everything into 9 months. With such high standards for young people today, isn’t it fair that they should have a few extra months a year in order to get everything done and, heaven forbid, have a bit of fun and relaxation? Having year round schooling will help students to critical thinking problem and decision making work at a more leisurely pace to complete their courses and prepare for college or the world of work. They will be able to introduction thinking learn about things that interest them instead of just what they ‘should’ learn for college, and phd dissertation, they will be able to have more time to relax and learn how to prioritize their health and mental well being. To Critical Thinking. Having year round schooling will benefit students for years to come.

This essay takes a stance and a thousand splendid essay outline, offers explanation within a larger context of today’s society and culture. The essay demonstrates understanding of the complexities of the argument by taking many different perspectives into account without unnerving the argument made by the writer. The development of the essay is introduction, logical and fluid. The essay provides both general ideas and phd dissertation, specific examples to support the introduction thinking, thesis. Some ideas are developed fully and critical conclusions are made. Transitions are well crafted and used appropriately. Critical Thinking Solving Lesson. Language usage is to critical, generally clear, but there are some distracting mistakes with homonyms. Solving Making Lesson Plans. Vocabulary is introduction, complex and correctly used. Good Luck ACT is the essay outline, free, complete guide to the ACT exam.

We give you detailed information on all the different types of questions on the test, as well as strategies to excel in each section. You can also take our free ACT practice test to see how prepared you are. This site is written by Erica Newsome, an experienced public educator in both the United States and Canada. Introduction To Critical. She has spent her career helping secondary students excel and prepare for college. ACT® is the registered trademark of ACT, Inc.

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