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Dlf essay und diskurs

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Ritual and Space in dlf essay und diskurs the Middle Ages. Proceedings of the Harlaxton Symposium 2009. edited by: Frances Andrews. Donington, Shaun Tyas, 2011 , ISBN: 9781907730092; 384pp.; Price: ?49.50. University of thesis bouw Cambridge.

Date accessed: 5 October, 2017. This collection of essays, first presented at und diskurs, the Harlaxton Symposium in best 2009, brings together a range of researchers interested in the intellectual and cultural history of Europe, under two equally broad and controversial themes. Frances Andrews's introduction goes some way to binding the ideas together. However, the contributors are strong empiricists, and the wider theoretical references are often lacklustre: the occasional nod to Bourdieu or Lefebvre usually does little more than situate the essay comfortably within the dlf essay und diskurs remit of the collection's themes: the real insights are in the historical details. Rather than take the essays in order, below I attempt to find some of the pollution parallels between the dlf essay essays so that their historical accounts might speak a theory of their own. Jill Caskey's essay on the ars sacra of Southern Italy introduces problems between analyses of mark twain essays different media which naturally prevail throughout the volume. Acknowledging the astounding contribution of Bruzelius's The Stones of Naples to medieval architectural studies, Caskey nonetheless argues that buildings and reliquaries should not be treated as having the same potential dynamic with kingly ritual.(1) In particular, she argues that the French character of Sicilian architecture under Angevin rule was less easily manipulated than the smaller, more quickly constructed sacred objects. A memorable image from the essay if is that of the Baresi running along the walls of their city, displaying their treasure during a siege. The besieging Normans interpreted the act as a barbaric lack of respect of such sacred objects – but Caskey reveals that the Byzantine roots of the Baresi culture suggest that in dlf essay und diskurs truth the scared citizens were using their artefacts apotropaically.

The construction of artefacts in the late 13th century, Caskey claims, was based on the premise that Capetian power needed to be reflected in Angevin power; that this was the strongest claim to sovereignty – not least because of the status of Paris as a new Jerusalem following the incorporation of the on a society term paper relics of Christ by dlf essay und diskurs Louis IX. Caskey focuses on the Christological-monarchical rendering of the reliquary of the True Cross, and thesis bouw, the locally inspired reliquary bust of St Januarius, a beautiful and excellently preserved example of the genre – and deftly shows how the aesthetics of both place them within the same visual world. Caskey also shows how the construction of these objects accompanied a shift in time. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs. The introduction of the Use of Paris into Bari in 1296 caused a ’shift in the grid of time and space‘, not least because of the very specific spatial referents in the Parisian calendar, such as the consecration of hunger essay Notre Dame, which replaced locations and festivities inherent in the Baresi calendar. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs. The analysis of the reliquaries is astute and considered, weaving art historical, Christological detail and political history, noting not only the aggrandising techniques of the Angevins, but also the antagonism this caused to the Baresi: in 1300, three insurgents killed the chaplain in pollution for class 5th his own church. The relations between town and church will no doubt be further unravelled through Caskey's future work on the processional role of the relics, perhaps in a manner not dissimilar from the examination of dlf essay und diskurs Lincoln by James Stokes in his contribution to best application the volume. Four essays focus on processions through late medieval English towns. Helen Carrel's contribution, despite the broad claim of its title ('The rituals of town crown relations in post black death England'), centres mainly on the relation of the Queen to petitioners hailing from dlf essay und diskurs towns she visited.

James Stokes' essay examines, in fine detail, the ritual of the Ascension in Lincoln, which notably was organised jointly by the town commune and the Cathedral chapter. John McKinnel looks at the Easter week in twain Durham, and the effect of the single source of sovereign power which existed there, the Prince Bishop. Finally Hans Kleineke revisits a monograph from 1932 entitled Some Disputes Between City and Cathedral Authorities of Exeter (2), in light of his extensive research into the records of und diskurs Exeter in the National Archives, to be published later this year. McKinnel's essay explores the thesis bouw inside/outside space of the Easter sequence in Durham, and the Christological symbolism. The liturgical rituals peculiar to the city, McKinnel argues, were developed so that lay participation in the rite increased as the week progressed, moving from the cloistered Maundy Thursday feasting, through the display of the cross to the expectant crowds on dlf essay und diskurs Good Friday, the miraculous appearance of the image of Christ and its presentation at the temporary Easter Sepulchre on hunger games Sunday, and finally Ascension day, and dlf essay, culminating in the procession of the relics of the northern Saints, including the gigantic relic-banner of St Cuthbert. Carrel, following Anthony Musson, claims that personal contact with and petitions of the sample Queen were not extraordinary events, but were part of the normal process of dlf essay und diskurs petitioning. However, she also claims that gifts (of mercy) from the Queen had to be spontaneous in order to still be considered extraordinary gifts.

These contradictory claims can easily be reconciled through an elementary understanding of the political economy of gifts familiar to anthropologists through Mauss, Malinowsky, et al – and thoroughly integrated into thesis bouw, medievalism by Patrick Geary, among others. Nonetheless, while the theory of ritual is unworked, the examples chosen are illuminating, and well summarised. Anne of dlf essay und diskurs Bohemia's visit to Shrewsbury and the subsequent Charter (1389) establishing a commune is carefully analysed through the image of the King and Queen in the historiated initial of the document itself. Nonetheless, the image remains enigmatic: is the queen delivering or receiving a petition, or is on environmental it the charter itself? The discussion of the Bristol petitioning is detailed, and Carrel has revitalised many of the otherwise lifeless names involved.

Further examination of the everyday functions of the Royal chambers, how the royal couple acted there, and und diskurs, how petitioners entered it would be central to developing the themes Carrel encounters. In terms of space alone, the fabric accounts of twain on politics these chambers would expose further the concepts of sexuality, gender, and political space.(3) Royal visits again feature in David Ditchburn's detailed study of the rituals surrounding the marriage of James II of Scotland to Mary of Guelders in 1449. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs. Ditchburn focuses for thesis bouw the most part on the tournament which took place several months prior to the marriage, arguing that this acted as a ritual defeat of the Burgundians by the Douglas knights, with the King acting as ultimate sovereign. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs. This is particularly evidenced by James II's snub of the Livingstones, the one-time regents during his minority. Hannes Kleineke's contribution introduces another royal visit, to Exeter in 1452, and describes the pageantry surrounding it. But whereas Carrel and McKinnel present unity and accord, Kleineke moves on to reveal discord and quarrels. The royal visit is presented as part of theories paper a move towards regal control, ultimately resolving the differences between town and und diskurs, church by exerting authority over the mayor and the elect, and thus becoming a new, unequivocal force in Exeter life. Bad Essay. This followed in the wake of disputes between the town and the chapter house which manifested themselves, at dlf essay und diskurs, least on one occasion, in consumer society term paper a physical confrontation during the ceremony of Ascension, the accounts of which Keineke deftly deciphers. The Feast of the Ascension is dlf essay und diskurs also the focus of James Stokes' essay.

Drawing heavily on his own edition of the application Lincolnshire volume of the Records of Early English Drama series, Stokes provides a good deal of und diskurs linguistic evidence that the dramatic event involved a procession up the main hill in Lincoln from the guildhall at the base to the cathedral and consumer term paper, castle at the summit, and that it involved mechanical elements for the Ascension of Mary at the end of the procession. These details flesh out a wider theory that the historical development of the ritual was one of an increasing focus on corporeality (in parallel with the increasing popularity of the Feast of Corpus Christi), and that the production became more centred on und diskurs the mechanical elements. The citizens' guild, that of St Anne, kept a priest at the chantry chapel of St Michael on the Hill to organise the annual procession and application, play. In 1488 the dlf essay priest was described as ingeniosus, from which Stokes makes intriguing, compelling parallels with that other ingeniator , Brunelleschi. The Easter liturgy and ingenious mechanics are also the themes of Andrew Jotischky's rich and fully researched history of the holy fire at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. While in best application Durham a temporary structure was built to mirror the tomb of Christ, in Jerusalem the church held the relic of the tomb itself, within the building erected on the site reputed to be Golgotha. The tomb and church were the focus of an important and dlf essay und diskurs, site-specific fire ritual, which Jotischky argues dates back to the 9th century. A lamp, taken into the tomb by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, was miraculously lit from within, and the fire then handed out to the lamps and candles of the attendant bishops and congregation. Jotischky's summary is based on 24 accounts in five languages, if we include the English sources, and sample bad essay, spanning the entire history of the rite. He is dlf essay und diskurs thus able not only to uncover its peculiarities, but also to suggest reasons for its historical origination and progression.

A potent example of this progression is the failure of the sample miracle in 1101 AD, following the expulsion of the Greek Orthodox priests by the newly installed Frankish crusaders. A ritual itself perhaps, this failure encouraged the dlf essay Franks to welcome the Greek and Melkite Christians back into their fold, after which the miracle was duly functional – possibly, Jotischky argues, because the secrets of its mechanics were held by those same Christians who had been thrust out, placing the ritual within an ethnic and political history. This he also does in on politics his account of the origin of the rite, situating it in the singular intervention of the Carolingians following the conquest of Jerusalem by the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century. Like Kleineke's essay, Jotischky's is partly a revisiting of older secondary works: the Arabic sources are taken from an essay of 1914, and much of the und diskurs detail on the Church of the on a consumer society paper Holy Sepulchre surely derives from Colin Morris' excellent Sepulchre of Christ. Nonetheless, the reworking and dlf essay und diskurs, amalgamation of sources shows Jotischky to be an excellent historian with a gift for prose, evidenced also by his recent book on monastic fasting.(4) Lucy-Anne Hunt continues discussion of the Frankish control of the church of the bad essay Holy Sepulchre in dlf essay und diskurs Jerusalem, focussing on the carved lintels above the on environmental pollution 5th South portals of the dlf essay church, now in the Rockerfeller Museum in essays Jerusalem.

Following Molly Lindner (1992), Hunt argues that the Passion scenes depicted therein are not only dlf essay und diskurs, a reflection of the actual pilgrimage route through the Holy Land, but specifically portray the Augustinian sites, the hunger essay images mirroring a particular and intentional ritual use of space. Two other pilgrimages are brought into the discussion. The first is that of the Icon of the Virgin and Child at Saydnaya, again (as in Jotischky's essay) a Melkite centre during the Abbasid Caliphate. The analysis, however, is somewhat confused, the scope seemingly to attempt to rationalise the dlf essay miracles apparent at twain essays, the shrine. The second is the pilgrimage to dlf essay und diskurs the monastery of St Shenoute on the feast of the desert, described in an itinerary published in 1998, which also includes visits to 5th other sites, such as a lost icon of St George. Hunt makes an all too brief, tantalising note about the recopying of this text in the 16th century as an assertion of Christian identity, following the disturbance of the relics and the ruining of the monastery.

Nonetheless the three examples do not really seem to hang together, though they certainly propose rituals parallel to Jotischky's explication of the Holy Fire. Pilgrimage takes on a new meaning with Rob Meens' engaging discussion of the grave of St Martin of Tours in the early middle ages. Weaving the conflictual elements of Kleineke's discussion of Exeter back into dlf essay und diskurs, that of saintly tombs, Meens develops the discussion into theories on a consumer society term, that of asylum, which he glosses as the tension between reserving access to the sacred for the pure, while still allowing access to the impure for acts of mercy and dlf essay und diskurs, forgiveness. Three stories illuminate the progression of this discourse. The first is the refuge granted to Eberulf, a renegade treasurer of King Guntram, attacked in the atrium of the church of St Martin by hunger games introduction the envoy of the king.

The account is taken from Gregory, whose letter served as a rapprochement against the king's action. Second is the dlf essay refuge granted to a cleric who had escaped from an ecclesiastical gaol in Orleans. King Theodulf's soldiers enter the church with the pauperes of the city and attack the Orleanais. Again, the account is known from a rebuke, in this case the long exchange between Charlemagne (Theodulf's lord) and his advisor, Alcuin of twain on politics York. The result of the incident was a long and, literally, tortuous investigation of the dlf essay und diskurs people of Tours, culminating in a set of legal clarifications on the law of asylum by Charlemagne. The third incident is given the greatest space: that involving Count Fulk Nerra of Tours, for the understanding of which Meens provides us with an appended document declaring the rite of the 'humiliation of saints', with his translation as well. After Fulk invaded the claustrum of St Martin, and demolished a house belonging to the cellarer, the monks of Tours ritually disturbed the bones and relics of their saints, placed them on the ground and surrounded them with thorns. Only once the essays Count had returned to repent for his sins were the relics replaced.

The humiliatio was also accompanied by a sort of liturgical strike, in which only pilgrims were allowed access to dlf essay the church. Importantly, Meens posits that the origination of Fulk's entrance into the church with his soldiers was the pursuit of an enemy – and thus was another act transgressing the right of asylum. Meens' essay involves the violation of best essays a space, and in two of the instances the invaded site is not the church itself but a different enclosed area: the dlf essay und diskurs atrium or the sample claustrum . Und Diskurs. These areas are the mark twain essays focus of Sible de Blaauw's contribution on the early Christian constructions at Tyre and Rome. The essay is a passionate entreaty for und diskurs early Christian churches not to be seen simply as bastard forms of the Roman basilica, but for the dynamic relation of on a society term paper form and function to be examined. The key spatial concept here, though it is not put as such by dlf essay und diskurs de Blaauw, is the binary of inside and outside, already familiar from the hunger games introduction relation between procession and sepulchre in the Easter liturgies discussed above. De Blaauw acknowledges the domestic roots of the und diskurs term atrium, reminding us that the closer parallel is actually with the Roman peristylium, not the games essay introduction basillica – though he also implies that there may have been a dialogue between domestic and ecclesiastic architecture by the late antique period, citing the placement of the atrium at Gamzigrad, Serbia (an active archaeological site). He employs Krautheimer's analyses of dlf essay und diskurs Old St Peter's in Rome to show the kind of atria erected throughout the Empire from Constantine's decree onwards. Using texts as well (Paulinus' letters; Eusebius' history) which amply describe an atrium with colonnades, de Blaauw reconstructs the buildings as they were, in all the metaphorical ambiguity of the typological references. This ambiguity contributes to de Blaauw's argument for the liminality of the atrium, its inbetween role separating the baptised from the uninitiated, but still within a sacred space, still accessible to 'liturgical traffic.' Drawing inspiration from de Blaauw's reconstructions of the papal basillicas in Rome, Donal Cooper's contribution uses Marcia Hall's studies of rood screens and tramezzi to thesis bouw investigate the und diskurs implications of spatial divides in Tuscan churches.

The mendicant constructions provide a good focus for the discussions of space for, as Cooper points out, we can assume that the particular examples reflect a generalised pattern for that order – which we can check against the chapter legislation. Cooper uses the hunger games essay 14th–century interior plan of San Francesco in Arezzo, known from the exceptional surviving drawing, to argue that the lateral spaces were left vacant for chantries and personal altars. This hints towards a different notion of architectural time from that of the projects described by de Blaauw, one in which expectancy of future monuments is built into the initial structure – an observation which will surely benefit from Marvin Trachtenberg's recent intervention.(5) The fresco within San Domenico in dlf essay Arezzo is also discussed in terms of an inside/outside binary, as it depicts an extramural sermon; Cooper notes that many tramezzi , to which the fresco would have been near, were constructed with access to external pulpits for this very purpose. Using the theories term paper reconstruction of the spatial arrangement of und diskurs San Francesco, combined with the surviving frescos from San Domenico, Cooper makes a compelling argument for the mutual reliance of spatial and pictorial elements. Cooper challenges the histories which state that the tripartite division was definitively between the laity, the male laity, and the clergy, instead using the evidence to show that the personal chapels beyond the hunger games introduction screens must have been accessible to noble men and women. The extrication of this evidence from the notarial documents in the Florentine archives is both imaginative and detailed. Und Diskurs. As he succinctly put it, ’these sources suggest that lay access beyond the tramezzo screen was already extensive in the later fourteenth and mark twain, early fifteenth-centuries, and did not result from a later process of 'privatising' church space during the Renaissance’.

Catherine Lawless focuses on dlf essay three of the secondary tier of female saints in medieval Florence. On Environmental Pollution 5th. Turning away from Catherine, Lucia and Mary Magdalene, the essay delves into the role of Saints Agatha, Reparata and Anne in the visual imaginary of the commune . Drawing on a her encyclopaedic knowledge of und diskurs Tuscan images, Lawless sets the popular devotion in the context of Bernardino of Siena's vindictive against women, and the contemporary restrictions on women's freedom to move through religious space. Of particular note is the recognition that the lack of female saints in bad essay the sculpture of Orsanmichele is due to the lack of any one female saint acting as the und diskurs patron of a Florentine guild. Gender, partitions and wall paintings also all feature in Nicholas Rogers's article on the places in which the sacrament of confession took place in late medieval churches. Bad Essay. The confessional booth was a Baroque invention; prior to this, other techniques of privacy were employed.

Rogers uses an und diskurs array of images from manuscripts to depict the ways in best application essays which priests made use of church space to construct loci which were personal but not away from public view, an important factor in the confession of women by male priests. Again stressing the interrelation of painted and architectural space in the role of the sacraments, Rogers suggests that images of the Seven Deadly Sins, and also those of gossiping women, could be indicative of places in which the confession was intended to be undertaken. The discussion of images of death is detailed and dlf essay und diskurs, subtle, but often strays away from the subject at hand, and only indirectly seems to connect with the sacrament of confession. Rogers makes reference to sample Julian Luxford's article on momento mori , and Luxford returns to deathly themes in his own contribution to the volume.(6) His essay examines the large tomb which stood at the heart of the church of the dlf essay und diskurs Carthusian convent in London. The resting place of the founder of the Charterhouse, Sir Walter Manny, the monument has been gratifyingly reconstructed by Luxford from the two extant fragments. Drawing on this archaeological and art historical evidence, alongside textual sources, Luxford challenges the prevailing belief that such monuments were an unusual blight to the sparse Carthusian aesthetic. On the contrary, Luxford argues that by the 14th century such tombs were common in Charterhouses, the rules having been greatly relaxed. Luxford claims that such monuments played an important part in the visual lives of the monks, as ’it is obvious that, in a physical sense, the average monk saw relatively little’. This is not necessarily so obvious, however, given the noble backgrounds from which many Carthusian monks emanated.

While it is certainly true that the conventual life would have provided only thesis bouw, a limited range of visual stimulants, this is not true of the monks' whole lives. In this manner, it is perhaps useful to separate the discourse of Carthusian life from its lived reality, in dlf essay und diskurs which monks, however self-convinced by their 'new' religious life in best application the convent, still bore the memories of their life in the laity. To reinforce his argument of the impact of the tombs on the monks' imagination, Luxford draws on imagery relating the tomb and the monks cell through the metaphor of the und diskurs deadened life of the Carthusian, of a man 'dead to the world'. However, the argument would be made stronger by reference to the rich architectural imagery prevalent in Carthusian-produced manuscripts, as studied by Michael Sargent, Ralph Hannah and Kathleen Scott, among others. A more literal dead are the focus of Philip Morgan's overview of medieval memorials on battlefields, encompassing monumentality, place-names and church foundations. His discussion springs elegantly from the words of the Roman governor of theories consumer society paper Britain on the eve of battle, as reported by Cassius Dio: ’Let us, therefore, either conquer them or die on the spot. Briatin will be a noble monument for us, even though all the other Romans here should be driven out; for in any case our bodies shall for ever possess this land’. The mechanics by which the land was thus memorialised through death are studied over a thousand-year period, although Morgan is clearly most at home in the 14th and 15th centuries. Battle Abbey, the relics of St Oswald at Oswestry, the burial pits of Agincourt – the murderous and the sacred sit side by und diskurs side in this subject, on which there is consumer society clearly still a great deal of work to dlf essay be done. Hunger Games Essay Introduction. Encouragingly, Morgan is not obsessed merely with memory, but also sees the und diskurs benefit in theorising forgotten battles, those which would not be included in a 'gazeteer' of place-names.

Forgetting and disruption are central to Maurizio Campanelli's discussion of textual accounts of Rome, and the changing quality of mark twain essays on politics time reflected in und diskurs their historical imaginings of society its past. Dlf Essay. Drawing on a daringly wide range of sources, Campanelli argues that a scholar in the high or late middle ages would have been able to understand Rome as a place whose sacredness was mapped onto its spaces, where divine intervention was constantly renewed through ritual, but that for essay 5th an early medieval scholar, this was absent; there were topographies, but the dlf essay ritual elements was absent. Campanelli sees this progression as due, in part, to the active intervention of humanists in the construction of Rome's history. An example of continuity given is that the ancient right of asylum, discussed above in relation to the church of essay St Martin of Tours, was invoked by an inscription in the church of 'Sta Croce in Gerusalemme' in Rome, in order to support the und diskurs shrine of Pope Silvester II. Specifically, the right of hunger games essay introduction asylum was that established by Romulus, and its power is und diskurs invoked to support the plenary indulgence (i.e. of all sins) granted to Sta Croce. This continuity is in the context of the utterly depleted power of essays on politics Rome following the move of the Papacy to Avignon. Similarly, the early humanist Cavallini describes the Roman people as the iura of the city, whether ancient or contemporary; the authority of the Roman Senate is transferred to the College of dlf essay und diskurs Cardinals. This total continuity which Campanelli elucidates is given a poignant moment of essay pathos in dlf essay the recognition that Cavallini wrote his description of Rome while in Avignon, where there was ’little to be done beyond closing oneself in with one's books to dream that, while everything changed in form, in Rome nothing had changed in substance’. While Petrarch, Cola di Rienzo and Biondo Flavio would stress a break with what became the 'middle' ages, for scholars like Cavallini and the anonymous author of the Mirabilia romae, continuity with the theories society term ancient Roman past was a primary method through which to strengthen the city's Christian auctoritas . Uri Smilansky's contribution on the visual aspect of the ars subtilior teases out many of the more subtle themes of the collection, though its musical focus sets it apart.

The ars subtilior (a disputed historical term) described the 14th–century musical avant-garde, the foci of which were not only an extraordinarily insular and self-referential approach to musical theory, but also to the notation by which it was transmitted. These notational experiments amount to not only und diskurs, codes, but enigma and riddles, equally prevalent in the artistic aspect as the linguistic. The music itself, the recordings of which Smilansky provides useful references to, is as eerie and codified as the manuscript pages. Smilansky describes his essay as exploring 'space' in best application essays three ways: on the page; performance space; and the space occupied by the ars subtilior in society. The first of these explores, clearly, only two-dimensional space, although the tension between the necessity to reflect the changing song forms and the limitations of the medium, the manuscript, are as relevant today as in the 14th century. The third use of spatial metaphor – the space occupied, i.e. the social function of the art – is unfortunately demoted to a very base Marxian conclusion, attributing technicality in dlf essay und diskurs song-craft to the need for ostentatious skill in a precarious financial environment. It is clear that there is far more occurring in such art than merely the magnetism of capital, for this applies equally to the as nova or any remunerated music. There is surely more to the place of labour in cultural production than mere distinction. The kernel which Smilansky surely wants to expose more is the relation between the essays notated page and the performance space, as he hints towards with regard to Guillaume Dufay's Nuper rosarum flores , composed for the consecration of Florence Cathedral, and, as Charles Warren and more recently Marvin Trachtenberg have attempted to show, relates in its mathematical, musical proportions to those of the architecture in which it was originally performed.(7) The nexus of space on the page and space in dlf essay the church will surely provide stimulating reassessments of the intellectual history of medieval space. The visual aspects of essay on environmental pollution 5th Smilansky's future edition of the works of Guillaume de Machaut are eagerly awaited, including Machaut's own dedicatory for Rheims Cathedral, Messa de Notre Dame . In sum, the collection is perhaps greater than its parts, with many of the essays illuminating each other. Dlf Essay. While Andrews makes clear in her introduction that theories of ritual are familiar to – and have been well produced out of – medieval studies, less focus has been placed on original theories of space.

With hope, some of the themes which I have mentioned above can be fleshed out over the coming years, to provide new theories of space and spatiality which do not rely on modernist tropes, but on an assessment of medieval society as it was. C. Bruzelius, The Stones of hunger introduction Naples. Church Buiding in Angevin Italy, 1266-1343 (New Haven, CT, 2004); see also Claudia Bolgia, review of The Stones of Naples. Und Diskurs. Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266–1343 , (review no. Hunger Games Essay Introduction. 469) http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/469 [accessed 6 January 2012].Back to (1) M. E. Curtis, Some Disputes Between City and Cathedral Authorities of Exeter (Manchester 1932).Back to (2) P. Binski, The Painted Chamber at Westminster (London, 1986).Back to (3) I. Krackovskij, 'Le Feu sacte d'apre le recit d'al-Biruni et d'autre ecrivains musulmans du Xe au XIIIe siecle', Xristianskij Vostok , III/3 (1914), 225–317; C. Morris, The Sepulchre of Christ and the Medieval West. From the Beginnings to 1600 (Oxford, 2005); A. Und Diskurs. Jotischy, A Hermit's Cookbook. Monks, Food and Fasting in the Middle Ages (London, 2011).Back to (4) M. Sample Bad Essay. Trachternberg, Building-in-Time. From Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion (New Haven, CT, 2010).Back to (5) J. Luxford, 'The Sparham corpse panels. Unique revelations of death from fifteenth-century England', Antiquaries Journal , 90 (2010), 299–340.Back to (6) C. Warren, 'Brunelleschi's Dome and Dufay's Motet', The Musical Quarterly , 59 (1972), 92–105; M. Dlf Essay. Trachtenberg, 'Architecture and music reunited. A new reading of Dufay's Nuper rosarum flores and the cathedral of Florence', Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 740–75.Back to (7) Interested in reviewing for us?

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adolescent essay adolescence adolescent - formation pour Infirmier de Secteur Psychiatrique - cours de Mr Giffard - I l n'y a pas si longtemps, l'adolescence n'tait pas reconnue par la collectivit. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? C'tait un tat individuel, de mme que le troisime ge . Theories On A Consumer Paper? Aprs la seconde guerre mondiale, et particulirement dans les cultures occidentales, l' adolescence est devenue phnomne de socit. Dlf Essay? C'est un tat la fois enfantin et srieux. Best Application? La provocation de la part des adultes est apparue chez les artistes avant et pendant la seconde guerre mondiale (romantisme, dadasme. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? ), revendication contre toutes les institutions de la socit (famille, tat, glise, arme, cole). A partir de 1950, les adolescents reprennent leur compte toutes ces revendications, tous ces tats d'me. Consumer Society Term Paper? En 1960, mergence de la musique pour les exprimer. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? En 1970, en plus de la musique, l'opposition au monde adulte s'exprime par la politisation (concerts de soutien ou de protestation, chanteurs engags politiquement). Best? 1980, accs gnralis aux drogues que l'on partage pendant les concerts ou avant les manifestations. 1990: le refus des habitudes familiales s'exprimera travers un comportement diffrent, par exemple au niveau des conduites alimentaires ou de l'habillement.

Entre 2000 et 2010, la grande incertitude face au chmage, la difficult de se loger, ainsi qu'une moindre protection de la part des familles ou de la socit des adultes les conduisent recrer leur monde virtuel autant pour s'isoler de ceux-ci (jeux vido, ordinateurs) que pour se retrouver entre eux (Internet, tlphone portable). Dlf Essay? Les adolescents deviennent par ce biais dpendants de la technique et des mdias. Bad Essay? Chez la fille : dveloppement des seins, de l'appareil gnital. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Prise de poids. Premires rgles. Thesis Bouw? En 1940, les premires rgles chez les europennes venaient vers 17 ans. Und Diskurs? Actuellement, l'ge moyen est vers 12 ans et 6 mois, car les conditions de vie sont plus confortables et les adolescentes s'affirment plus tt; Chez le garon : premires pollutions nocturnes, mue de la voix, pilosit, croissance osseuse et staturale; Chez les deux : re-modelage de l'image du corps , de faon continue.

Fixation sur l'aspect corporel extrieur: poque trs narcissique. Thesis Bouw? Tendances diverses l'excs. Dlf Essay? Trs peu d'hygine. Games Essay Introduction? Grande instabilit. Durant les premires annes de vie, la pense du petit enfant tait magique. Und Diskurs? A la priode de latence il a acquis une logique concrte. Thesis Bouw? Vers 12 ans, le jeune adolescent va pouvoir raisonner de faon dductive, posant des hypothses et rpondant dans l'abstrait. Cela est dsormais possible grce la naissance de la pense formelle, ou hypottico-dductive . Dlf Essay? Ayant acquis cette pense formelle, il en usera l'excs.

Il n'a pas besoin de l'exprience. Thesis Bouw? C'est la priode o on dlf essay, refait le monde, poque trs crative mais sans support dans la ralit. Pollution? Il a acquis l'intellect adulte . Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? On distinguera 3 phases. Phase d'opposition : chez la fille, elle survient entre 12 et 13 ans et chez le garon entre 12 et 15 ans. Sample Bad Essay? Elle commence par un effondrement total de tout l'acquis moral et social de la priode de latence. Dlf Essay? C'est un mouvement rgressif au cours duquel l'adolescent est imprvisible, avec refus de tout ordre tabli, vols, provocations.

Il y a la fois l'incapacit domestiquer les dsirs, et la recherche du plaisir dans la transgression de l'interdit. Application Essays? On note aussi un mpris de tout ce qui reprsente l'ordre. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Ceci a pour but une certaine prise de conscience de soi . Sample Bad Essay? Priode du Je n'veux pas !; Phase d'affirmation du Moi : chez la fille entre 13 et 16 ans, et chez le garon entre 15 et 17 ans. Und Diskurs? C'est une priode de revendication, de Je veux !, avec demande d'indpendance, de libert. Twain? C'est l'poque du conflit des gnrations. Il y a laboration de systmes nouveaux et meilleurs pour la socit. Priode de l'adolescence o on discute beaucoup. Dlf Essay? Mgalomanie, affabulation, idalisation.

Gnrosit et gosme; Phase d'insertion : chez la fille entre 16 et 18 ans, et chez le garon entre 18 et 20 ans. Mark Essays? L'adolescent s' identifie l'adulte de faon stable, avec moins d'idalisation. Und Diskurs? Il ralise son indpendance affective, et construit son indpendance conomique. Games Essay? Il accepte rellement et sans ambivalence de se passer de ses parents. Cette phase d'insertion est facilite avec l' accs au travail , et les relations de couple . Elle est freine quand la prcarit ou le chmage s'installent. Il faut savoir que de plus en plus d'adolescents se retrouvent dsormais la rue, sans domicile fixe ( S.D.F. Dlf Essay? ) et sans travail rgulier: c'est un phnomne relativement nouveau, et qui prend de l'ampleur depuis le dbut du 21 me sicle. Theories Consumer Paper? Remaniement de la personnalit affective. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Vis--vis des parents, l'adolescent doit effectuer le deuil des imago parentales . Thesis Bouw? Le travail de deuil est un processus qui permet de ne pas finir avec ce qui est mort. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Il s'agit ici d'une rupture d'avec l'image que les parents reprsentent pour l'adolescent.

Ce processus se fait en plusieurs tapes. Hunger Games? Tout commence avec le retour de ce qui a t refoul dans l'inconscient durant la latence, c'est dire les pulsions infantiles . Und Diskurs? Ce retour est massif et incontrlable pour l'adolescent, faisant chouer le Moi dans ses tentatives d'quilibre. Essays? Il est anxieux, dprim, dpressif , inhib. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Il fait des actes antisociaux . Hunger Introduction? L'aspect dfensif ne russit pas retenir l'aspect motionnel. Le ct oral se traduit par de la boulimie, de l'anorexie, et de l'avidit sur tous les plans. Dlf Essay? Les pulsions anales reviennent travers l'agressivit, le non !, modifiant tous ses rapports avec l'ordre, le pouvoir. Theories Consumer Society? Retour aussi des pulsions phalliques et oedipiennes , se traduisant par une crise d'originalit autant physique que mentale. Dlf Essay? Ractivation des pulsions oedipiennes vis--vis des parents, crant des sentiments de honte des parents , afin d'viter la pulsion par une attitude inverse.

Critique de ce que sont les parents. Essay Pollution 5th? Plus il se sent dpendant d'eux, plus il sera agressif vis--vis d'eux. Les parents ne peuvent rien pour l'aider car c'est leur prsence-mme qui cre le conflit. Und Diskurs? L'adolescent labore un roman familial: il existe deux couples de parents, l'un riche, noble, puissant et protecteur, assimil des divinits. Thesis Bouw? Ce sont les parents du pass, idaliss par l'enfant. Dlf Essay? L'autre couple est humble, commun, soumis aux limites quotidiennes. Ce sont les parents dcouverts par l'adolescent. Ces 2 couples de parents s'affrontent dans l'imaginaire de l'adolescent. Thesis Bouw? Il brode donc un roman familial dans lequel il retrouvera ses droits et privilges. Cela rvle le processus rgressif vers la relation rassurante des premiers temps de l'enfance et le processus progressif qui permet d'accepter la ralit. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Fantasme de changement de rle : l'adolescent veut prendre la place d'un de ses parents en usurpant les droits de l'adulte.

Il est adulte la place du pre ou de la mre. Hunger Essay Introduction? Il juge ses parents, les conseille, les infantilise. Und Diskurs? Ceci est une condition pour devenir adulte . Application? L'adolescent s'identifie ainsi des images de parents murs. Dlf Essay? Les tapes de la gnitalisation (l'accession la sexualit adulte) La relation Objectale va se focaliser sur des Objets successifs qui vont permettre l'adolescent d'accder la sexualit adulte.

Phase d'homosexualit de groupe : la bande, gnralement unisexue est constitue d'individus semblables. Bad Essay? Il y aura plusieurs types de bandes selon le milieu culturel de l'adolescent. Dlf Essay? Plus le milieu est favoris, plus la bande est atypique (sans caractristiques). Hunger Games Essay Introduction? Les bandes sociales sont trs structures, et on dlf essay und diskurs, y rentre difficilement. Thesis Bouw? Les membres ont alors les mmes idoles, les mmes costumes. Dlf Essay? Le but de ces bandes est d'viter la solitude, de s'identifier par rapport un modle, une norme, et de prendre en charge les dsirs de l'individu.

Chaque membre du groupe y trouve scurit et revalorisation. Thesis Bouw? Elle permet aussi l'adolescent d'viter la confrontation l'autre sexe; Phase d'homosexualit individuelle : la bande ne suffit plus. Und Diskurs? L'adolescent va chercher un ami, un confident. Thesis Bouw? Le choix est trs narcissique, fait d'idalisation et d'admiration. Und Diskurs? On se raconte tout vis--vis de la famille, de l'cole.

Amitis trs passionnes, trs brusques, pouvant s'arrter aussi brusquement. Twain Essays On Politics? Dans cette phase il peut y avoir exprience homosexuelle vritable et transitoire, comme phnomne d'adaptation faisant le lien entre les parents oedipiens et le choix htrosexuel. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Notons aussi l'existence de rites, de complicits; Phase transitoire dpressive : la bande ne suffit pas et mme l'ami intime ne peut pas comprendre. Theories Society Term? L'adolescent est en proie la mlancolie . Und Diskurs? La vie est un supplice. Tout est injustice. Pollution 5th? La perte des parents est trop forte: la bande et les copains ne suffisent pas. Dlf Essay? Vide mtaphysique. Hunger Games Essay Introduction? Cration du journal intime dans lequel il transmet son abandon. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? C'est un mlange d'gocentrisme aigu et de constant dvouement pour l'humanit. Ce qui va permettre d'en sortir seront les premires manifestations d'htrosexualit ; Phase htrosexuelle : on hunger games, se met avoir une certaine curiosit vis--vis de l'autre sexe.

On s'pie, on dlf essay, s'auto-observe. L'autre sexe est la fois dnigr et idalis. Essay Introduction? Cette htrosexualit est d'abord polygame, avec nombreux flirts. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? C'est le moment o les bandes se mixent, et c'est le temps des grandes passions, des grandes dsillusions. Theories Society Term Paper? Hmorragie des sentiments. Dlf Essay? Processus de cour: l'adolescent devient coquet, spirituel. Les flirts se succdent, avec de grandes priodes de jalousie et d'admiration. Best Application Essays? Petit petit, l'htrosexualit devient monogame, les Objets affectifs deviennent stables jusqu' la formation du couple . Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Ds lors l'adolescent peut faire des projets.

Il devient capable de faire concider l'amour romantique et l'amour sexuel. Essay? L'adolescence est la dernire 'chance' d'aborder les conflits de l'enfance et de les rsoudre de manire spontane. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? Si ces mmes conflits survenaient par la suite, ce serait du domaine du pathologique . Games? La personne s'y engluerait gravement. Und Diskurs? D'ailleurs, la plupart des pathologies adultes closent l'adolescence. Hunger Introduction? La structure de la personnalit se fait durant les 5 premires annes de la vie, mais on dlf essay und diskurs, peut la remanier l'adolescence le plus souvent tout seul, c'est dire avec l'environnement immdiat.

Sinon a s'croule l'adolescence (on parle alors de destructuration de la personnalit ) et le futur adulte aura besoin de l'aide de la sant publique, voire temporairement d'un environnement adapt.

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essay on a place The oak diner table matches the cabinets and is accessorized with red table decor. To the right of the great room is a hall leading to dlf essay und diskurs two bedrooms and a bathroom room. This hallway is on a society complete with hard wood flooring that shines as the large window allows the sunlight to und diskurs shine through. Bedroom number one is covered with posters of essay 5th, teen groups such as One Direction and Mindless behavior. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? The white twin bed bedroom set is full of bright colors such as pink, green, red and application essays, yellow. The closet door. land and water. These car/boat vehicles are called Ducks.

When you ride this attraction you are given a whistle that sounds like a duck quack annoying but fun at the same time. My favorite activity, however, is the dlf essay laser show. The laser show takes place on the face of the mountain followed by a firework show. Bad Essay? During the und diskurs fall there is sample bad essay a fall festival with a pumpkin patch. My wife has the dlf essay most adorable pictures of my kids in this pumpkin patch. Last, but definitely not the thesis bouw least, is the Atlanta Aquarium. When you are writing a descriptive essay, you, as the writer, are going to create a picture in the reader’s mind It is quite easy to say that, but how does one go about doing it? The first thing to remember is to use all the five senses - touch, smell, sound, taste, and sight – in dlf essay und diskurs, your essay to portray your description. Best Application? With the your essay to portray your description. With the help of these senses, you have to und diskurs describe either a scene, or an event, or a location, or a person or an 5th object.

The list. their own musical arrangements.[2] ------------------------------------------------- [edit]North America, United Kingdom, and Ireland | This article may contain excessive, poor or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by und diskurs adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articlesfor further suggestions. | See also: American folk music revival Singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie The term singer-songwriter in hunger essay, North America can be. in shipping. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago. No, it's not a beautiful instrument, but it still lets me make music, and for that I will always treasure it.

In the dlf essay next descriptive paragraph, the student writer focuses less on the physical appearance of essay pollution for class 5th, her pet than on the cat's habits and actions. 3) Gregory by Barbara Carter Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Essay. in Europe will have to take the same exact exam in which the original students was given, so the analyzer can take the sampled information of the 400 European students and compare and best essays, contrast the data of the 400 American students in which the descriptive statistical data was taken . The analyzers inferential statistics will ascend through credible sampling which on occasion, may sustain sampling error. Therefore the analyzer must estimate each parameter and test his or her statistical hypotheses. smile on me, I always wanted to thank her. (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The action was so graceful and inclusively benign.” (http://ux1.eiu.edu/ madwiggins/sister_flowers.html) “The last way narrative is different from descriptive writing is they both captures the audience attention and give detail information about the essays. It appeals to your sense of dlf essay und diskurs, smell, taste, hearing, seeing, touch. “My judgment is that rich undergo cruel trails and bitter tragedies. Compare and Contrast: the on environmental pollution for class Advantage of Narratives over Descriptive. Descriptive writings evoke emotion.

In descriptive writings are in und diskurs, free form while in narrative writing, are more structured. Pollution? While narratives typically use the first person point of view, descriptive essays generally use a second person point of view. Narratives are interesting because they tend to be written in different voices either first person or third person. Typically, narratives are written in first person. Writing in dlf essay und diskurs, first person gives the essay personality. Thesis Bouw? In “I Want a Wife”, the author. Descriptive Writing in Literature Essay. rang against walls of silence.” We can picture a man who is screaming so loudly that his voice can be heard across town almost begging to find a challenger, but his calls are unanswered and the silence of the town shows how serious this man is.

Descriptive writing is dlf essay a great way to narrate a story that way there is no room for misplacing the thesis bouw feeling that the author is trying to show us (Crane, 2007). Und Diskurs? The second poem that I have chosen is “I dwell in the Possibility” by Emily Dickinson. This poem. Essay on My Place - the Place for Diversity Multimedia Analysis. and he enjoys being with friends but also his solitude times (University of Phoenix, My Place, p. 1. Had I been able to see his observable characteristics I may have been able to thesis bouw pick him out because of the three persons to choose from, he was the only one standing in a pose of a kung fu stance. Edith was the next person on my list. Edith was of Dutch and German descent (University of Phoenix, My Place, p. 1. She grew up in a small town in the Midwest, she belonged to a sorority in school.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Paper. 2009). Und Diskurs? Statistics is usually divided up into two main categories, and for class 5th, that is descriptive and inferential. Both are very beneficial to the researcher or psychologist and help them to, better understand what it is that they are trying to collect information. Statistics take complex data and put it in a way that is simple so that anyone that looks at research that is done can specifically identify what it is that they are looking at . It also makes it easier to compare data to dlf essay und diskurs other data which. whistling, and best application essays, peeping formed the brass section like trumpets playing an excerpt from the 1812 Overture. All these sounds, and many more blended together to create a relaxing melody soothing to the ear. The scents that fill a place are often strong components of memories. The scent of the meadow established lasting images in my mind. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? A breeze that wafted across the meadow was full of many different scents. The yellow wildflowers smelled like a rich box of dark chocolate.

Now that I have a home of my own, I love to twain on politics decorate for Halloween. I hang fake cobwebs from my ceilings, place orange and dlf essay und diskurs, black candles on consumer my tables, and fill my jars with candy corn. I also enjoy carving pumpkins into jack-o-lanterns with sharp-toothed lopsided smiles. Afterwards, I would wash the slimy goop off the seeds, add spices, and bake them for a nice toasted treat. Another holiday I enjoy during the fall is und diskurs Thanksgiving. The smell of roasted turkey, brown sugar-cured ham, and cornbread. even with his father for making him feel that way. The details that Vanderhaeghe uses to describe the setting demonstrate the thesis bouw love that Gil has for his land. This story takes place mainly on the family land. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? The Home place is special to sample bad essay Gil “Situated in dlf essay, a valley’’ (14) and ‘’down by the river’’ (14).

The home place also have a beautiful land that ‘’consisted of the original quarter Gil’s father had homesteaded, the pre-emption, and another 320 acres picked up cheap from a Finnish immigrant’’ However, the events of the twentieth century have weakened that belief. Theories On A Consumer Paper? Both cold and hot wars have followed each other in succession. Revolutions and und diskurs, civil wars have taken place and mark twain, totalitarianism has become a fact that can hardly be ignored. Therefore, the modern age has become a time in dlf essay und diskurs, which more dystopias have been envisioned than ever before. Throughout history, mankind has strived for perfection in every aspect of humanity, yet it has never been attained. There is a very thin line between. she responded with, “All of them but one.

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The simile “he felt like a prisoner in Australia” shows “he longed for European society” and it is evident that an inability to understand and adjust to bad essay new places can have negative consequences.For Crhistine,her inability to adjust to new places is shown through the planting of peppercorns as to “mediate between local and European landscapes” however even so she struggles to adjust to new cultures and this causes her mental illness and isolation. Bonegilla 1961 also highlights that an inability. so that I can be more informed about that person. Reference University of dlf essay, Phoenix. (2009). Mark On Politics? My Place for Diversity Multimedia [Multimedia]. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, DIVERSITY ISSUES IN COMMUNICATION website. * preferences Document Viewer TurnitinOriginality Report * Processed on: 18-Nov-2012 10:48 AM CST * ID: 285590143 * Word Count: 819 * Submitted: 1 my place for diversityBy Teresa Foster Similarity Index 0% What's this? Similarity by Source Internet Sources: nature and has considerable ease of facilities.

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How can nutrition be improved? * Nutrition can be improved within the financial institutions by encouraging. Ban Smoking In Public Places Essay. work and enjoy leisure activities in hunger games, a smoke free environment and it is their right. Why should I have to go out and have my health damaged and dlf essay, my clothes ruined or made smelly by other people with a bad and dangerous habit. Libraries and most public places have a no smoking policy. Restaurants have smoking tables but this does not prevent the sample bad essay smoke or the und diskurs smell reaching other tables. Government policy has to be expanded to cover every aspect of smoking in public. It has reached the consumer society paper stage were it is.

Where Is Switzerland Cheapest Place to Live Essay examples. individuals make informed decisions about things as basic as where to live and dlf essay und diskurs, how to collect taxes. Connection to article: Recently, Credit Suisse conducted a survey and determined that Switzerland’s most expensive canton is Geneva, while the essays cheapest place. Economic Order Quantity and Decimal Places Essay. | Using factors from above table, determine upper and lower control limits for mean and range charts. (Round your intermediate calculations and final answers to 2 decimal places.

Leave no cells blank - be certain to enter 0 wherever required.) | | Mean Chart | Range Chart | UCL | | | LCL | | | | b. | Decide if the process is in control. | | | | | Yes | | No | | 4. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? value: 18 points Problem 10-6 A medical facility does MRIs. Essay on Mood, Atmosphere and Place in The Return of the Native. The sea changed, the fields changed, the rivers, the villages, and the people changed, yet Egdon remained. On Environmental Pollution 5th? Throughout the whole of the dlf essay und diskurs first chapter, Hardy is essay on environmental pollution 5th creating a strong sense of place as well as establishing clearly the mood and dlf essay, atmosphere of Egdon Heath. Further on, although still at the beginning of the book, Hardy introduces the heath people. In this introduction, the various characters that will be important throughout the story appear the simplicity of their personalities. First Place Fund for Youths and consumer term paper, Foster Care Essays.

objectives. Dlf Essay? They will play their specific roles in a coordination manner to ensure that the organization add value to the lives of the beneficiaries. The beneficiaries will, therefore, be advantaged in associating with an hunger games organization that is well place to take their lives to the next level. Dlf Essay? 4. There are various resources that will help the whole process to become a success. There shall be a need for human and financial resources to facilitate the attainment of goals.

The human resources shall include. The Debate of a Ban on Smoking in All Public Places Essay. deaths per application essays, year. (9) So as the amount of individuals who begin smoking increases, so will the death rate of individuals who suffered from diseases related to smoking through no fault of there own. If a ban against smoking in public places were to be enforced then smokers would protest that it was against their free will as they are themselves putting. The Nuclear Energy Controversy: Finding a Place for the Nuclear Waste. happen again on their reservation.

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understanding and seasoned man, has lost his youth and is beginning to realize that the obliteration of thesis bouw, his existence is approaching. He claims that he is the type of person who “[likes] to stay late at the cafe” (496), meaning that he requires a place of order and cleanliness just to dlf essay take his mind off of mark twain essays, death, and und diskurs, the idea of nothingness. These thoughts translate into the way he treats the hunger games essay old drunken man; he lets the old man lurk around the dlf essay cafe because he needs “a light for the night” (496) to. Essay on The Diary of Anne Frank vs. the application essays Hiding Place. different. One large difference was how in The Diary of Anne Frank most all of the main characters were Jewish when in the hiding place they were both Christian and Jews. There are other reasons too like how or how they both took place in cities hundreds of miles away from each other, but one of the other ones were how in The Diary of Anne Frank there were kids and in The Hiding Place there were no kids. These stories were filled with mayhem and extreme struggles caused by one man Hitler who was an. Creationism Has No Place in Public Schools Essay. unanswered questions with, “It is this way because God made it this way.” This does not teach children to use their minds, instead it teaches them to take the easy way out. Even if the theory of creation wasn’t against the law and could easily be places into a public school’s curriculum, would it be a wise choice?

Creationists want children to believe that each and every one of them was created from und diskurs, God for sample bad essay a special purpose. Genetic Therapy and its Place in Today’s Society Essay. capable of living a fulfilling life if the society they live in is set up to cater to their special needs. This isn’t available in all cases though. As mentioned in Goering’s article, color-blindness is not a big deal in the United States, but in some places in Africa it is necessary to be able to tell the difference between shades of dlf essay und diskurs, green for survival (334). In my opinion, it is thesis bouw also up to the parents to decide on genetic therapy in the cases of dlf essay und diskurs, great risk of heart disease and hunger games essay, cancer. I do not believe. Why Google Is a Great Place to Work Essay. Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs? There are openings in 57 worldwide locations, not including those in games essay introduction, the United States. Google has its own unique culture that differs it from other leading companies and und diskurs, makes it more desirable place to work.

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Write About the essay Significance of Descriptive Language as It Is Used by Sebastian Faulks in Birdsong. see how any of these three logical steps implied a violent rejection of men or children. Also, a part of his use of description is in und diskurs, foreshadowing the events that are about to take place. An example of this is games introduction when Stephen visits the Boulevard du Cange; during the whole description, the reader knows the violence and destruction that is about to take place there, and I think that it really contrasts with the und diskurs more peaceful and theories society term, calm tone that Faulks is using, for example, when he says “Behind the gardens, the River Somme broke into the small canals which. Snow Imagery in “Desert Places” and “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” The snowy imagery in the field of the poem establishes the mood of dlf essay und diskurs, desolation and lonesomeness. In the other hand, the snow imagery in Frost’s poem “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” conveys a completely different mood from the mood in “Desert Places.” The snow imagery in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” conveys the feeling of welcome, calm seclusion, and mysteriousness. The speaker of the poem arrives near the woods where he is lured to stop “to watch (his) (the) woods fill up with snow.

Discuss the Relationship Between Character and Theme in “a Clean, Well-Lighted Place” tried to commit suicide, one waiter said. Why? He was in thesis bouw, despair. What about?” Nothing. How do you know it was nothing? He has plenty of money. (Hemingway, A Clean, Well-lighted Place) We can see from the und diskurs conversation, both the old man and the young man are aimless, emotion-less and disconnected. Theories Consumer Paper? They lack the ability to communicate: He's drunk now, he said. He's drunk every night. Und Diskurs? What did he want to kill himself for. One Place I Would Like to Visit on a Class Trip Essay example. New York City would be the perfect place for a class trip.

It has many wonderful activities such as theaters, museums, landmark buildings and shopping. It has unforgettable things to do. The Twin Towers is best application one of the dlf essay most unique places. Thesis Bouw? Up until recently they were the dlf essay und diskurs largest buildings in the world. New York City is society a wonderful place. When I went to New York City I enjoyed it very much, and I recommend it as a place we should visit on our class trip.One place I would like to visit on a class trip.

Essay on Smoking Bans in Public Places Help Save Lives. feeling.” This is why quitting smoking cigarettes is und diskurs one of the hardest addictions to break. These people realize they are affecting their bodies in a negative way (“Nicotine”). However, they may not know that when they decide to smoke in a public place, they are not only affecting their own bodies, but also the bodies of others through secondhand. A Journey is More than a Movement from One Place to Another Essay. the inner journey’s experienced by the other characters in on environmental, the play can be viewed as occurring as a result of Prospero and what he envisions. It is therefore Prospero’s grand imaginative journey which sets into motion all of the journeys that take place in the play. The painting ‘Entre le trous de la Memoire’ (between the holes of dlf essay und diskurs, memory) by on politics Domenique Appia takes the und diskurs viewer on an imaginative visual journey. The painting creates an overwhelming flurry of thoughts in the viewers mind. This causes.

Compare/Contrast - Clean Well Lighted Place and Sonny#x27;s Blues. he was young, his life had more meaning, and he had something to live for. Now, he has a niece who takes care of him for propriety's sake and the only thing that serves as an anchor to his past life is the thought of having a clean, well-lighted place that he can come back to. Like Sonny, at one point, the old man feels like the memories of his past have won over the other side of mark twain essays, him, which is the point when he pushed into attempting suicide. So while their internal struggles are very different.

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Food vs. Fuel: A False Dilemma for Cuba:A Survey of the Issue. The objective of this essay is broadly to assess the und diskurs factors that determine whether the production of biofuels from paper, biomass could be viable in Cuba and whether it could compete with food production. This question is important in und diskurs, view of the significant decreases that have occurred in Cuba’s agricultural and food production during the past several decades. In particular, shortages of staple food products have characterized the last twenty years and, although famine conditions have never materialized, the mark country has had to import foodstuffs it used to produce before. In 2006, according to the Communist Party official newspaper Granma, Cuba commercially imported nearly 85 percent of its food needs. For more than a decade, it has also depended on food donations from the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) to feed more than 700,000 families in the five eastern-most provinces. In addition, Cuba’s capacity to import the food it needs, as well as other critical goods, has severely deteriorated with the collapse of key exports sectors, particularly sugar, and dlf essay the suspension of large subsidies from the former Soviet Union. Currently, capacity to import food has increased somewhat with the subsidies from Venezuela.

A large portion of these food imports comes from the theories on a United States. The potential dilemma between the und diskurs production of bio fuels, based on agricultural feedstock, and food production has become a controversial issue for policy makers. Hunger Games! In this context, biofuels include ethanol and biodiesel. Und Diskurs! Currently, strong interest in the production of biofuels derives from several factors. To wit:

First, the high price of oil prevalent during the sample past few years, as the result of supply limitations agreed upon by the Organization of dlf essay Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Sample Bad Essay! In addition, the world is experiencing an apparently insatiable demand for dlf essay und diskurs, hydrocarbons, spearheaded by countries such as China and India. High oil prices have enhanced the economic viability of producing biofuels. Second, has been the growing consensus, now supported by scientific evidence, about the impact of hydrocarbon consumption on climate change. Thesis Bouw! Indeed, most scientists now believe that continuous and increasing use of hydrocarbons is dlf essay und diskurs a major factor in global warming. This impact, if not abated, could have significant negative effects on the world’s ecology, on agricultural productive capacity, and on food production in most countries.

This last concern is on a term paper important because, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, there are an estimated 850 million people with diets well below internationally-accepted minimum norms. Widespread decreases in food production would make this situation worse. It is important to note, however, that there is consensus on the fact that poverty—lack of income—and not the level of available food supply, currently adequate, is the major cause of hunger in the world. Third, added to the potential impact of global warming, is competition for productive land. A major concern has been that production of biofuels, based on agricultural feedstock, might divert agricultural land and feedstock into biofuel production, thus decreasing food supply and increasing the price of staples.

Recently, the price of both sugar and maize, main inputs used to produce ethanol, has risen rapidly as demand for them by dlf essay, ethanol distillers has increased significantly. This is the core reason for the food vs. fuel potential dilemma. Finally, economic and political vulnerability. Sample! That is, the concern, on the part of dlf essay und diskurs oil importing countries, particularly the United States and the European Union (EU), that continuous dependency on oil from a few, often strongly adversarial and unstable producers, is essay not politically advisable and could lead to dlf essay, political instability. These preoccupations have resulted in government policies that emphasize the production of alternative fuels, mainly ethanol and biodiesel, which could decrease the demand for hydrocarbons. These actions have also led to governments’ decisions to set mandatory levels of use of essays these alternative fuels in dlf essay und diskurs, the short to medium term. Additional attention has been placed on research on the direct uses of biomass for the production of energy, a practice that has been extensively followed by the world’s peasantry in their households and by bad essay, many countries in some of dlf essay und diskurs their industries. These issues and factors are important for Cuba. The country does not produce but one-half of the oil required to meet its current energy needs, even for an economy at a depressed level of activity.

Cuba, however, has had long—albeit limited—experience in the production of ethanol from sugar and of its use as a supplement for gasoline, as well as in the direct use of biomass (sugar cane bagasse) to best application essays, produce energy in the sugar mills’ boilers. Because of the dismal status of the und diskurs island’s agriculture and twain on politics food sector, the food vs. fuel dilemma could be real for Cuba, should there be a policy shift to emphasize ethanol production from sugar cane and other feeddstock. Whether or not it is an issue would depend on dlf essay, a thorough assessment of suitable land availability, yields, and technologies available or used in the country or, said in simpler terms, economic feasibility of different alternatives, under different policy frameworks and organizational sectoral structures. Only such an assessment would answer the question of best application essays whether Cuba has the dlf essay und diskurs physical and ecological capacity to produce most of the food it requires while also producing feedstock for a biofuel industry. Technologies used to produce ethanol from corn and cane sugar are well known and relatively straightforward. In the case of biodiesel, currently derived from oil seeds such as rapeseed, as well as from palm oil and soybeans, the pollution technology is dlf essay und diskurs also simple but more costly, on a per unit basis, than that used for ethanol. Thesis Bouw! For both ethanol and biodiesel production, even with oil at $70 a barrel, production is not cost competitive with hydrocarbons in most countries. Dlf Essay Und Diskurs! Thus, in all countries, except currently in Brazil, there is significant protection via tariffs or subsidies. On Environmental Pollution For Class! As the price of oil inches its way to $100 per barrel, however, cost ratios will change in favor of biofuels. Ethanol can also be produced from a wide variety of other feedstock. Und Diskurs! These include prairie grasses, renewable biomass and residues from forestry and agricultural cropland, and even municipal wastes.

Many of these agriculture-based sources grow on essay on environmental pollution for class, marginal lands, not suitable for food crops. Therefore, their use as feedstock would not divert land from dlf essay, food production. However, the technology necessary for producing cellulose-based ethanol from these sources is still under development. According to rough estimates by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the capital costs associated with cellulosic ethanol production are several times greater than those for conventional ethanol production. LOCATION OF CURRENT BIOFUEL PRODUCTION. Brazil and the United States are the world’s largest producers of ethanol, the application first relying on sugar cane, and the second mostly on maize, a basic food and feedstuff. According to a recent World Bank study on trade and biofuels, prepared by its Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), only Brazil’s ethanol program has attained economic sustainability, as the country, after two decades, no longer uses subsidies or protection to support growth of the industry.

Certain tax incentives, favoring the use of gasohol or pure ethanol as transportation fuels, remain though. Close to 50% of the sugar Brazil produces goes into ethanol production. Parallel to this, its automotive industry has developed a variety of dlf essay und diskurs cars and trucks that can use a wide range of combinations of ethanol and gasoline. Ethanol now accounts for more than 40% of Brazil’s ethanol/gasoline sales. In addition to sugar cane, ethanol can be produced from other food stock such as maize, sugar beets, wheat, cassava, and other starches. Sugar, however, seems to be the mark essays on politics most cost effective raw material. In the United States, ethanol production originates mostly from maize. This crop is heavily protected by dlf essay und diskurs, a tariff on essays, ethanol imports, without which ethanol production from maize would be unprofitable. It is because of und diskurs this tariff, and the government-mandated use of ethanol as a supplement to sample bad essay, gasoline, that the industry subsists and grows.

Biodiesel production, concentrated in dlf essay und diskurs, the EU and based mostly on rapeseed oil, is still far from commercial viability and remains heavily underwritten by tax incentives and trade protection. In fact, where it is available in Europe, mainly Germany and Switzerland, the pollution 5th price of biodiesel at the pump is commonly lower than that of regular diesel. Biodiesel can also be produced from soybean oil, palm oil, waste oil, and other vegetable oils. Non-EU countries, which have begun production of biodiesel, include Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and India. Brazil is assessing feasibility of producing biodiesel from soybeans and from low-quality coffee beans. In India, with millions of hectares of dlf essay marginal lands, the use of jathropa, an oil seed that grows well in such land, is sample undergoing experimentation. There is widespread concern that in these countries, cropland will be diverted to the production of biodiesel feedstock. Dlf Essay! Furthermore, fears abound about deforestation in the Amazon and in hunger, the Indonesian forests, in order to plant soybeans and oil palm, because that shift would increase the dlf essay environmental and sample bad essay ecological costs of producing biofuels. IS THE THREAT AGAINST FOOD PRODUCTION TRULY SERIOUS? According to a study by dlf essay und diskurs, the UN Foundation, as well as the FAO (OECD and FAO, Agricultural Outlook, 2007–2016), there are sufficient land areas worldwide to increase production of feedstock for biofuels without significantly affecting the adequacy of the food supply.

The development of cost effective cellulosic ethanol technology would decrease pressure on cropland, as agricultural residues could then become major feedstock to the industry. For instance, agricultural residue from maize areas could be the thesis bouw source of ethanol without affecting the dlf essay use of mark on politics maize grain for food and und diskurs feed. By way of illustration, in the United States, there are about 400 million acres under cultivation. These areas consistently produce surplus food crops. However, it is estimated that one half of nation’s 2.26 billion acres have some potential for biomass production. Games Introduction! In addition, most researchers believe that increases in food crop yields will continue that will make feasible to dlf essay, feed more people from a given area cropped. It is also feasible to use residues from the production of ethanol from biomass as cattle feed, thus reducing the need to use maize for this purpose. In addition, from an income standpoint, given that the major cause of essay on environmental pollution for class 5th hunger is dlf essay und diskurs poverty, increased demand for theories term, biofuels is likely to increase prices paid to producers of und diskurs feedstock and/or result in more paid employment. In Brazil, the number of new jobs created by the sugar/ethanol industry is estimated to be 1 million.

Thus, more people will be able to access the food they need. There are social problems that could/will arise. For example, some NGOs in Brazil, including religious ones, submit that working conditions in many of the sugar plantations in that country are just slightly better than slavery. Cuba has a long history of using biomass to produce energy and other products. In addition to sugar, the sugar cane industry has produced ethanol for fuel as well as molasses for cattle feed, and thesis bouw rum. Sugar cane bagasse, the residue from the cane harvest, was traditionally used to run the sugar mill boilers, either by itself or by mixing it with bunker oil. This practice continues to this day.

Bagasse was also used, during the decade of the 1950s, to produce newsprint and compressed boards. Dlf Essay! During the same decade, ethanol, mixed with gasoline at best a 10/90 ratio, was sold as vehicular fuel. At the time, it was called the “national fuel.” No data is dlf essay available regarding what share of consumption this fuel accounted for. During the sample bad essay last 15 years, sugar production in Cuba has decreased precipitously. In 1959, Cuba was the world’s largest exporter of sugar and dlf essay und diskurs literally dominated the essay on environmental pollution international market, with total exports of sugar surpassing 5 million tons per annum. In contrast, the 2007 sugar harvest, at dlf essay about one million tons, was the thesis bouw lowest in more than 100 years, sufficient only to cover local (rationed) consumption of roughly 700 thousand tons and not quite enough to fulfill export contracts with China.

After the 2002 government decision to restructure the sugar industry, the und diskurs number of sugar mills decreased drastically. Only 42 mills participated in the 2007 harvest. More than half of the 161 mills active in on politics, the 1980s have been either dismantled or literally abandoned to rust. More than 200,000 workers have been released by und diskurs, the industry. In 2005, the government announced new investments to reactivate the sugar sector in order to take advantage of higher sugar prices. Theories On A Society Term! That effort, if it was carried out, seems to have produced nothing. Agricultural yields have also decreased radically. Cuban fields now yield less than 30 tons of sugar cane per hectare compared with a world average of 63 tons per hectare. Concerning production of sugar, the Cuban government has reported that, in 2006, industrial yields averaged less than 11%, compared with the average 12.83% reached during the decade of the 1950s.

Underlining these decreases in productivity, there has been a serious deterioration in the quality of soils in sugar cane plantations. Mismanagement of dlf essay und diskurs harvesting machinery has resulted in widespread soil compacting and, in many areas, water-logging. Too late and haphazard harvesting of sugar cane have destroyed many of the cane plants that were traditionally able to produce for several years without replanting. Furthermore, over one million hectares of application land (about 2.5 million acres), of the dlf essay und diskurs total 1.8 million hectares (about 4.5 million acres), formerly planted with sugar cane, have been abandoned and taken over by marabu, a variety of mark essays on politics acacia, a deep-rooted bush that produces nothing of value and is very difficult to eradicate. Thus, close to 2 million hectares of land could be used in the future for an integrated sugar industry: one that could produce sugar, ethanol, paper, cattle feed, and other products without competing for foodstuff cropland, provided that a return to earlier productivity levels are achieved. Und Diskurs! The possibility of directly using sugar cane biomass to produce surplus electricity, in addition to fueling the mill during the harvest, has also been technically proven profitable. The international market for sugar, though, has changed radically since the beginning of the Revolution. In 1959, Cuba exported more than three million tons of sugar to the United States, under a preferential quota.

In 2006, total U.S. imports of sugar were lower that 1.6 million tons. The United States now produces close to 8 million tons of sugar, from both sugar cane and sugar beets. Furthermore, production and consumption of non-sugar sweeteners has exploded. For domestic political reasons and best application essays the present allocation of dlf essay und diskurs import quotas, it is unlikely that U.S. domestic production would decrease to on environmental for class, permit Cuba to become again a highly significant player in U.S. sugar imports. An additional factor is that, under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) after 2008, Mexican sugar will have unrestricted access to und diskurs, the U.S. market. Other than cane sugar, however, U.S. demand for ethanol and other sugar canebased products could provide the new market for essays, a renewed Cuba’s sugar cane sector. I have asserted that, if former sugar cane areas are recoverable, Cuba will have close to 2 million hectares of land available to produce sugar cane.

As mentioned before, the historical experience of Cuba and Brazil shows that many products can be obtained from sugar cane, in addition to und diskurs, sugar itself, for example molasses for cattle feed, newsprint, rum, etc. All of on environmental pollution these products can be produced using the entire cane plant, without competing for land for food crops and using existing technology. To achieve such goals, a truly radical restructuring of the Cuban agricultural and sugar sector will be required. This restructuring will require a drastic policy shift that can/should be rapidly implemented regardless of the government in dlf essay und diskurs, power. There needs to be a clear government policy that establishes the goal of rescuing the sugar industry, which identifies the actions proposed to reach these goals. In my opinion, overall, agricultural land and the sugar mills should be privately owned, the on a property of the producers, as individuals, cooperatives, or corporations. Foreign direct investment and und diskurs join ventures in the sector should be legal, subject only to key necessary regulation and taxation. The market for labor should be free. That means that owners hire workers and pay them directly. Labor unions should be legal and independent from the state. A competitive factors’ market, as well as a national financial system, should be functional.

A functioning free market determining prices should be the rule. Intermediation should be legal and highly competitive. Contracts should be enforceable. In conclusion, the physical resources, however deteriorated, exist that can be used for a sugar industry renaissance that can lead to increased exports and employment for Cuba in the future. This would be possible without diverting any cropland from food production, thus permitting a higher capacity to import foodstuff that Cuba cannot produce for ecological reasons. In this effort, the thesis bouw role that capital, market, and technical know-how of Cuban exiles can play cannot be overemphasized, but will require a soft touch to dlf essay und diskurs, insure its full participation in the process. Save-the-date for the 27th Annual Conference, July 27-29, 2017.

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