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A Simple, Effective Homework Plan For Teachers: Part 1. Ways A Sentence. Dealing with homework can be the source of great stress for teachers; it#8217;s a rare week that I don#8217;t receive at least one email asking for advice. So for the next two weeks I#8217;m going to outline a homework planfour strategies this week, four the nextaimed at making homework a simple yet effective process. Let#8217;s get started. Homework Strategies 1-4. The key to phd dissertation summary homework success is to eliminate all the ways, obstacles—and excuses—that get in the way of lesson plan writing contrast students getting it done. Add leverage and some delicately placed peer pressure to in essay the mix, and not getting homework back from every student will be a rare occurrence. Here is how to do it.
1. Assign what students already know. Most teachers struggle with homework because they misunderstand the essay on article 34 tfeu, narrow purpose of homework, which is to practice what has already been learned. Meaning, you should only assign homework your students fully understand and are able to do by themselves. In Essay. Therefore, the summary, skills needed to complete the evening’s homework must be thoroughly taught during the school day. If your students can’t prove to you that they’re able to do the work without assistance, then you shouldn’t assign it. It isn’t fair to your students—or their parents—to have to sit at the dinner table trying to ways a sentence in essay figure out what you should have taught them during the day.
Homework is an agreement between you and your students. Parents shouldn’t be involved. If parents want to sit with their child while he or she does the homework, great. But it shouldn’t be an expectation or a requirement of them. Otherwise, you hand students a ready-made excuse for not doing it. You should tell parents at back-to-school night, #8220;I got it covered. If ever your child doesn#8217;t understand the homework, it#8217;s on plan essay me. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. Just send me a note and phd dissertation I#8217;ll take care of it.#8221; Holding yourself accountable is ways of starting a sentence in essay, not only on making, a reminder that your lessons need to of starting in essay be spot on, but parents will love you for it and be more likely to make sure homework gets done every night. And for tuition cheaper negligent parents?
It#8217;s best for their children in particular to make homework a teacher/student-only agreement. 3. Review and then ask one important question. A Sentence. Set aside a few minutes before the end of the school day to review the assigned homework. Have your students pull out the work, allow them to with prizes ask final clarifying questions, and have them check to make sure they have the materials they need. And then ask one important question: “Is there anyone, for any reason, who will not be able to turn in their homework in the morning? I want to know now rather than find out ways of starting in essay about it in the morning.” There are two reasons for this question. First, the more leverage you have with students, and the more they admire and phd dissertation summary respect you, the more they’ll hate disappointing you. This alone can be a powerful incentive for students to complete homework. Ways In Essay. Second, it’s important to eliminate every excuse so that the only answer students can give for not doing it is that they just didn’t care. Ohio Admission Essay. This sets up the ways of starting a sentence, confrontation strategy you’ll be using the next morning.
4. Confront students on the spot. College Tuition Cheaper. One of your key routines should be entering the classroom in the morning. As part of this routine, ask your students to place their homework in the top left-hand (or right-hand) corner of their desk before beginning a daily independent assignment—reading, bellwork, whatever it may be. In Essay. During the next five to ten minutes, walk around the college tuition cheaper, room and check homeworkdon#8217;t collect it. Have a copy of the answers (if applicable) with you and glance at every assignment. You don’t have to check every answer or read every portion of the assignment. Just enough to know that it was completed as expected. If it#8217;s math, I like to pick out three or four problems that represent the main thrust of the lesson from the day before. It should take just seconds to check most students. Remember, homework is the practice of something they already know how to do.
Therefore, you shouldn’t find more than a small percentage of wrong answersif any. If you see more than this, then you know your lesson was less than effective, and you#8217;ll have to reteach. If you find an assignment that is incomplete or not completed at all, confront that student on the spot . Call them on ways it. The day before, you presented a first-class lesson and gave your students every opportunity to thesis buzz through their homework confidently that evening. You did your part, but they didn#8217;t do theirs. It#8217;s an affront to in essay the excellence you strive for as a class, and you deserve an explanation. It doesn’t matter what he or she says in response to your pointed questions, and there is no reason to ohio state admission humiliate or give the student the third degree. What is ways of starting a sentence, important is state admission essay, that you make your students accountable to you, to ways of starting themselves, and to their classmates. A gentle explanation of phd dissertation summary why they don’t have their homework is a strong motivator for even the most jaded students to get their homework completed.
The personal leverage you carrythat critical trusting rapport you have with your studentscombined with the always lurking peer pressure is a powerful force. Not using it is like teaching with your hands tied behind your back. Homework Strategies 5-8. Next week we’ll cover the final four homework strategies. They#8217;re critical to of starting a sentence getting homework back every day in a way that is painless for you and meaningful for your students.
I hope you’ll tune in. If you haven’t done so already, please join us. Phd Dissertation Summary. It’s free! Click here and begin receiving classroom management articles like this one in your email box every week. 21 Responses to ways in essay A Simple, Effective Homework Plan For Teachers: Part 1. Summary. Good stuff, Michael.
A lot of teachers I train and coach are surprised (and skeptical) at first when I make the same point you make about NOT involving parents. But it#8217;s right on based on my experience as a teacher, instructional coach, and administrator the past 17 years. More important, it#8217;s validated by Martin Haberman#8217;s 40 years of research on what separates #8220;star#8221; teachers from #8220;quitter/failure#8221; teachers (http://www.habermanfoundation.org/Book.aspx?sm=c1) I love the articles about #8220;homework#8221;. in the past I feel that it is difficuty for collecting homework. I will try your plan next year. I think you#8217;ll be happy with it, Sendy! How do you confront students who do not have their homework completed? You state in your book to let consequences do their job and to never confront students, only ways of starting in essay, tell them the rule broken and consequence. I want to plan contrast make sure I do not go against that rule, but also hold students accountable for not completing their work.
What should I say to them? They are two different things. Ways. Homework is not part of your classroom management plan. I#8217;m a first-year middle school teacher at a private school with very small class sizes (eight to fourteen students per class). While I love this homework policy, I feel discouraged about confronting middle schoolers publicly regarding incomplete homework. My motive would never be to humiliate my students, yet I can name a few who would go home thinking their lives were over if I did confront them in front of their peers. Do you have any ideas of how to best go about incomplete homework confrontation with middle school students? The idea isn#8217;t in any way to humiliate students, but to hold them accountable for doing their homework. Parts one and two represent my best recommendation.:) I believe that Homework is a vital part of students learning.
I#8217;m still a studentin a classroom management class. So I have no experience with this, but I#8217;m having to plan a procedure for my class. On Article 34 Tfeu. What about teacher sitting at desk and in essay calling student one at thesis statement paragraph, a time to bring folder while everyone is doing bellwork or whatever their procedure is? That way 1) it would be a long walk for ways of starting the ones who didn#8217;t do the work :), and 2) it would be more private. What are your thoughts on that? Thanks. #128578; I#8217;m not sure I understand your question.
Would you mind emailing me with more detail? I#8217;m happy to help. I think what you talked about is on article 34 tfeu, great. How do you feel about flipping a lesson? My school is pretty big on it, though I haven#8217;t done it yet. Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. Basically, for homework, the teacher assigns a video or some other kind of media of brand new instruction. Students teach themselves and take a mini quiz at the end to show they understand the phd dissertation, new topic. Then the ways of starting a sentence in essay, next day in the classroom, the teacher reinforces the plan writing contrast, lesson and ways a sentence in essay the class period is spent practicing with the teacher present for clarification. I haven#8217;t tried it yet because as a first year teacher I haven#8217;t had enough time to on article 34 tfeu make or find instructional videos and ways a sentence in essay quizzes, and because I#8217;m afraid half of my students will not do their homework and the next day in class I will have to waste the time of the students who did their homework and contests with just reteach what the ways a sentence in essay, video taught. Anyway, this year, I#8217;m trying the #8220;Oops, I forgot my homework#8221; form for students to fill out every time they forget their homework. It keeps them accountable and essay contests prizes helps me keep better track of who is missing what.
Once they complete it, I cut off the bottom portion of the form and staple it to their assignment. I keep the top copy for my records and for parent/teacher conferences. Here is an instant digital download of the form. It#8217;s editable in case you need different fields. Thanks again for your blog. I love the ways of starting, balance you strike between rapport and respect. Your site is a godsend for essay a newbie teacher! Thank you for your clear, step-by-step, approach! I G+ your articles to my PLN all the time. You#8217;re welcome, TeachNich!
And thank you for sharing the articles. I#8217;m going into my first year and some people have told me to try and get parents involved as much as I can even home visits and things like that. But my gut says that negligent parents cannot be influenced by ways of starting a sentence me. Phd Dissertation. Still, do you see any value in of starting in essay having parents initial their student#8217;s planner every night so they stay up to date on homework assignments? I could also write them notes. Personally, no. Thesis And Introduction. I#8217;ll write about this in the future, but when you hold parents accountable for what are student responsibilities, you lighten their load and miss an a sentence, opportunity to improve independence. I am teaching at a school where students constantly don#8217;t take work home. Essay With Prizes. I rarely give homework in math but when I do it is usually something small and ways of starting I still have to chase at least 7 kids down to get their homework.
My way of holding them accountable is to lesson plan contrast essay record a homework completion grade as part of a sentence in essay their overall grade. Is this wrong to do? Do you believe homework should never be graded for on article a grade and just be for practice? No, I think marking a completion grade is a good idea. I#8217;ve been teaching since 2014 and we need to take special care when assigning homework. If the homework assignment is too hard, is ways a sentence, perceived as busy work, or takes too long to complete, students might tune out and resist doing it. Persuasive College. Never send home any assignment that students cannot do.
Homework should be an of starting a sentence in essay, extension of what students have learned in class. To ensure that homework is clear and appropriate, consider the following tips for assigning homework: Assign homework in 34 tfeu small units. Explain the assignment clearly. Establish a routine at the beginning of the year for how homework will be assigned. Remind students of due dates periodically. And Make sure students and of starting parents have information regarding the policy on missed and late assignments, extra credit, and available adaptations. Establish a set routine at the beginning of the year. Nancie L Beckett. I love your approach! Do you have any ideas for homework collection for lower grades? K-3 are not so ready for independent work first thing in the morning, so I do not necessarily have time to check then; but it is vitally important to me to essay teach the integrity of in essay completing work on ohio time.
Also, I used to ways a sentence in essay want parents involved in homework but my thinking has really changed, and your comments confirm it! I#8217;ll be sure and write about this topic in an upcoming article (or work it into an article). #128578; 2017 Smart Classroom Management. All Rights Reserved.
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my valentine essay My Funny Valentine : The Disintegration of the Standard. We just blew the top off that place that night. It was a motherfucker the way everybody played, and I mean everybody. (Miles Davis) So Miles Davis declared to Quincy Troupe in his autobiography, referring to ways a sentence a concert which took place at New York's Philharmonic Hall on summary, the night of February 12, 1964. It was a charity concert sponsored by the NAACP, organized to support voter registration in Mississippi and Louisiana. Produced by a sentence in essay Teo Macero, part of the phd dissertation, concert was issued on the Columbia LP My Funny Valentine (now available as a 2-CD set, The Complete Concert 1964 , Columbia Legacy C2K 48821 or COL 471246). Ways Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. Davis, accompanied by plan compare contrast essay the youthful Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, Tony Williams, and in essay, the tenor saxophonist George Coleman, gave birth to one of his best LPs and one of the high points in his interpretation of jazz standards. Summary. The aim of this essay is to explore what makes My Funny Valentine such a brilliant and unique LP. I shall look carefully at how Davis and ways a sentence in essay, his quintet treat the musical forms, and persuasive essay tuition, how the musicians manage to create free and original forms while at the same time respecting the formal structures of the tunes.
Rather than discussing the pieces in the the order in which the they appear on ways a sentence in essay, the Columbia LP, I shall consider the phd dissertation summary, them in a sentence two groups depending on the basic formal treatment they receive: Group 1: Dividing the structure into parts that do not correspond to the division into 8-measure sections (Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You); Group 2: Enriching the structure by adding tags and turnarounds (All Blues, All of You). Group 1: Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You I shall begin with the pieces belonging to the first group. Phd Dissertation Summary. They show a particular approach to the musical form. The basic structure of all of these standards is the song form: Stella by Starlight: A (8) - B (8) - C (8) - D (8) My Funny Valentine: A (8) - A' (8) - B (8) - A (12)
I Thought About You: A (8) - B (8) - A (8) - C (8) Musicians typically use some sort of sound signals when they want the rhythm section to ways of starting in essay change the accompaniment in lesson compare order to create a new mood. Davis had used this particular technique of arrangement since the 1950s -- it allowed him to ways a sentence adopt a looser attitude towards the structure. During the Philharmonic Hall concert Davis uses two different kinds of sound signals: Type A: short diatonic phrases of crotchets or quavers played in summary half time for one or two beats; these are full of swing, and ways, their dynamic tends to the forte.
Throughout the sound signal the rhythm section plays an accompaniment in 2 or 4 with a feeling of double-time. (See examples 1a, b, c, d, e.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis theme, D section, measure 1 (1:53) (b) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, B section, measure 8 (3:08) (c) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, C section, measure 8 (3:58) (d) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 9 (2:45) (e) I Thought About You: Davis theme, A' section, measure 3 (1:20) Type B: short chromatic ascending (and sometimes descending) phrases in irregular ternary groups. These signals are typically used to persuasive essay tuition cheaper change a basic pulse into double-time. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. If the music is essay already in double time, they mark a transition into a section of a sentence, 4 beats accompaniment supported by a strong walking bass. (See examples 2a, b, c, d.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, D section, measure 8 (4:28) (b) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 7 (3:00) (c) My Funny Valentine: Davis chorus I, A' section, measure 7 (5:23) (d) I Thought About You: chorus I , C section, measure 8 (2:17) The musicians use other techniques as well. The striking prolonging of harmonic rhythm in the double-time sections, and the continuous change of accompaniment, divide the regular song-form structure into asymmetrical segments. This gives rise to the fragmentation of the song form, as we shall see. B. Dividing the standard into phd dissertation, sections of different meters and accompaniments. Table 1 shows the diversity of ways of starting a sentence, accompaniments of Davis' first chorus in Victor Young's Stella by Starlight (2:24-4:37 on the Columbia CD). The song form of four 8-measure sections is completely ignored; Davis recomposes it in eight different musical segments. The eight measures of the B section are subdivided into paragraph, five different segments.
Latin-sounding rhythms make for an unusual accompaniment of ways in essay, classic ballads -- they are frequently used as pedals and persuasive, appear several times during the concert, e.g. in ways in essay My Funny Valentine. Here on a bossa-nova rhythm played by Tony Williams we hear the strong bass pedal of the dominant in the first four measures of the Eb major bridge. The bass groove is characteristic of the latin accompaniments (example 3a). Example 3. My Funny Valentine, bass groove. (a) Davis chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (4:08) (b) Coleman chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (6:24) (c) Davis chorus I, A section, measures 11-12 (5:16) In the same bridge we can hear another rhythm like that just described -- Carter introduces a new ostinato (example 3b). Williams and Carter play a typical bossa-nova pedal during Davis' first chorus (example 3c). In such cases, although the form is divided into different sections, we don't hear the music as a succession of essay on article, unconnected units; it appears from the first notes as a consistent sound continuum. The sudden contrast, within a project that respects the coherence of the piece, is an exceptional means of providing unity to of starting a sentence in essay the standard. C. The interplay among the musicians.
The continual changing of the rhythms, accompaniment, dynamics, and moods, as well as the sound signals just mentioned, show the great interplay of the statement, musicians and their careful reciprocal listening. In Essay. Davis always demanded was that his musicians be able to play spontaneously and creatively following an open-ended project. Of his masterpiece Kind of Blue he said: I didn't write out the music of Kind of Blue , but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of spontaneity in the playing. The level of interplay is closely related to plan writing contrast essay the freedom in structure. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. In this essay I want to pay special attention to places where the interaction among the musicians influences the form of the songs. Besides the sound signals already mentioned, consider the phrase played by Davis on the tonic chord in the last two measures of the Stella by Starlight theme (example 4). Example 4. Ohio State Essay. Stella by Starlight, Davis' phrase and Williams accompaniment, Davis theme, D section, measure 8 (2:21). When he begins his phrase, Miles is accompanied by the light brushes of Tony Williams, who hits the cymbals 3 times allowing the rhythm section to play in 4; and we hear Carter's strong walking bass. Williams' first hit is made with a brush, the other two with the of starting a sentence, sticks, increasing the dynamic (forte) and dramatically changing the mood of the song.
The change from the brushes to the sticks takes only a moment. Probably Williams' attention to sound details was enforced by some gestures by Davis. This is an example of a very unconventional way of treating the form which depends on the sensitivity of the soloist and on the quick response of the rhythm section. Likewise, from the fifth measure of the B section of Stella by Starlight, Davis' solo has an summary, energetic double-time rhythm. Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. During a relaxed trumpet phrase, which reinterprets the theme at phd dissertation, the beginning of the C section, the pulse ballad returns. The mood suddenly becomes rarefied: Hancock plays dreamy arabesques while the drums elegantly fade. Two trumpet notes change the mood of the of starting a sentence in essay, song and consequently the form. D. The fragmentation of the standard in different and unusual moods. The standards are divided into sections corresponding to different moods. In his biography of Davis, Ian Carr notes that by comparing the original versions of My Funny Valentine (October 1956) and Stella by Starlight (May 1958) with the live versions from 1964, we can see that the original versions are melancholic but the emotional range is fairly narrow.
By contrast, in state admission prompt the later versions the emotional range is very wide. Consider George Coleman's solo in Stella by Starlight. Here the typical lyrical-romantic mood of the song is only one of several emotional dimensions of the interpretation. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. Table 2 shows how the sequence of moods influences the essay 34 tfeu, articulation of the structure. The song's symmetrical eight-measure sections are divided into musical segments of different lengths. Moods alternate throughout those musical segments. Unusual moods are used in the interpretation of of starting a sentence in essay, a standard ballad, for instance the dissonant polyrhythmic pedal between the C and D sections of the piece (we have already treated the unusual latin pedals appearing sporadically in the concert).
E. The role of Tony Williams. The drumming of Tony Williams also contributes to the loosening of the essay 34 tfeu, form. One of his many special talents emerges as a very original one: a brilliant use of pauses and ways a sentence, spaces in the sections during which he stops playing or accompanying. He is not bound to the 32-bar structure when he enters or leaves the on article 34 tfeu, song. This technique further fragments the song form into parts of different lengths. Table 3 shows the points of standstill of Williams' drumming in relation to of starting the structure of Stella by Starlight (the gray horizontal bars indicate when Williams is playing). Table 3. Stella by college tuition Starlight: The presence of Tony Williams. Likewise, table 4 shows how, in My Funny Valentine, Williams leaves the stage at the seventh measure of the bridge of Coleman's chorus. He deliberately enters and leaves the scene at a different point of the song each time.
In fact, the long pause in My Funny Valentine allows the tearing saxophone solo to fade into loneliness and a quiet dialogue between bass and piano, returning us to the melancholic notes of Richard Rodgers' theme. Table 4. My Funny Valentine: The presence of Tony Williams. It's hard not to sound paradoxical, but the ways of starting a sentence in essay, several points of stillness of the drums are among the most clever and effective accompaniments ever used by a drummer in a standard. F. The irregular extension of the improvisation. The soloists (Davis, Coleman, Hancock) move independently within the standard -- they don't necessarily follow the 32-bar chorus scheme. The extension of the improvisations depends only on the musicians' taste. Ohio Admission Prompt. Table 5 shows the independence of the extension of the improvisations from the song's basic structure. Miles' re-exposition of the theme from the fifth measure of the B section (11:24) is remarkable.
This unconventional aesthetic choice further contributes to the disintegration of the song and its reassembly in a new form. Ways In Essay. Table 5 shows how the standard 32-bar structure finally comes out. It is important to consider the ohio state essay, musical form not as a mechanical calculation of measures; otherwise we will misunderstand one of the interesting aspects of the Philharmonic Hall concert. The form is evidently only a scheme on which the musicians build a musical continuum that isn't limited to the structure of a single 32-bar chorus. The convention of the 32-bar standard is completely overthrown by the Davis quintet. Ways In Essay. They pay attention to a new overarching form that takes into account the evolution of the piece from the phd dissertation summary, beginning until the final notes. What is important is not the unity of of starting a sentence in essay, each individual chorus but that all the improvisations contribute to a coherent musical whole. The mood of contests, Davis' improvisations is in essay worked out by the other musicians -- especially by plan writing compare Coleman, who connects his solos to the last notes of the Davis' last phrase. The coherence of the new overarching form is highlighted by the internal contrasts and the segmentation of the structure. Table 5: Stella by Starlight, extension of the improvisations in the structure. In the second half of a sentence in essay, this essay I shall examine the other two pieces of the concert, All Blues and persuasive essay tuition cheaper, All of ways a sentence, You, in which the structural innovations involve the use of tags and turnarounds.
All Blues (base structure: blues form, 12 measures). Tags are added between the theme exposition and at the ends of every improvisation, and they can be considered a kind of interpolation within the 12-bar blues chorus. Essay On Article. The tags are composed of elements of the introduction, almost the same one used on the original version on the 1959 LP Kind of Blue . The introduction consists of a 6/8 rhythm played by Tony Williams, a bass riff, a light piano ostinato, and a saxophone obbligato. This tonic pedal allows the widening of the song's general structure. Nevertheless, the formal devlopment isn't as varied as in the cases we looked at in the first part of the essay. In the ways of starting, case of All Blues, the 12-bar chorus represents the model for the formal construction: all of the improvisations end after an integral number of choruses; and the 12-measure structure of the piece isn't subdivided further. Thesis Paragraph. The standard blues form is ways in essay not completely superseded, as we might have expected. All of You (base structure: A (8) - B (8) - A' (8) - C (8)).
Because of its extraordinary way of treating the form of Cole Porter's composition, this tune deserves particular attention. This performance uses both procedures of structural manipulation discussed above. Points (A)-(F) discussed in the context of Group 1 are relevant, and as with All Blues, the base structure of the piece is elaborated with turnarounds (Group 2). I won't offer detailed analyses of the points discussed for Group 1; but I'll make several quick observations apropos of (A)-(F) above: sound signals of both types A and prompt, B, which didn't appear in All Blues, are used throughout All of ways in essay, You; the essay on making tuition, subdivision of the standard into sections of different meters and accompaniment sections is very complex; as a result, the interplay among the musicians reaches a level rarely heard before; the standard moves through several unusual and expressive moods, and the quintet combines dramatic and dissonant sections -- often including complex polyrhythms (as in the beginning of Hancock's solo, 10:06-10:39) and relaxed moments (as when from Davis' trumpet come the refined notes of a sentence in essay, Porter's theme); Williams shows his surest command of pauses and space in this piece; the persuasive essay tuition cheaper, improvisations are irregularly extended throughout, particularly by the use of turnarounds. Consider a few examples: Davis' theme begins on a dominant pedal of Bb 11 measures long, which begins on ways in essay, the second measure of the A section (in the first measure we hear only the lesson plan contrast, trumpet). The pedal is unusual not only in its irregular length of 11 measures but also because it is ways composed of a two-measure ostinato -- which means that the last repetition is cut off. This arrangement is not spontaneous but carefully prepared -- we hear the summary, same pedal in the A section of Davis' first chorus (1:21).
Example 5 shows Carter's bass line during the pedal in relation to a sentence the obbligato of piano and essay on making college tuition, drums. Example 5. All of You, bass pedal. Another arrangement appears in the last four measures of the B section, in which the rhythm section plays obbligati between two Coleman choruses. I've transcribed the two obbligati in the examples 6a and 6b. Example 6: All of You. (a) obbligato 1. Coleman chorus II, B section, measure 5-8 (5:46); Hancock chorus I, B section, measures 5-8 (8:31) (b) obbligato 2: Coleman chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (6:07); Hancock chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (9:26) Finally, we can hear an impressive chromatic movement of the bass during Davis' first chorus in the first four measures of the A section (0:54). It reappears in the A section at a sentence, 8:10, after Hancock's turnaround. These devices allow the quintet to move freely through a standard that has a fairly rigid song form.
A revolutionary structure. Consider an especially novel device in the quintet's interpretation of All of You: in the last two measures of the C section, a harmonic substitution for essay prompt, the tonic chord allows a turnaround of four chords in the last four measures of the base structure. Table 7. All of You, (a) tonic chord; (b) turnaround, II-V-I substitution. Typically, the improvisation ends in the turnaround after the second chorus, but in Davis' last improvisation he enters the turnaround after only one chorus. How do the musicians know when a soloist gets to the turnaround when the number of measures isn't fixed? The soloists use the sound signal device already discussed to let the others know when they are leaving the turnaround and the end of their improvisation. All of them play a signal phrase at the end of their improvisations. This phrase is a free paraphrase of the last measure of the melody of the of starting a sentence in essay, theme -- what remains of the latter is only the rhythmic design and prizes, the resolution of the of starting a sentence in essay, VII to the tonic (I):
Example 7: All of You. (a) signal phrase; (b) original melody. This appeal to the melody is lesson compare contrast made in almost the same way by Davis, Coleman, and ways of starting a sentence in essay, Hancock. The soloists (and Carter and Williams) take Davis' signal phrase as a reference and use it without significant variations. Table 8. Phd Dissertation Summary. All of ways in essay, You, relation between chorus and turnarounds. The signal phrase. Davis used the signal phrase as a mean to indicate the end of the improvisation in a turnaround as early as the mid-1950s. For example, in If I Were a Bell, the opening piece of the 1956 Prestige album Relaxin' with the Miles Davis Quintet , this technique is used to enter and exit from a turnaround, the tag of the last chorus. If we compare the original version of All of You (from the 1956 Columbia LP 'Round About Midnight ), we hear the same signal phrase as in the 1964 Philharmonic Hall concert. In the original version, the phrase marks the end of an thesis and introduction paragraph, improvisation based on a turnaround of undetermined length.
This comparison suggests two conclusions. First, that what seems to be a spontaneous sound signal improvised at the moment of the concert is of starting really the result of thesis statement, a long development of ways a sentence in essay, a technique of arrangement born almost ten years earlier. Contests Prizes. Davis used this phrase for a long time and in different group settings. Second, this device allows for orderly formal articulation that complements rather than constrains the free creativity Davis sought in his group playing. A Sentence In Essay. In fact, two different factors coexist in Davis' interpretation of All of You: great care for essay, the formal aspect strictly conceived, and yet, at the same time, widespread use of procedures allowing a free and extemporaneous treatment of the form (e.g. in ways in essay the turnarounds ad lib within the 32-bar chorus structure).
The signal phrase as it appears in the 1956 version was a device to mark off a limited number of essay with prizes, turnarounds that widened and adorned the last chorus, and was used by the soloist as a short tag to conclude his improvisation. A Sentence. It was less important within the essay college, interpretation of the ways a sentence, standard in 34 tfeu comparison than the previous choruses. In the 1964 version, however, the turnarounds have a completely different role to play. For consider: the extension of the ways, turnarounds covers 60% of the summary, whole execution; as a result they are very important in the architecture of All of You (table 9); the ingenuity of the soloists is of starting in essay made evident in state admission prompt the turnarounds: Davis showcases his improvisation by of starting a sentence in essay including 28 turnarounds, and Hancock's solo shows a generous use of the sequences; at the end of the song Davis plays the essay with, theme on the harmonic progression of the turnaround and not on the harmonic progression of the 32-bar chorus! Turnaround as a form. To follow up this study we would have to compare the function of the turnaround in of starting in essay this version of All of You with Miles' use of it in the 1950s. By 1964, it is phd dissertation no longer a device to ways of starting in essay decorate a musical form -- it has become the plan writing, musical form itself.
The 32-measure structure of the song form becomes only a frame that contains the turnaround harmonic progression. The disintegration of the ways a sentence, standard is complete. We are at the end of the journey during which we saw simple popular songs becoming examples of sublime musical art. Phd Dissertation. Of the original pieces, after the a sentence in essay, disintegration and recomposition, only the magic atmosphere still remains, extraordinary sensations for careful listeners. If you have any suggestions, question, or comments, please send e-mail to me at this address. This essay was published (in Italian) in thesis statement paragraph the jazz journal Musica Jazz : Volume 53, no. 8/9 (August-September 1997), pp. Ways Of Starting In Essay. 52-55; Volume 53, no. 10 (October 1997), pp.
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6 Best Mind Mapping Tools For Creative Students. I myself only ways, discovered mind mapping a few months ago, because of one of these very articles that you’re reading. The moment I tried it, I was sold. Since then I’ve used it to design websites, create stories, instead of to-do lists and more. In this article, I will present you the 6 best mind mapping tools to use. But, first, what is a mind map? A mind map is quite a straight forward tool, where you take a central concept, and then draw out subconcepts. So, for example, for this article, I could write “mind map article” in the middle of the page, then draw lines out from there and create subnodes with all the headings I’ll use in statement and introduction paragraph, this article. Ways In Essay? So “what is thesis statement and introduction a mind map?”, “mind-mapping uses for students”, “best mind-mapping tools for ways of starting a sentence creative students” and “conclusion”.
And from there I could then again create more nodes. In this case, I would draw out plan writing, more nodes from the “mind-mapping tools for of starting a sentence in essay creative students node, with the actual mind mapping tools I want to phd dissertation summary write about. I could even go one further and make subnodes with what are the advantages and disadvantages of each. It depends on how far I want to go. Ways Of Starting A Sentence? However far I go, the mind map is easy to oversee and phd dissertation summary, quick to organize. What’s more, because mind maps are far more malleable on ways of starting a sentence computers, you can actually allow them to develop and essay, change over time, which makes them not just useful as snap shots, but also makes it possible to use them to ways track tasks.
Really, you could use it anywhere where you want to phd dissertation summary organize things and make certain you understand all of the tasks you’ve got ahead of you. Ways Of Starting A Sentence? Want to organize a party? Then mind map it! Simply draw out the nodes with all the important points that need to be covered, like “drinks”, “location’, “guest list”, “party snacks”, and so forth. Alternatively, students could use it to map out how you’re going to write out an essay, allowing you to figure out what topics you need to phd dissertation summary cover, what headings you need, what arguments you’ll make, and in essay, what papers and reading you’ll use to back them. You can use it effectively as a to-do tool, where you can create a subnode for each class and extracurricular activity and then mark the tasks that you need to do as subnodes in these nodes. You can even more things around so that it’s easy to essay with see what is ways of starting in essay more important (I normally put more important things near the top). And it also works well as a way to divide up projects if you’re working in plan writing compare, a team.
In this case, you create the mind map, work out all the work that has to be done, and then attach them to nodes with your names on it. Ways A Sentence In Essay? You can even take it a step further and combine the to do with this, with each person also having a to and introduction do and done section, so that you can move things from the former to the latter and demonstrate how you’re progressing (and who is ways of starting a sentence not pulling their weight). Best Mind Mapping Tools For Creative Students. Coggle is an online mind map that you can use in essay, Chrome. It comes in three flavors. These are free, awesome and ways of starting in essay, organization. Contests With? I’m sure I don’t have to explain what free means. Try it out. It has quite a lot of functionality and allows you to ways in essay mind map in different colors! Besides, if you want to pay for mind mapping software you should go for Imindq. It’s awesome.
Awesome I tell you! If you could date mind mapping software, I’d date Imindq. It’s got so many possibilities and it looks gorgeous to boot. Contests With? It’s got a free trail if you want to try it out for a sentence in essay a while. Lesson Plan Writing Contrast? Or if you don’t want to pay, FreeMind is a good choice for working offline.
It’s open source and though it’s not quite as pretty and not quite as versatile as the other ones, it will get the job done – particularly when you’re just starting out. Ways A Sentence? MindMapple is phd dissertation summary a great choice as well, particularly for visual thinkers as it also allows you to use clip art and other visual stuff like that. Another great aspect is that you can cloud share it via Google Drive. A Sentence? As the name gives away, it also works for macs, which not all of those I’ve mentioned so far do, so that’s certainly a bonus! Some people like it pretty and some people like it fast (yes, I’m still talking about mind-maps). Text2mindmap is for those who want to move quicker than speeding bullets.
You just type in your thoughts and the web app does the essay rest. Ways In Essay? Just hit tab if you want to move on admission essay prompt to a new sub-node. Great, in other words, for when you’re trying to brainstorm a project. Of Starting In Essay? Okay, Sketchboard is more a sketch board than a mind map, but can still be used as a mind map and gives you slightly more flexibility besides. And it allows you to draw pretty pictures as well, which is definitely a bonus if that’s what you like to do. Mindmaps are awesome, but they’re even nicer if you’ve got nice pictures to go along with them. And that makes Sketchboard one of the best websites for this kind of thing.
I can rave about mind mapping tools and mind maps all day. Trust me. I really can. The thing is, you can’t really see their uses until you’ve tried it out. And seeing as all of these have free versions (and quite a few even stay free) there really isn’t any reason not to. Mind mapping is an incredibly useful tool that is particularly useful for those who like to see things in a different way and 34 tfeu, explore ideas visually and topographically. Or you could just continue using scraps of of starting paper, forgetting everything you were trying to on article 34 tfeu do and not really having any oversight. After all, that’s been serving you well so far, I imagine!
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Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment (1995) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.
Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of Methadone Treatment. Addiction to of starting in essay opiates involves a complex interplay of essay 34 tfeu physiological, psychological, social, and other variables. The primary purpose of methadone treatment is to intervene directly in the physiological processes that underlie addiction. Ideally, such treatment is supported by additional psychological and behavioral therapies. To understand why methadone treatment works, it is important to understand the physiological basis of heroin addiction. This chapter provides an overview of the ways of starting a sentence in essay development of pharmacotherapeutic approaches to college tuition the treatment of opiate addiction and summarizes the key basic scientific investigations of the physiological underpinnings of opiate effects, including the a sentence in essay discovery of the endogenous opioid system. In addition, the chapter describes the pharmacological and medical characteristics of methadone as a medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The Rationale for Pharmacotherapy. Opiate addiction is operationally defined today as at least one year of daily opiate drug self-administration, with development of tolerance, physical dependence, and drug-seeking behavior.
The concepts of tolerance and dependence are thus fundamental to understanding the phd dissertation summary physiological aspects of opiate addiction. When a person repeatedly uses an opiate drug-like heroin, over time, that person becomes tolerant to heroin; that is, he or she requires greater and greater doses of heroin to achieve the ways a sentence in essay same physiological and psychological effects. Ohio State Admission Prompt. The same is true for ways, the opiate drug morphine. Tolerance. can be thought of thesis and introduction as an adaptation of the of starting a sentence functional (physiological) systems of the body to opiates. During chronic use of an opiate, physical dependence also develops when the physiological systems have adapted to the point that they actually require the summary opiate just to maintain physiological equilibrium. Virtually all physiological systems are affected in ways of starting a sentence opiate addiction. A reproducible syndrome occurs when an opiate addict goes through withdrawal. Thesis. This syndrome includes yawning, lacrimation, piloerection, perspiration, mydriasis, tremor, gooseflesh, restlessness, myalgia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, hyperpnea, and hypertension.
When prolonged, the ways syndrome includes weight loss and, even after acute withdrawal, symptoms subside, persistent symptoms such as sleep disturbances, irritability, restlessness, and poor concentration which can be present for months or years. Both acute and chronic tolerance are physiological phenomena subserved by the central nervous system. However, both acute and chronic tolerance may also be influenced by environmental variables, such as setting, conditioning, and learning. The pharmacological approach to on making cheaper long-term treatment of heroin addiction, first undertaken in early 1964, was rooted in ways of starting a sentence what was then a hypothesis that opiate addiction is a metabolic disease, caused by either intrinsic or drug-induced alterations in ohio state essay physiology. The original researchers in the field, Drs. Vincent Dole, the late Marie Nyswander and Mary Jeanne Kreek, hypothesized that in a sentence some or most cases of heroin addiction the addicted individuals had a intrinsic metabolic disorder, possibly with an underlying genetic predisposition, which expressed itself clinically after initial exposure to specific types of drugs or other chemical agents of abuse; and that in other cases, individuals who developed addiction were experiencing drug-induced metabolic disruptions in admission otherwise normal physiology. Ways. They speculated that in the latter cases, heroin-induced changes in specific neurobiological systems persist over long periods and essay, possibly become permanent. The researchers observed that gradual removal of physical dependence upon morphine or heroin (detoxification) followed solely by psychiatric or other behavioral treatment frequently failed to ways of starting help addicts sustain abstinence. Similar observations had been made much earlier in essay on article some of the initial studies conducted between 1936 and 1941 at the U.S.
Public Health Service (USPHS) Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, which showed that less than ten percent of hard-core addicts were able to stay free from opiates after discharge from long stays in drug-free treatment programs that only offered counseling and psychiatric care. Thus, Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek sought an optimal pharmacological agent that could supplant or complement psychological and behavioral. treatment approaches. Their first study in 1964 was to repeat earlier studies that attempted unsuccessfully to use short-acting opiates, such as heroin and morphine, in a controlled fashion, in the management of opiate dependence. Morphine was again shown to be an unsuitable pharmacotherapeutic agent for of starting a sentence in essay, several reasons: short duration of action, requiring four to essay 34 tfeu six administrations per of starting a sentence in essay, day; necessity for lesson plan compare contrast, parenteral administration, because of lack of substantial bioavailability after oral administration; and the rapid development of increasing tolerance. Regular, frequent increments in doses were needed to in essay prevent the emergence of withdrawal symptoms. Statement Paragraph. The poor suppression of craving (drug hunger) and drug-seeking behavior, unless doses were regularly increased, made it difficult to reach a steady state. In view of the anticipated limitations of morphine as a maintenance agent, a search was made for a medication that would block withdrawal symptoms of in essay heroin addicts and that would be orally effective, long-acting, nonsedating, and persuasive essay college cheaper, devoid of adverse side effects. Methadone, a synthetic opiate compound originally synthesized in Germany for use as an analgesic in World War II, was selected for study in 1964. Methadone had been introduced between 1958 and 1962 at the USPHS hospital in a sentence in essay Lexington, at the Bellevue Medical Center in New York City, and at a limited number of other sites for detoxification treatment of heroin addiction. In the early detoxification programs it was given in essay with prizes three or four small daily doses, usually 5 to 10 mg each, because the prolonged duration of ways a sentence in essay action was not yet appreciated and no analytical techniques existed for objective measurements of pharmacokinetics.
The purpose of these detoxification programs was to wean patients off heroin so that they could pursue a drug-free lifestyle. However, these efforts largely failed. Within weeks following methadone detoxification all patients quickly relapsed and returned for repeat detoxification in a revolving-door fashion. Certain characteristics were thought to be important for successful pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction, including systematic bioavailability after oral administration and prolonged duration of action. An oral route of administration was thought to be more acceptable to patients and, thus, would enhance patient compliance. Oral medication would also eliminate the risk of blood-borne infection (principally serum hepatitis) associated with intravenous administration coupled with use of unsterile or shared needles and syringes. Lastly, oral administration would disrupt the symbolic linkage to an illicit lifestyle and, practically, diminish the behavior of congregating to share needles and other drug paraphernalia. A prolonged duration of action (a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile) was desired so that the dosing regimen could be infrequent, preferably once daily. In addition to ensuring better compliance with the medication, long intervals between doses would minimize inter-dose opiate withdrawal or abstinence symptoms. It was hypothesized that such a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile.
would also permit normalization of specific physiological functions disrupted by chronic use of short-acting opiates such as heroin. It was further hypothesized, and later proven, that long-acting agents would be effective at a stable dose for a much longer period of time owing to phd dissertation summary slower development and sustained level of tolerance. Ways. In fact, subsequent studies have shown that once the daily dose of statement and introduction paragraph methadone has been stabilized, tolerance does not develop to the essential effects of methadone (prevention of opiate abstinence symptoms and prevention of drug hunger or craving) as used in maintenance treatment. Thus, steady constant doses can be used for years to treat heroin addiction effectively. In 1964, only methadone met the criteria of being orally effective and long-acting.
In 1993, another related synthetic opiate, LAAM, was approved by ways a sentence FDA as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for opiate addiction. LAAM has an even slower onset of state admission action than methadone and more prolonged duration of ways of starting action. 1 (See Pescor, 1943; Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c, 1987b; Dole, 1988; Kreek, 1991, Kreek 1992a, Kreek 1992b, Kreek 1992c.) While clinicians treating heroin addicts were developing new pharmacotherapeutic approaches, important discoveries from basic science regarding opiate physiology began to emerge. A breakthrough in the study of the neurobiological basis of opiate effects was the discovery in 1973 by three independent groups, those of Snyder at Johns Hopkins University, Simon at essay contests with prizes, New York University, and Terenius at the University of Uppsala (Sweden), of specific opiate receptors.
These studies revolutionized the field of neuropharmacology and a sentence in essay, neurochemistry and were based, in part, on the earlier work of Dole and Goldstein. Later, three typesmu, delta, and kappaof specific opiate receptors were identified. In 1975, the and introduction first class of endogenous opioid peptide ligands, the enkephalins, were discovered by Kosterlitz and Hughes. Such compounds, generically called endorphins, can be thought of as the body's endogenous morphine-like substances in that they share structural and physiological similarities with morphine and in essay, heroin. Soon thereafter, attention focused on lesson three separate classes of endogenous opioid ligands that bind to the specific opioid receptors. In animals, many of the of starting a sentence well-known opiate effects have been reproduced by administering large amounts of these endogenous opioids.
This pharmacologic effect depends primarily on the metabolism of the parent LAAM compound to essay two active metabolites, noracetylmethadol and dinoracetyl-methadol. These two metabolites are pharmacologically active and are even longer acting than LAAM, permitting an every two- or even every three-days dosing schedule. Tolerance develops to some of these natural opioid peptide effects. The specific relationships between the in essay action of endogenous opioid peptides and discrete physiological functions are still being defined. Endogenous opioids or endorphins include the enkephalins, dynorphins, and statement paragraph, beta-endorphin. The three opioid peptide genes have been cloned, and each encodes a single large peptide, which is then processed to yield all of the opioid peptides within a class: proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and proopiomelanocortin, the ways a sentence latter of which contains both beta-endorphin and other important nonopioid peptide hormones including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). As mentioned above, there are at least three types of specific opiate receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, each of phd dissertation which may have several subtypes. The genes for each of these receptor types have also been cloned very recently.
Recent studies using transfected opioid receptors have shown that methadone binds primarily or exclusively to the mu type of opiate receptor, with greater selectivity than morphine or most other commonly used mu receptor preferring ligands. Currently, studies are in progress to localize and characterize gene expression of the endogenous opioid system peptide and of starting in essay, receptor genes, to assess the effects of drugs of abuse and treatment agents on gene expression, and to understand the complex molecular biological interactions of this system. Both basic and clinical studies have focused on the possible role of the endogenous opioid system in the biological basis of on article 34 tfeu addiction. Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. This system involves numerous brain regions and types of opioid peptides. Although the complex interactions of this system within the persuasive college brain are not fully understood, data suggest that cycles of heroin addiction severely disrupt this system and that chronic, steady-state methadone maintenance attenuates this disruption.
A metabolic disease concept has been suggested, in addition, which holds that some individuals may be predisposed to heroin addiction because variations in their genes result in abnormal levels of endogenous opioid peptides, levels that can be corrected by a sentence in essay taking heroin (Goldstein, 1994). The effect of heroin addiction on the genetic regulation of the thesis and introduction endogenous opioid system is currently an active area of research that is beginning to reveal intriguing clues about the biological underpinnings of addiction. Another area of particular interest is the a sentence in essay possible role the endogenous opioid system plays in stress. It has been hypothesized that an atypical responsivity to on article 34 tfeu stress, including the common stresses in our daily environment, may contribute to the acquisition of drug-seeking behavior, and both laboratory and basic clinical research studies have been conducted to define the stress responsive axis in humans with addictive diseases and in animal models. One of the of starting a sentence in essay most important modulators of on article 34 tfeu stress responsivity is the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It is known that a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), drives.
the anterior pituitary in humans to release peptides from one important gene product, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which yields both the long known peptide hormone ACTH and as one of the endorphins, beta-endorphin. ACTH then acts peripherally on the adrenal gland to cause release of the critically important glucocorticoid steroid in humans, cortisol. In addition to ways a sentence in essay many peripheral actions, cortisol acts in a negative feedback control manner to with prizes control both CRF release from the hypothalamus and the release of POMC peptides, ACTH, and beta-endorphin, from the of starting a sentence in essay anterior pituitary in humans. Studies using opioid antagonists have shown that the endogenous opioids-like exogenous opiods, modulate the stress responsive axis. However, whether the effects of the essay contests prizes antagonists are mediated wholly through central actions of the brain opiods, or whether peripheral βEndorphin plays a role remains to be determined. (See Dole, 1970; Ingoglia and in essay, Dole, 1970; Goldstein et al., 1971; Kreek, 1973a, Kreek, 1973c; Pert and Snyder, 1973; Simon et al., 1973; Terenius, 1973; Hughes et al., 1975; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek and Hartmen, 1982; Kreek, Schaefer, et al., 1983; Kreek, Wardlaw, et al., 1983; Kreek, Raghunath, et al., 1984; Kreek, Schneider, et al., 1984; Kreek, 1987a; Branch et al., 1992; Evans et al., 1992; Hurd et al., 1992; Kiefer et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Chen et al., 1993a, 1993b; McGinty et al., 1993; Spangler et al., 1993a, 1993b, 1994; Wang et al., 1993; Yasuda et al., 1993; Unterwald et al., 1993; Kreek, Simon, et al., 1994; Spangler et al., (in press.) When methadone maintenance was in its early stages of lesson writing compare contrast research and development as a possible treatment for ways of starting a sentence, opiate addiction, there were no adequately sensitive and and introduction, specific analytic methods (e.g., gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography or radioimmunoassay techniques) with which to assess the pharmacokinetics of methadone (or any other opiate such as morphine and heroin); that is, the ways of starting a sentence time course of distribution, metabolism, and clearance in admission essay prompt the body.
Some researchers turned to animal models for initial pharmacodynamic and a sentence, sometimes pharmacokinetic research. These were not helpful, however, because the pharmacokinetic profile and duration of action of methadone (and also LAAM) were much longer in humans than in rodent models. Consequently, the relative duration of action of state admission essay opiates was assessed by careful clinical observations of pain patients and opiate addicts receiving methadone in clinical research settings. Both morphine-induced analgesia in pain patients and euphoria in opiate addicts have a rapid onset and in essay, decline; within 46 hours, another dose is. required. However, clinical studies demonstrated important differences between morphine and lesson contrast, methadone in these two patient groups. Although in ways in essay early studies methadone seemed to provide full analgesia for only 46 hours in thesis and introduction paragraph pain patients, similar to morphine, when repeated doses of methadone were given over 24 hours, opiate-like side effects were observed. This suggested an accumulation of a sentence methadone and, thus, a much longer half-life of statement and introduction this medication. When methadone was given to heroin addicts, it seemed to of starting prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal for 24 hours. During oral administration of methadone to opiate addicts on doses selected to be less than those to which tolerance had been developed, the high or euphoria, and all other perceived opiate effects, are minimal or even absent.
In the early 1970s, appropriate analytical techniques were developed to measure plasma levels of methadone. These techniques substantiated the early clinical observations and showed that there was a gradual onset of action of orally administered methadone and that low peaks of methadone were reached. Admission Essay. Peak plasma levels were usually less than twice the trough levels, and relatively steady-state sustained plasma levels of methadone were maintained during the remainder of the in essay 24-hour dosing interval. The mechanisms that maintain the thesis paragraph steady-state plasma levels were shown to include binding of methadone in body tissues (primarily the liver), with subsequent release into the circulation, and extensive plasma protein binding, which limits plasma total and unbound concentrations of ways of starting a sentence in essay methadone and prolongs the plan contrast pharmacological actions of ways methadone in patients receiving a daily maintenance dose. LAAM has also been shown to share this reservoir property with methadone. Persuasive College Cheaper. Thus, methadone, unlike the short-acting opiates such as morphine and heroin, appears to have its own timed-release mechanism within the body and this makes it very well suited to daily interval dosing. The resultant prolonged pharmacokinetic half-life probably accounts for ways a sentence in essay, the diminished or absent physiological and behavioral effects typical of short-acting opiates. (See Inturrisi, and Verebely, 1972; Sullivan et al., 1972; Dole and Kreek, 1973; Kreek, 1973d; Anggard et al., 1974; Hachey et al., 1977; Kreek et al., 1978; Kreek, Hachey, et al., 1979; Nakamura et al., 1982; Kreek, 1991c) In maintenance treatment of opiate addicts, methadone is ohio prompt, administered as a single constant daily dose after the induction period is over. A Sentence In Essay. On this schedule patients exhibit no signs of opiate withdrawal during the 24-hour interval between doses. If a daily dose is missed or omitted, however, a patient on.
methadone maintenance will exhibit signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, usually within 24 to 36 hours after the last dose of methadone. The intensity of these signs and symptoms increases gradually if the patient remains off methadone. A daily dose of thesis statement paragraph methadone stabilizes a maintenance patient pharmacologically by the creation of of starting in essay a drug reservoir in the tissues of the body that holds the essay prompt plasma level within narrow limits. This buffering action makes short-term minor fluctuations in medication release from the tissue reservoir unimportant. Although opiate withdrawal symptoms can be prevented with low doses, it is important to ways in essay provide adequate treatment doses (60120 mg/day in most patients) to assure plasma levels that blockade the effects of any superimposed short-acting opiates. The well-documented importance of constant, steady blood levels argues strongly against contests with, the sometimes-used practice of using methadone dose level as a reward or punishment variable in so-called contingency contracting or other behavioral interventions. There are conditions under which the tissue reservoir appears to be less effective and withdrawal symptoms may appear earlier or more often. One of these is severe, chronic liver disease, such as postviral or alcoholic cirrhosis, which probably results in a reduction in the amount of hepatic storage capacity for methadone. Less severe liver disease does not seem to have this effect. Also, drug interactions of of starting specific types may accelerate the metabolism of methadone and decrease its effectiveness (see below).
(See Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, Oratz, and Rothschild, 1978; Novick, Fanizza, et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Novick, Kreek, Arns, et al., 1985; Ball and Ross, 1991, Kreek, 1991c.) Effects, Side Effects, and Special Pharmacological Issues. In the original maintenance research in 1964, divided methadone doses were used very briefly, but, as already mentioned, soon it was found that a single daily dose of methadone could suppress withdrawal symptoms for 24 hours. Then, cross-tolerance or narcotic blockade and treatment studies were conducted to determine if methadone could be used to stabilize former active heroin addicts on a single, steady, oral dose, and thus prevent withdrawal symptoms, craving, and drug-seeking behavior. The level of tolerance to methadone developed during maintenance treatment, and cross-tolerance to other superimposed opiate drugs, is high. In the 1964 research, the on article phenomenon of narcotic blockade was described in of starting a sentence in essay which cross-tolerance blocks the effect of any superimposed short-acting opiate drug.
In double-blind studies conducted on essay on article former heroin addicts stabilized on full treatment doses of methadone, doses of heroin far exceeding those that. might be used illicitly had no effects in the research subjects. Occasional medication errors have also been reported in which a stabilized, long-term, methadone-maintained patient has been given up to ways of starting a sentence in essay 10 times the statement paragraph usual dose of medication and, in most cases, there were no untoward effects except for ways, somnolence. The strength of narcotic blockade and the level of tolerance and cross-tolerance in maintained patients, however, are dependent upon the dose of methadone. For example, a 40-mg dose or less of methadone can easily be overridden by compare contrast common street doses of heroin. Studies have confirmed that continued illicit heroin use is much more prevalent among addicts on lower doses of methadone compared with those receiving higher doses (60 mg and more daily). The early and subsequent ''blockade'' or cross-tolerance studies have shown that it is difficult for a sentence, patients to override methadone doses of 60120 mg/day with heroin to get any euphoria or any other perceived or observable opiate effects. 34 Tfeu. This lack of any override effect has been established in the clinical research laboratory and subsequently on the street. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. Studies have demonstrated that the essay 34 tfeu double-blind administration of heroin, morphine, hydromorphoneall administered in typical street doses to methadone-maintained patient subjectsproduced no narcotic-like effects. In addition, single-blind administration of heroin in increasing doses to methadone-maintained research volunteers had no effects until the doses of heroin administered (up to of starting 200 mg) exceeded street amounts commonly used at essay contests, that time. Such studies have demonstrated that the margin of ways safety with respect to respiratory depression is very high.
Consequently, if an individual maintained on phd dissertation methadone sought to get high on heroin (which frequently is ways of starting, attempted during the first few weeks in phd dissertation treatment), he or she is not likely to experience any desired or adverse effects. Although some methadone is diverted to the street, the instances of in essay primary addiction to persuasive essay methadone are extremely rare. Illicit methadone is used primarily by ways a sentence in essay addicts to self-medicate for a short time for detoxification purposes or for extended periods in a maintenance mode. (See chapter 4 for an extended discussion of diversion.) The acute effects of any opiate in a naive individual are significantly different from writing compare chronic effects because tolerance develops, albeit at varying rates to most, but not all, of the opiate effects. Diverse acute effects of opiates involving multiple organ systems have been recognized for of starting, years and more carefully defined and studied in recent years. The protocol for induction into methadone treatment that was developed in the initial studies of methadone maintenance treatment is still used today. During the first few weeks of college tuition cheaper maintenance treatment, the daily dose gradually is increased at a rate slow enough to ways prevent any appearance of on making college tuition cheaper narcotic-like effects. From around two months onward, doses are held constant at an adequate blockading level, usually of 60 to 120 mg, to provide cross-tolerance and thus prevent any appearance of euphoria if the patient should attempt to superimpose the use of illicit heroin. The patient is, thus, stabilized on pharmacotherapy so that withdrawal symptoms and drug hunger or craving are fully suppressed, but are unaccompanied by intolerable side effects.
The side effects, which may occur if methadone is used in doses exceeding the degree of tolerance developed, are somnolence, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, difficulty in urination, edema of the lower extremities, and constipation (to be discussed later). Ways Of Starting In Essay. They diminish as tolerance develops and may be prevented with administration of appropriate doses of methadone. Chronic liver disease is the most common medical problem seen in state admission essay prompt heroin addicts, and the chronic sequelae of liver infection or injury persist during methadone treatment. The majority of of starting in essay heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance treatment have biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease, and, until very recently, 80 to 90 percent have serological evidence of contests prizes exposure to hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C. In some regions of the country, up to 30 percent also have serological evidence of ways of starting infection with hepatitis delta. Of patients maintained on methadone for months to essay years, over one-half have persistent biochemical liver abnormalities. In these patients, the abnormalities result from the complications of previous heroin addiction and include viral hepatitis of of starting in essay one or more type, comorbidity with alcoholism, or both. Plan. Methadone itself is not hepatotoxic; patients entering treatment with normal liver function maintain normal liver function during long-term treatment. Chronic renal disease is a medical problem in some heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance, but the presence of chronic renal disease does not result in the systemic accumulation of a sentence methadone or its metabolites. In such patients plasma levels of methadone remained within the appropriate therapeutic ranges for the doses received. This is because methadone metabolites are inactive; also, unlike morphine and heroin, methadone and essay on making, its metabolites are normally excreted in part in feces as well as in urine and may be exclusively excreted by the hepatobiliary fecal route in the presence of renal disease.
The influence of ways of starting pregnancy on the use and contests prizes, effects of methadone has also been investigated. Plasma concentrations of methadone are significantly lower and systemic elimination of methadone more rapid as pregnancy progresses through the third trimester. A Sentence In Essay. Thus, some women report symptoms of opiate withdrawal during late pregnancy, even when the daily dose of methadone remains constant. Accordingly, increased methadone doses (and certainly no dose reduction) may be required to thesis statement and introduction maintain adequate levels of of starting a sentence in essay methadone for effective treatment during the third trimester. Essay 34 Tfeu. In addition to minimizing risk of. relapse, it is important to suppress withdrawal symptoms, because they can trigger premature labor. To date, the of starting in essay only adverse effects of methadone maintenance treatment on the fetus have been the production of physical dependence, which causes mild to modest opiate withdrawal signs and symptoms in the early postnatal period in many, but not all, babies.
This is readily managed by appropriate treatment with an opiate such as paregoric, tincture of opium, or oral morphine. No chronic sequelae of maternal methadone treatment have been found, nor have any teratogenic effects been reported. (See Dole et al., 1966; Cherubin et al., 1972; Gordon and Appel, 1972; Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1973a; Stimmel et al., 1973; Kreek, Schecter, Gutjahr, Bowen, et al., 1974; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1979; Beverly et al., 1980; Kleber et al., 1980; Kreek, Gutjahr, and Hecht, 1980; Hartman et al., 1983; Kreek, 1983b; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, and Kreek, 1986; Novick, Stenger, et al., 1986; Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991c; Kreek, 1992b; Novick, Richman, et al., 1993; Novick, Reagan, et al., in press.) Physiological Functions Disrupted During Heroin Addiction. Addicts inject (or self-administer by another route) themselves repeatedly with increasingly larger doses of heroin, usually sufficient to achieve the desired euphoria or high effect during chronic use of opiates, and modified responses, or tolerance, to writing compare essay the drug develop. The first self-administrations of of starting a sentence heroin by a curious adolescent are likely to phd dissertation summary cause nausea with or without an ways a sentence in essay, accompanying pleasurable feeling. Later, with repeated use of heroin, tolerance rapidly develops to the nausea-producing effect and the euphoria predominates. Plan Contrast. The euphoric experience becomes central to the addict's life; but with additional heroin use, the addict finds it progressively more difficult to achieve euphoria, unless an a sentence, increasing dose of heroin is ohio state essay prompt, used. Tolerance also develops at different rates to ways of starting a sentence most of the opiate effects of methadone as used in maintenance treatment. Most of the initial opiate effects, predominantly somnolence, can be avoided by starting treatment at relatively low doses and lesson writing, increasing the dose gradually to appropriate treatment levels.
Other important physiological functions that are deranged during cycles of heroin addiction include (1) central nervous system stress responses that are mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; (2) reproductive biology hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis with resultant abnormal function; (3) various indices of immune function that are linked to or modulated by neuroendocrine function. These altered functions, which may contribute to or be part of the mechanism underlying drug-seeking behavior, have been shown to normalize during long-term steady-dose methadone treatment. Adverse neuroendocrine effects of heroin, which cause menstrual irregularities in heroin-addicted women, and sexual dysfunction in men and women, reverse in over 80 percent of patients within one to three years. Constipation, a side effect of both short- and long-acting opiates, persists for ways in essay, a protracted period of time; with slow development of tolerance, this effect on the gastrointestinal tract diminishes. Prizes. Excessive sweating is a side effect of methadone treatment that, in some patients, does not remit. Some patients (less than 20 percent) continue to complain of sleep and sexual dysfunction for up to one year or longer, and may experience constipation for up to three years; up to 50 percent experience excessive sweating for even longer periods of time. In contrast to the gradual development of tolerance expressed by reduction at different rates of these diverse side effects, tolerance to sedative and ways in essay, also analgesic effects of opiates develops rapidly and fully in methadone-maintained patients. Paragraph. Consequently, such methadone-maintained patients will experience pain with delivery of a child, surgery, injury, and painful diseases and pharmacologic pain management is necessary.
Such management can be achieved by use of the ways of starting a sentence usual approved pharmacotherapeutic approaches normally used in each medical situation. This includes the use of opiate drugs, such as morphine, when these are the usually indicated medications. The upper range of normal doses of opiate medications, however, and shortened dosing intervals as clinically required of short-acting narcotics, are often necessary and effective. (See Blinick, 1968; Renault et al., 1972; Cushman, 1973; Kreek, 1973b; Santen, 1974; Mendelson et al., 1975a, 1975b; Santel et al., 1975; Kosten et al., 1986a, 1986b; Kreek 1987b; Kosten et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Terenius, O'Brien, et al., 1992; Culpepper-Morgan et al., 1993.) Interactions of on making college tuition cheaper Methadone with Other Drugs. A fundamental public health issue related to methadone maintenance was whether or not a methadone-maintained patient would be in jeopardy of overdose if he or she self-administered heroin during methadone treatment. As noted above, the 1964 cross-tolerance studies documented that the risk of ways a sentence in essay morbidity or death in methadone patients receiving a full treatment dose (60 to 120 mg per day) is extremely low because of the high level of essay on making tolerance (and cross-tolerance to other opiates) developed during treatment. In addition to blocking the euphoric effects of superimposed, short-acting opiate drugs, methadone and a sentence, its accompanying narcotic blockade may serve. a relapse-prevention function. The suppression and ultimate extinction of plan compare contrast essay drug-seeking behavior should result, theoretically at least, when illicit opiate self-administration is uncoupled from the anticipated and in essay, desired opiate effect of writing contrast essay euphoria.
The now well-documented significant reduction or cessation of illicit opiate use by former heroin addicts stabilized on ways a sentence steady and adequate doses of methadone suggests that this may be due partly to the effects of phd dissertation summary counseling, as well as to the direct biological effects of the drug. As mentioned above, severe liver disease can impair the disposition and bioavailability of of starting a sentence in essay methadone, but it is not the sole cause. One major, widely used, antituberculosis drug, rifampin, interacts with methadone to accelerate methadone metabolism in phd dissertation summary the liver. This interaction is ways of starting in essay, important because opiate addicts are particularly vulnerable to tuberculosis. Rifampin has been shown to writing compare alter significantly the ways of starting in essay clinical efficacy of essay contests prizes methadone by accelerating its metabolism in the liver and thus its rapid removal from the body. This rapid biotransformation of of starting methadone leads to the appearance of withdrawal symptoms in patients otherwise well-maintained on methadone. The two major effects of rifampin on methadone metabolism, a lowering of essay plasma concentrations and increased urinary excretion of the major metabolite, suggest that the drug exerts its effect by enhancing hepatic microsomal enzyme activity.
Another important interaction occurs between the antiseizure drug phenytoin and methadone. Maintained patients can experience moderately severe opiate withdrawal within three to four days of beginning phenytoin therapy for management of epileptic seizures. Ways Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. Studies have shown that phenytoin accelerates methadone metabolism, and methadone dosing adjustments need to be anticipated when phenytoin is cheaper, initiated or discontinued. Although the question of a possible interaction of methadone with cocaine has been raised, no conclusive data have been forthcoming. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. Preliminary studies suggest that methadone does not alter cocaine metabolism. However, some studies have suggested that cocaine may, in persuasive essay on making tuition cheaper some cases, accelerate the metabolism of methadone. Also common in a heroin-addicted population is the comorbid incidence of a sentence in essay alcohol abuse.
It is summary, estimated that at least one in of starting a sentence in essay four or five heroin addicts, and former addicts maintained on methadone, abuse alcohol. Methadone treatment has been positively associated with reduced alcohol consumption while alcoholic heroin-addicted patients are in treatment; also, increased alcohol consumption is reported by alcoholic heroin addicts when not taking heroin or methadone. Disulfiram (Antabuse) has been used to deter alcoholic abusers from further drinking on the basis of aversive effects of the alcohol-disulfiram interaction. Although alcoholic opiate addicts maintained on methadone can usually be treated safely with disulfiram, in a few patients unwanted side effects have been observed, suggesting a possible methadone-disulfiram interaction that could lead to excess sedation. A theoretical basis for. this effect could include a disulfiram-induced inhibition of the liver microsomal enzymes that are responsible for phd dissertation summary, the metabolism of methadone, but such an interaction was not found in one study in which average doses of disulfiram were administered to methadone-maintained subjects. This phenomenon, however, might occur when high doses of disulfiram are used, or in patients with severe alcoholic cirrhosis with compromised hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme capacity. High levels of alcohol itself have been shown to have two opposing interactions with many therapeutic agents, including methadone, and chronic addicts with comorbidity may use large amounts of alcohol. Alcohol is metabolized by the hepatic microsomal enzymes. When present in large amounts, alcohol may retard the biotransformation of ways a sentence in essay medications that are metabolized by the hepatic P450 enzyme related systems; yet when alcohol levels fall, drug metabolism may be accelerated due to the chronic effects of alcohol on hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. (See Kreek, 1973; Kreek, Garfield, et al., 1976; Kreek, Gutjahr, et al., 1976; Kreek, 1978a; Tong et al., 1980; Kreek, 1981; Tong et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Kreek, 1987a; Kreek, 1990a; Borg et al., 1993.)
Impact of Methadone Maintenance on essay on making Infectious Diseases. By the late 1960s, infectious serum hepatitis could be defined more precisely owing to the development of serological tests for hepatitis B disease. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. The injecting heroin addict was identified as being at very high risk for acquisition and spread of hepatitis B. Contests Prizes. In multiple studies, over 80 percent of the a sentence injecting heroin addicts entering methadone treatment had markers of prior infection and college, 5 to a sentence 15 percent had hepatitis B antigenemia. 2 However, studies have also shown that after 10 years or more in maintenance treatment, the percentage of patients with hepatitis B antigenemia drops to less than 5 percent. By the late 1970s a second and lethal form of hepatitis, caused by a viroid-like circular RNA agent (delta agent) that requires hepatitis B for its own infectiousness, was discovered and essay prompt, its biology defined.
By retrospectively examining banked sera and by prospectively testing those entering treatment for addiction, it was found that hepatitis delta had entered the ways of starting a sentence in essay untreated heroin addict population in New York City by the mid-1970s. By 1984, approximately 90 percent of the essay untreated heroin addicts on the streets of New York City. A positive marker for hepatitis B virus antigen, indicating the presence of live hepatitis B virus and thus potential viral replication. continued to show evidence of having been infected with hepatitis B, as evidenced by the presence of some marker for that disease; and approximately 30 percent by that time had evidence of hepatitis delta infection. Recently, the a sentence in essay third type of hepatitis virus infection, hepatitis C, was identified. Studies have shown hepatitis C virus infection in 80 to 90 percent of heroin addicts and former heroin addicts in methadone treatment.
In 1981, shortly after the on making college tuition clinical symptoms of AIDS were characterized, the etiological viral agent HIV-1 was identified. By examining blood samples that had been banked prospectively from ways of starting a sentence in essay 1969 onward, it was found that HIV-1 infection had reached the drug-injecting population in New York City in 1978 and infection had progressed rapidly until 19831984, when the prevalence of HIV-1 infection reached a level of over 50 percent of intravenous users in the inner city area. Of public health importance, investigators further found that heroin addicts in New York City who had entered effective methadone maintenance treatment programs before the 1978 advent of the AIDS epidemic and who remained in treatment displayed a much lower incidence of HIV-1 infection in 1984 than did untreated heroin addicts: less than 10 percent of essay contests with such methadone patients were infected in 1984, compared to over 50 percent of untreated heroin addicts. Of Starting. Studies of HIV-1 infection in long-term, methadone-maintained patients have been reported in Sweden and other countries worldwide with similar findings of thesis and introduction paragraph efficacy of methadone treatment in ways the prevention of HIV-1 infection. It should be recognized that sharing of unsterile needles is not the only mode of HIV-1 transmission among addicts.
Cocaine use by lesson plan compare essay methadone patients is also a risk factor for HIV-1 infection, owing to promiscuous sexual behavior commonly associated with cocaine, including sex as payment for the drug. Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. Concurrent use of cocaine by heroin addicts is estimated to be between 50 and 90 percent and, thus, is an summary, added risk factor in the heroin-using population. Once in treatment, the prevalence of cocaine use among heroin addicts generally drops to between 20 and 40 percent. Finally, and of potentially great importance, studies have shown that multiple indices of immune function are deranged during cycles of heroin addiction, probably because of ways of starting in essay many factors, including lifestyle, multiple infectious diseases, and possible direct or indirect effects of the phd dissertation drug use. Immune factors, however, normalize during chronic long-term methadone treatment. Ways Of Starting In Essay. Natural killer cell activity is on making tuition cheaper, not altered by methadone in vitro . Long-term methadone maintenance permits return to normal levels of natural killer cell activity, as well as to normal absolute numbers of B cells and T cell subsets, which may have important implications for immune system function and, possibly, for retarding the progress of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. (See Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1983b; Des Jarlais, Marmor, et al., 1984; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, et al., 1986; Novick, Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1986; Blix, 1988; Novick, Farci, Croxson, et al., 1988; Chaisson et al., 1989; Des Jarlais et al., 1989; Kreek, 1989; Novick, Ochshorn, Ghali, et al., 1989a; Ochshorn et al., 1989; Kreek, 1990b, 1990c; Kreek et al., 1990; Ochshorn et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991b; Novick, Ochshorn, and ways of starting, Kreek, 1991; Novick, Reagon, et al., in press.) Albeck, H, Woodfield, S, and Kreek, MJ. State Admission Essay Prompt. 1989. Quantitative and pharmacokinetic analysis of naloxone in plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and solid phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography 488:435445.
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Jaffe, eds. New York: Raven Press. Pp. 205230. Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, DC, Trepo, CL, Novick, DM, Abdul-Quader, A, and Raghunath, J. 1990. Contrasting prevalence of delta hepatitis markers in parenteral drug abusers with and without AIDS. Writing. Journal of Infectious Diseases 162:538541. Kreek, MJ, Dodes, L, Kane, S, Knobler, J, and Martin, R. 1972. Long-term methadone maintenance therapy: Effects on liver function. Annals of a sentence Internal Medicine 77:598602. Kreek, MJ, Garfield, JW, Gutjahr, CL, and Giusti, LM.
1976. Essay 34 Tfeu. Rifampin-induced methadone withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine 294:11041106. Kreek, MJ, Gutjahr, CL, Garfield, JW, Bowen, DV and Field, FH. 1976. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. Drug interactions with methadone.
Annals of the thesis and introduction paragraph New York Academy of Sciences 281:350370. Kreek, MJ, Hackey, DL, and Klein, PD. 1979. Stereoselective disposition of methadone in man. Life Sciences 24:925932. Kreek, MJ, and Hartman, N. 1982. Chronic use of opioids and of starting a sentence in essay, antipsychotic drugs: Side effects, effects on endogenous opioids and persuasive essay tuition, toxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of a sentence in essay Sciences 398:151172. Kreek, MJ, Khuri, E, Fahey, L, Miescher, A, Arns, P, Spagnoli, D, Craig, J, Millman, R, and Harte, E. 1986. Essay Contests. Long-term follow-up studies of the medical status of adolescent former heroin addicts in chronic methadone maintenance treatment: Liver disease and immune status.
In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Committee on Problem of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph 67, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No.(ADM) 86-1448. Pp. 307309. Kreek, MJ, Oratz, M, and Rothschild, MA. 1978.
Hepatic extraction of long-and short-acting narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver. Gastroenterology 75:8894. Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, Plevy, S, Hamer, D, Schneider, B, and Hartman, N . 1984. Of Starting In Essay. ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin response to metyrapone testing during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Neuropeptides 5:277278. Kreek MJ, Schaefer, RA, Hahn, EF, and lesson compare contrast essay, Fishman, J. Of Starting. 1983. Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, reverses chronic idiopathic constipation. Lancet (Feb. 5) 261262. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, A, Gutjahr, CL, Bowen, D, Field, F, Queenan, J, and Merkatz, I. 1974.
Analyses of methadone and other drugs in maternal and neonatal body fluids: Use in writing contrast essay evaluation of symptoms in ways of starting a sentence a neonate of mother maintained on methadone. American Journal of phd dissertation Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1:409419. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, AJ, Gutjahr, CL, and Hecht, M. 1980. Methadone use in patients with chronic renal disease. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 5:197205. Kreek, MJ, Schneider, BS, Raghunath, J, and Plevy, S. 1984. Prolonged (24 hour) infusion of the opioid antagonist naloxone does not significantly alter plasma levels of cortisol and ACTH in humans. Abstracts of the Seventh International Congress of Endocrinology, Excerpta Medica , International Congress Series 652, Amsterdam Oxford-Princeton. P. 845. July.
Kreek, MJ, Simon, E, Evans, C, Uhl, G, Wang, J-B, Johnson, P, Imain, Y, Waltherm, D, Wu, JM, Wang, WF., Moriwaki, A, Yu, L, Min, B, Augustin, L, Felsheim, R, Fuchs, J, Hoh, H, and Inturrisi, C. In press. Symposium for 20th anniversary. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994; Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Kreek, MJ, Wardlaw, SL, Hartman, N, Raghunath, J, Friedman, J, Schneider, B, and Frantz, AG. 1983. Circadian rhythms and ways of starting a sentence, levels of essay 34 tfeu beta-endorphin, ACTH, and cortisol during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Life Sciences 33 (Suppl.
I):409411. McGinty, JF, Daunais, JB, and Roberts, CS. 1993. Cocaine self-administration causes an ways, increase in preprodynorphin, but not c-fos, mRNA in rat Striatum. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the lesson plan compare contrast essay Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. P. 143. Mendelson, JH, Mendelson, JE, and Patch, YD. 1975a. Plasma testosterone levels in heroin addiction and during methadone maintenance. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 192:211217. Mendelson, JH, Meyer, RE, Ellingboe, J, et al.
1975b. Effects of heroin and methadone on plasma cortisol and of starting, testosterone. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 195:296302. Nakamura, K, Hachey, DL, Kreek, MJ, Irving, CS, and Klein, PD. 1982. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled 2H3, 2H5, 2H8 methadone. Lesson Plan Writing Compare. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 71:3943.
Novick, DM, Farci, P, Croxson, ST, Taylor, MB, Schneebaum, CW, Lai, EM, Bach, N, Senie, RT, Gelb, AM and Kreek, MJ. 1988. Of Starting In Essay. Hepatitis delta virus and persuasive essay on making college tuition, human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in ways of starting parenteral drug abusers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Journal of Infectious Diseases 158:795803. Novick, DM, Farci, P, Karayiannis, P, Gelb, AM, Stenger, RJ, Kreek, MJ, and Thomas, HC. 1985. Hepatitis D virus antibody in HBsAg-positive and persuasive essay college, HBsAg-negative substance abusers with chronic liver disease. Journal of Medical Virology 15:351356. Novick, DM, Khan, I, and Kreek, MJ.
1986. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and infection with hepatitis viruses in individuals abusing drugs by injection. United Nations Bulletin on Narcotics 38:1525. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Arns, PA, Lau, LL, Yancovitz, SR, and Gelb, AM. 1985. Effects of ways of starting in essay severe alcoholic liver disease on the disposition of methadone in maintenance patients.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 9:349354. Novick, D, Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, D, Spira, TJ, Khuri, ET, Raghunath, J, Kalyanaraman, VS, Gelb, AM, and Miescher, A. 1986. Antibody to LAV, the thesis statement paragraph putative agent of AIDS, in ways parenteral drug abusers and methadone-maintained patients: Abstract of clinical research findings: Therapeutic, historical, and ethical aspects. In: Problems of prompt Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of the of starting in essay Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. Essay On Making College Cheaper. (ADM) 86-1448. Pp.
318320. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Fanizza, AM, Yancovitz, SR, Gelb, AM, and Stenger, RJ. Of Starting In Essay. 1981. Methadone disposition in writing contrast patients with chronic liver disease. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30:353362. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, Ghali, V, Croxson, TS, Mercer, WD, Chiorazzi, N, and Kreek, MJ. 1989. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in a sentence parenteral heroin abusers and persuasive tuition, long-term methadone maintenance patients. Journal of Pharmacology and of starting, Experimental Therapeutics 250:606610. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, and Kreek, MJ.
1991. Statement And Introduction. In vivo and in vitro studies of opiates and cellular immunity in narcotic addicts. A Sentence. In: Drugs of Abuse, Immunity and with prizes, Immunodeficiency , H. Ways Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. Friedman, In press. Thesis Statement And Introduction Paragraph. New York: Plenum Press. Pp. 159170. Novick, DM, Reagan, KJ, Croxson, TS, Gelb, AM, Stenger, RJ, and Kreek, MJ.
Hepatitis C virus serology in parenteral drug users with chronic liver disease. In: Problems of a sentence Drug Dependence, 1994: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific meeting of the essay on article Committee on Problems of ways of starting a sentence in essay Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. On Article 34 Tfeu. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Novick, DM, Richman, BL, Friedman, JM, Friedman, JE, Fried, C, Wilson, JP, Townley, A, and Kreek, MJ. 1993. The medical status of ways of starting a sentence methadone-maintained patients in treatment for 1118 years. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 33:235245. Novick, DM, Stenger, RJ, Gelb, AM, Most, J, Yancovitz, SR, and Kreek, MJ. 1986.
Chronic liver disease in abusers of ohio alcohol and parenteral drugs: A report of 204 consecutive biopsy-proven cases. Alcoholism, Clinical, and ways of starting in essay, Experimental Research 10:500505. Ochshorn, M, Kreek, MJ, Khuri, E, Fahey, L, Craig, J, Aldana, MC, and essay 34 tfeu, Albeck, H. 1989. Normal and abnormal natural killer (NK) activity in ways a sentence methadone maintenance treatment patients. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1988: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S.
Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 89-1605. P. 369. Ochshorn, M, Novick, DM, and Kreek, MJ. 1990. In vitro studies of methadone effect on natural killer (NK) cell activity. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 26:421425. Pert, CB, and Snyder, SH.
1973. Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 179:10111014. Pescor, MJ. 1943. Follow-up study of and introduction paragraph treated narcotic drug addicts. Public Health Report (Suppl.) 170:1. Pond, SM, Kreek, MJ, Tong, TG, Raghunath, J, and Benowitz, NL. 1985. Altered methadone pharmacokinetics in methadone-maintained pregnant women. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 233:16.
Renault, PF, Schuster, CR, Heinrich, RL, et al. 1972. Altered plasma cortisol response in patients on methadone maintenance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 13:269273. Santen, RJ. 1974. How narcotics addiction affects reproductive function in ways in essay women. Contemporary OB/GYN 3:9395. Santen, RJ, Sofsky, J, Bilic, N, et al. 1975.
Mechanism of action of narcotics in summary the production of menstrual dysfunction in women. Fertility and Sterility 26:538548. Simon, EJ, Hiller, JM, and Edelman, I. 1973. Stereospecific binding of the potent narcotic analgesic [3H]Etorphine to rat-brain homogenate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 70:19471949.
Spangler, R, Unterwald, EM, Branch, A, Ho, A, and of starting a sentence in essay, Kreek, MJ. 1993a. Thesis Statement Paragraph. Chronic cocaine administration increases prodynorphin mRNA levels in of starting the caudate-putamen of rats. Thesis Statement And Introduction Paragraph. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992; Proceedings of the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed, NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Ways In Essay. DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 93-3505. P. 142.
Spangler, R, Unterwald, EM, and Kreek, MJ. 1993b. ''Binge'' cocaine administration induces a sustained increase of prodynorphin mRNA in rat caudate-putamen. Molecular Brain Research 19:323327. Spangler, R, Zhou, Y, Unterwald, EM, and writing compare essay, Kreek, MJ. In press. Opioid receptor mRNA levels in the rat brain determined by TCA precipitation of mRNA:cRNA hybrids. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994; Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Stimmel, B, Vernace, S, Heller, E, et al. 1973.
Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in ways in essay former heroin addicts on 34 tfeu methadone maintenance: Correlation with clinical and histological findings. In: National Association for ways, the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics, Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on methadone Treatment . Persuasive Tuition Cheaper. Vol. Ways A Sentence In Essay. 1. New York: NAPAN. Pp. 501513. Sullivan, HR, Smits, SE, Due, SL, Booher, RE, and McMahon, RE. 1972. Metabolism of d -methadone: Isolation and identification of analgesically active metabolites. Life Sciences 11(1):10931104. Terenius, L. 1973. Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasma membrane fraction of rat cerebral cortex.
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1980. Methadone-disulfiram interaction during methadone maintenance. Journal of persuasive essay on making college tuition Clinical Pharmacology 20:506513. Tong, TG, Pond, SM, Kreek, MJ, Jaffery, NF, and Benowitz, NL. 1981. Phenytoin-induced methadone withdrawal. Annals of Internal Medicine 94:349351.
Unterwald, EM, Horne-King, J, and of starting in essay, Kreek, MJ. Essay On Article. 1993. Chronic cocaine alters brain mu opioid receptors. Brain Research 584:314318. Unterwald, EM, Rubenfeld, JM, Spangler, R, Wang, JB, Uhl, GR, and Kreek, MJ. Ways Of Starting A Sentence. 1994. Mu opioid receptor mRNA levels following chronic naltrexone administration. Abstracts of the International Narcotics Research Conference . Unterwald, EM, Rubenfeld, JM, and Kreek, MJ. In press.
Repeated cocaine administration upregulates κ and μ, but not δ, opioid receptors. NeuroReport . Wang, JB, Imai, Y, Eppler, CM, Gregor, P, Spivak, C, and Uhl, GR. 1993. Mu-opiate receptor: cDNA cloning and expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:10,23010,234. Yasuda, K, Raynor, K, Kong, H, Breder, CD, Takeda, J, Reisine, T, and Bell, GI.
1993. Paragraph. Cloning and functional comparison of kappa and delta opioid receptors from a sentence mouse brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:67366740. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. For nearly three decades, methadone hydrochloride has been the primary means of treating opiate addiction. Today, about 115,000 people receive such treatment, and essay college tuition, thousands more have benefited from it in the past. Even though methadone's effectiveness has been well established, its use remains controversial, a fact reflected by a sentence in essay the extensive regulation of its manufacturing, labeling, distribution, and use.
The Food and Drug Administration regulates the safety and 34 tfeu, effectiveness of methadone, as it does for all drugs, and the Drug Enforcement Administration regulates it as a controlled substance. However, methadone is also subjected to a unique additional tier of regulation that prescribes how and under what circumstances it may be used to treat opiate addiction. Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment examines current Department of Health and Human Services standards for narcotic addiction treatment and the regulation of methadone treatment programs pursuant to those standards. Ways Of Starting A Sentence In Essay. The book includes an evaluation of the effect of federal regulations on the provision of methadone treatment services and an exploration of options for on article, modifying the regulations to allow optimal clinical practice. The volume also includes an assessment of alternatives to the existing regulations. Front Matter i–xii Executive Summary 1–16 Introduction 17–36 Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of Methadone Treatment 37–60 Who Are the Recipients of Treatment? 61–91 Methadone Diversion Control 92–119 Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment 120–150 Methadone Treatment 151–184 Treatment Standards and Optimal Treatment 185–216 Implementing Standards--And Beyond 217–238. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on of starting a sentence in essay feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.
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Flags of Our Fathers Essay Questions. Discuss the role that mothers play for the six flag raisers. Mothers are a theme that links all men in battle: in ways in essay, his comparison of the Japanese, German, and American troops, Bradley points out that they are connected by phd dissertation summary their dying word, which is invariably, Mother! In the case of the in essay, six flag raisers, mothers are also important as religious influences. After the death of her young daughter Mary Ellen, Kathryn Bradley concentrates on raising John devoutly Catholic; Mike Strank's Catholic faith is also the result of his mother's influence. Goldie Sousley and phd dissertation her son, Franklin, are extremely close after the of starting a sentence, deaths of plan contrast, his brother and father. Belle Block strongly opposes Harlon's joining the football team, but her influence on ways in essay, him in terms of phd dissertation, his Seventh-Day Adventist beliefs is clear. Ways Of Starting A Sentence! Ira Hayes learned what he knew about the Bible from on article, his mother, Nancy, who also made sure he got a good education.
Likewise, Rene Gagnon's mother is the a sentence in essay, most important person in his life until he marries Pauline Harnois. After she divorces his father, Irene Gagnon takes Rene to work with her and thesis and introduction paragraph showers him with attention. Belle Block's role as a mother is especially important. Ways Of Starting! When the 5th Division makes National Service Life Insurance policies available to the Marines, Harlon purchases a ten-thousand-dollar policy with his mother, Belle, as the sole beneficiary. Belle Block is convinced that her son, Harlon, is statement paragraph one of the men in ways a sentence in essay, the famous flag-raising photograph, though everyone else thinks it is impossible to be sure. After she learns of Harlon's death on essay with, Iwo Jima, something in her had been broken. Are the six flag raisers religious? How is religion used to characterize them?
As the flag raisers are introduced in Chapter 2, it is clear how religion influences each of the flag raisers in their childhoods. John Bradley and Mike Strank are devout Catholics. Harlon Block is in essay more influenced by the Seventh-Day Adventist Church than his other siblings are, though he leaves his religious school to play football at Welasco High School. Ira Hayes lived just a few steps from the plan writing, church in which his mother was an important figure. Letter writing demonstrates the role religion played in the lives of the flag raisers. In Chapter 4, a letter from Ira Hayes to his parents mentions a sermon Alcohol versus Christianity and how it touched him. Ways In Essay! When Harlon Block enlisted with his entire football team, Belle Block pleaded with her son to claim conscientious objection as a Seventh-Day Adventist to avoid battle, like his brothers had.
Bradley focuses on Harlon's religion when he points out that, after Harlon landed on Bougainville, Harlon, the Seventh-Day Adventist, was getting his first glimpse of the world's wickedness as he trudged past these remains of friends and ohio admission essay enemy dead. Ways In Essay! After getting married, John and essay Betty Bradley get in the habit of praying together before bed, and Betty notices that Jack adds on, Blessed Mother, please help us so everything turns out all right, a prayer he had often said on ways in essay, Iwo Jima. How does James Bradley characterize Ira Hayes as both an innocent boy and a man? The tension between boyhood and manhood is a constant theme in this book, especially with relation to Ira. A letter from Ira Hayes to his parents from training in San Diego is used to show that his boyish innocence did not vanish overnight. When he returns home on furlough after fighting in Bougainville, the slim, quiet boy had been transformed into a very formidable-looking young man. his words were typically thoughtful and gentle, but they were no longer the words of a boy. A man was talking now, a man who had seen things. In Chapter 5, Ira writes home to his parents, Don't worry about me.
I'm a man now, no young guy. However, according to anecdotes from those who trained with him at this time, his behavior was erratic and he was often depressed. The theme of the tension between boyhood and manhood reappears in the opening sentence of essay on article 34 tfeu, Chapter 18: They were no longer boys now; they were postwar men. This line implies that the flag raisers now have assumed a level of responsibility for their lives that they didn't have before. Ira Hayes is offered help (whatever the ways, motivation) from the Chicago Sun-Times and from Elizabeth Martin, but is unable to pull his life together. 34 Tfeu! In a letter home to his parents, he writes, So I was cured in ways of starting a sentence in essay, their eyes. They had done their part. Now the essay college tuition, real test is up to me. all I need is the will power. Does James Bradley believe that the six flag raisers are heroes?
At the end of the book, Bradley admits that after researching their lives, the six flag raisers seem like heroes to of starting in essay, him, if not for their role in raising the admission essay prompt, flag on Mount Suribachi. However, he adheres to his father's insistence that, The heroes of Iwo Jima are the guys who didn't come back. Heroism is a theme that is often misunderstood or misrepresented by the media, in Bradley's opinion. One of the in essay, main reasons Jack Bradley refuses to talk about his experiences on Iwo Jima, according to James Bradley his son, is that he doesn't want to seek fame as a hero. He believes that heroes are heroes because they have risked something to help others. In contrast, the persuasive on making college, flag raising contained no action worthy of remembering, and thus doesn't make him a hero; he is made a hero by his actions in saving his fellow Marines and in attempting to save those who ended up dying on the island. What does the author think about the media's coverage of the flag raising on a sentence in essay, Iwo Jima and the following events? Give examples.
The media's influence becomes a main theme in the book, as the symbol of the flag raising and the flag raisers themselves are distorted and packaged by the media in ways that will serve the interests of the government, but that are not necessarily reflective of the truth. Here, John Daly of the NBC Red declares that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor by air, and Americans are described as poring over their newspapers to learn more about Japan, their new enemy. The photos published in Life magazine in 1938 of Japanese atrocities at Nanking sowed terror not only in essay with prizes, the American public, but also in the Marines who arrived at Guadalcanal. After the devastating battle at in essay, Tarawa, Bradley recounts how newspaper editorials announced, This Must Not Happen Again! alongside pictures of lesson plan writing compare, dead Marines floating in the ocean around the ways of starting a sentence, island. The theme of the misguided media is extremely relevant as newspapers largely ignore the raging battle on Iwo Jima, since it does not adhere to their fake story of valor climbing Mount Suribachi. Bradley addresses the contests with prizes, members of the press with a degree of disdain, sarcastically referring to them as gentlemen of the press in contrast to the soldiers fighting the battle. Time magazine propagates an unverified rumor on its radio program when it broadcasts that the photograph was staged. Rosenthal demands and receives a public apology from Time, but the photograph would cause him much frustration in the future. Though the Marines continue to fight on Iwo Jima, the March 5 edition of Time magazine published the photograph of the flag raising on its front page as if the battle had been won. Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and refuses to give interviews to the journalists who often call his home for the rest of his life. The media is also targeted as contributing to Ira Haye's destructive behavior.
Bradley claims, The more helpless and vulnerable Ira grew, the more brazen was the press's exploitation of him. A reporter from the of starting in essay, Chicago Sun-Times visits him in jail and takes his photograph, and that newspaper posts his bail and enrolls him in thesis and introduction paragraph, a rehabilitation program. Ways Of Starting A Sentence! They promote fixing his life as their sanctimonious mission, but in phd dissertation, the process, they put pressure on him that contributes to his demise. How does James Bradley's view of the Japanese government during World War II differ from of starting a sentence in essay, his characterization of individual Japanese soldiers? The theme of individuals versus country is introduced with respect to Japan as Bradley describes the persuasive cheaper, atmosphere leading up to World War II for that country. Throughout the 1930s, Japan, as a country led by a military regime, conquered Manchuria and of starting in essay China.
Though the Japanese army employed ruthless tactics, the essay contests prizes, citizens themselves are described as being squeezed in an iron vise, totally brainwashed and manipulated into carrying out the will of the of starting a sentence, government. In relating the atrocities committed by the Japanese soldiers at Nanking, the essay contests prizes, capital of ways in essay, China, Bradley distinguishes the Japanese from the Germans, the Americans' other enemy in World War II. The sense of restraint that dictated even the most brutal front in essay on article, Europe was absent from the war in the Pacific. Japanese soldiers believed they were fighting in the Way of the Warrior, or the Bushido tradition, but in of starting in essay, fact they were being forced to operate within a twisted version of this warrior ideal; the Japanese military in the 20th century was more of persuasive essay college, a cult of death, and its warriors were viewed as expendable. During the air raid in Chapter 9, an American on board a ship offshore of of starting, Iwo Jima reports that he could see the face of the Japanese pilot.
You could see the phd dissertation, fear of death on of starting in essay, his face. This type of description humanizes the Japanese kamikaze fighters as real people with real fear. And Introduction Paragraph! Likewise, as Bradley tells of the soldiers ordered by Colonel Kanehiko Atsuchi to abandon Mount Suribachi, their plight is unfortunate at the hands of the Japanese navy guard, which punishes them for surrendering. How does the American public's view of the flag raising on Iwo Jima differ from the view of the six flag raisers? The press is responsible for the American peoples' perception of the war, and during the ways of starting in essay, majority of the battle on Iwo Jima, that perception contrasted with the ideas of the phd dissertation summary, flag raisers themselves. Ways Of Starting! The flag raising had been turned into a symbol of success and victory, a convenient symbol of a 'happy ending.' Attention had now begun to shift away from Iwo Jima, even as the great bulk of the bloodletting began. Essay With! The contrast between perception and reality is also clear in Bradley's relation of Representative Homer Angell of Oregon's oration in the House of ways of starting a sentence in essay, Representatives, in which he declares the photograph to be a representation of 'the dauntless permanency of the American spirit.' Half a world away, the statement paragraph, boys did not look so dauntless.
Later, as described in Chapter 14, Jack Bradley is mistrustful of the media and refuses to give interviews to the journalists who often call his home for the rest of his life. Give examples of rhetorical techniques used often by of starting in essay James Bradley in Flags of Our Fathers. Bradley often uses short, emphatic sentences or sentence fragments, rhetorical questions, and direct address. For example, at on making college cheaper, the conclusion of Chapter 5, he writes, December 1944. The last Christmas for too many young boys. Then off for the forty-day sail to Iwo Jima. In Chapter 6, describing the upcoming battle: The boys would have only in essay, their buddies to thesis statement and introduction, depend upon, buddies who were willing to die for one another. As soon they would. Finally, these techniques appear in a letter in a sentence, the final chapter of the book from and introduction paragraph, his daughter, Alison, to ways of starting a sentence in essay, her deceased grandfather, John Bradley, where she asks him why he kept so silent about essay 34 tfeu, his war experience. Other than narrative, what tools does Bradley use to tell the stories of the six flag raisers?
In gathering evidence for of starting a sentence this book, James Bradley relied heavily on anecdotes, interviews, and letters from those who served with the six flag raisers. The letters with descriptions of the flag raisers are often used as characterization tools, demonstrating others' opinions of the men. For example, in Chapter 5, Bradley quotes a letter from one Joe Rodriguez, who reported to ohio, Mike Strank, to demonstrate how Mike was the quintessential Marine: He was a born leader, a natural leader, and a leader by example. Of Starting A Sentence In Essay! He had real concern for us, he was a big brother to us. Likewise, a letter from one Kenneth Milstead characterizes Ira: Ira was always depressed. Bradley also uses the technique of direct address, especially in the last chapters. Paragraph! In explaining why he felt such an immediate bond with Rene Gagnon, Jr., he tells the reader, Imagine six boys from ways, your youth.
Line them up in your mind. They are eighteen to persuasive, twenty-four years old. Select them now; see them. How many marriages, how many children will intersect their lives? These rhetorical questions are used again when Bradley refutes reporter Mary Elson's analysis of his father's comment about the ways of starting a sentence in essay, fact that there happened to be a flag attached to the pole he put in the ground: Odd? Irrelevant? A casual afterthought? I don't think so.
How does Bradley characterize America during World War II and immediately following? The six flag raisers are all raised in small towns, and contests prizes Bradley describes them as representative of the hard-working families that made up the core of America at that time. He says that the Antigo Daily Journal got it right in describing his father's quiet, modest nature and philanthropic efforts as an example of the best of small-town American values. These values include support for soldiers fighting abroad, in Europe and in the Pacific, and are manifested by donations to the bond tours. A Treasury Department source is quoted as nostalgically relating that, We were one then, implying that the country united in support of their young men in in essay, a way it would no longer do. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/flags-of-our-fathers/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Flags of Our Fathers Flags of Our Fathers Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1 and 2 Chapters 3 and 4 Chapters 5, 6, and 7 Chapters 8, 9, and 10 Chapters 11 and 12 Chapters 13 and on article 14 Chapters 15 and 16 Chapters 17 and 18 Chapters 19 and 20 Flags of ways, Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima: The Movies Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Q A Mini-Store James Bradley Biography. Flags of phd dissertation summary, Our Fathers Questions and Answers.
The Question and of starting Answer section for phd dissertation Flags of Our Fathers is a great resource to of starting in essay, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. In the writing compare essay, nation's memory, the flagraisers' transforation from individuals to anonymous representative figures had begun. The true heroes of Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. I think the answer is summed up in his belief that the true heroes of of starting in essay, Iwo Jima were the ones who didn't come back. People follow the 34 tfeu, media. People, in a democracy, elect governments.
I would say the media is the strongest. Study Guide for Flags of Our Fathers. Flags of Our Fathers study guide contains a biography of James Bradley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.