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A VISITATION OF SPIRITS by Randall …
aphrodite homework APHRODITE, GODDESS OF LOVE. APHRODITE BY ALYANA. In addition to on a of spirits her irresistible looks Aphrodite had a magical golden girdle, made by Hephaestus, that when worn compelled anyone she wished to analyzing persuasive desire her. On A! Later myths and poems say that the goddess of Love had risen from the sea foam on a seashell after Cronus tossed his father Uranus#39; severed genitals there. Both Aphrodite and the Queen of the tips for writing a scholarship essay Underworld, Persephone, loved a handsome young mortal named Adonis.
The two goddesses created such a stir that Zeus was asked to on a visitation decide Adonis#39; fate. French Eating! Zeus ruled that Adonis could spend one-third of the year with Aphrodite, one-third with Persephone, and the other third was his to do as he wished. Aphrodite wasn#39;t all lovey-dovey. She could be harsh to those who defied her. Because the Lemnian women did not honor her, she inflicted a foul smell on them and caused their husbands to consort with Thracian women. The Lemnian women, abandoned by their husbands, killed all the men on the island and established a society of women. Aphrodite was the ancient Greek goddess of Beauty, Love, Fertility and on a of spirits, Desire. She was one of the Major Olympians and played a dramatic role throughout ancient history, featuring in countless myths and thinking and decision making plans, stories. Aphrodite was - and is - quite fascinating, for many reasons! Her parentage is uncertain.
The poet Homer, in the epic poem called the #39; Iliad #39;, claimed that she was the daughter of Zeus and the Titaness Dione. Visitation! She may also have been a daughter of Amphitrite by Triton or perhaps Cronus, father of many Olympians. Many versions of her origin exist. But later myths and poems say that the goddess of Love had risen from the sea foam on a seashell after Cronus tossed his father Uranus#39; severed genitals there. This is the most widely accepted take, but depending on the source, any of these versions may be considered accurate. Thesis About Bartleby! Her name was thus explained as foam-risen coming from the Greek word #39;Aphros#39;, which means #39;foam#39;. The actual sea-birth is said to have taken place near the island of visitation of spirits Cythera , but supposedly she first walked ashore on Paphos in Cyprus . The South Wind claimed to consumer society term have seen her floating in a scallop shell off the island of essays visitation Cythera, and steered her gently ashore.
That#39;s the reason why she was called #39;The Cyprian#39; or #39; Cytherea #39; as often as by her proper name. The Horae (Hours, Seasons) welcomed her joyously and clothed and problem solving lesson plans, attended to her, hanging golden ornaments in her ears and adorning her with golden necklaces. They put on her head a crown of gold and then the essays on a Horae brought Aphrodite to Mount Olympus, to be introduced to the Olympian gods. HOMERIC HYMN TO APHRODITE. The breath of the west wind bore her. Over the sounding sea, Up from the theories on a consumer term paper delicate foam, To wave-ringed Cyprus, her isle. And the Hours golden-wreathed.
Welcomed her joyously. Visitation! They clad her in rainment immortal, And brought her to the gods. Wonder seized them all as they saw. Aphrodite each year would return to Paphos, in Cyprus, and swim in the sea for good luck and to rejuvenate herself. Robert Graves, in his book Greek Gods and Heroes, tells us that Aphrodite#39;s throne was silver, inlaid with beryls and aquamarines, the back shaped like a scallop shell, the seat made of swan#39;s down, and under her feet lay a golden mat -- an embroidery of golden bees, apples, and sparrows. Critical Making Lesson Plans! The poets liked to paint an idealistic picture of Aphrodite, filled with beauty and happiness - The winds flee before her and the storm clouds; sweet flowers embroider the earth; the waves of the sea laugh; she moves in radiant light. Without her there is on a, no joy nor loveliness anywhere. However, in the Iliad , the story of the Trojan War which praised brutal strength and dissertation, power as heroism, she was shown as a soft and weak creature, whom even mortals could attack, and even wound in battle. Aphrodite wasn#39;t always sweet. When it suited her, she could be rather malicious and treacherous, and her influence over essays on a visitation men was often deadly. Bartleby The Scrivener! She could turn the heart of any man to longing and passion, and essays visitation of spirits, it was said that when she spoke, even Zeus listened. after all, the King of the Olympians was notorious for about bartleby succumbing to Love#39;s temptations.
The lame god of the forge and metalworking, Hephaestus, was her husband, although he was the only god to be physically ugly. It was an arranged marriage - Some say that when Aphrodite first arrived on Mount Olympus, Zeus was struck by her beauty and radiance and he was certain that the other gods would fight for her affections. So he awarded Aphrodite to the most dependable and steady deity, Hephaestus. Needless to say, Hephaestus considered himself the luckiest god on Olympus and on a visitation of spirits, he did his utmost to please his gorgeous bride, continuously creating and critical problem and decision lesson plans, designing new golden jewelry and furniture to please her. In addition to her irresistible looks Aphrodite had a magical golden girdle, made by Hephaestus, that when worn compelled anyone she wished to desire her. As if she weren#39;t irresistible enough already! But Aphrodite considered it shameful and on a, a disgrace to be the wife of such a blue collar, manual-labor kind of god. Hephaestus was unattractive, sooty-faced, hard-working, crippled and not quite the party animal that his wife was, and she insisted on having a bedroom of her own, separate from his.
The Three Fates assigned to Aphrodite one divine duty only - to thinking problem solving and decision making plans make love. Tough work, but someone#39;s got to do it! According to the writer Hesiod, however, one day Athena caught Aphrodite secretly at work on a loom, weaving some colorful cloth. Athena complained that Aphrodite had infringed on visitation her own duties and analyzing essay, threatened to abandon them altogether. Aphrodite proceeded to apologize profusely to Athena and has never done any work since. Opposite Aphrodite high on Mount Olympus sat the god of War, Ares, and essays of spirits, the two had an dissertation planning ongoing notorious love affair that scandalized all of Olympus. Ares and Aphrodite were always holding hands and giggling in the corners of the palace, which made her husband Hephaestus very jealous. One night the two lovers stayed a little longer in bed and essays visitation of spirits, when Helios, the Sun God rose and saw them, he proceeded to tell Hephaestus. The jealous husband then fashioned an invisible bronze hunting net and critical thinking and decision lesson, captured the two lovebirds, but when he assembled the Olympians to on a visitation render judgment, they wanted nothing to do with punishing them. Zeus even told Hephaestus that he was stupid to healthy make such a golden girdle for his wife, and that he shouldn#39;t be surprised that men could not resist her.
Aphrodite had three children by Ares - Phobus, Deimus and on a, Harmonia. Tips! She pretended these were her husband#39;s and essays, presented them as such to Hephaestus. Aphrodite wasn#39;t very faithful to her husband, to tool say the least. Some of her other lovers included Dionysus, god of wine, the messenger god Hermes, and the King of the Sea, Poseidon. Two of her more famous mortal lovers were Adonis and essays on a of spirits, Anchises (see below). Aphrodite thanked Hermes for not taking her husband#39;s side when she was caught with Ares by spending the night with him. The result was Hermaphroditus, a double-sexed being.
Equally grateful to thesis the scrivener Poseidon for essays on a of spirits siding with her, Aphrodite bore him two sons, Rhodus and Herophilus. But Hephaestus was so in love with his wife that he chose to overlook her numerous indiscretions. She was the persuasive essay goddess of Love, after all! Aphrodite#39;s union with Dionysus produced Priapus, a horribly ugly child with enormous genitals. This revolting and obscene appearance was a punishment from Hera, wife to Zeus, who disapproved of Aphrodite#39;s promiscuous ways.
Both Aphrodite and essays on a, the Queen of the Underworld, Persephone, loved a handsome young mortal named Adonis. The two goddesses created such a stir that Zeus was asked to decide Adonis#39; fate. Zeus ruled that Adonis could spend one-third of the year with Aphrodite, one-third with Persephone, and thesis bartleby the scrivener, the other third was his to do as he wished. Needless to say, Adonis chose to essays on a visitation spend his own time with Aphrodite, until he was gored to french essay death by a wild boar (some say it was Ares, the jilted lover, who killed Adonis in the form of a boar). A crimson flower sprang up where each drop of his blood had stained the earth. Every year the Greek maidens mourned for him and each spring they rejoiced when his flower, the blood-red anemone, the windflower, was seen blooming again. Anchises, King of the Dardanians, another one of her mortal lovers, bragged about his conquest of Aphrodite in a tavern while buzzed on cheap wine, causing Zeus to strike him with a thunderbolt for his impudence.
Aphrodite intervened and deflected the bolt with her magic girdle into the feet of Anchises. He lived, but was so weakened by the shock that he never stood upright again. They had a famous son named Aeneas, who fought in the Trojan War and later moved on to Italy. The Romans believed many of essays on a visitation their eminent families descended from Aeneas. Aphrodite set in consumer term motion the Trojan War.
She promised the shepherd called Paris that Helen, the most beautiful mortal woman in the world, would be his if Paris chose Aphrodite over Athena and Hera in a beauty contest. Paris took the bait, picked Aphrodite, and when Helen ran away to Troy with Paris, the enraged Greeks gathered a mighty fleet and army and of spirits, attacked the theories society term great city. Thus began the Trojan War. Aphrodite would often help young people in love: Atalanta, a virgin huntress, and essays visitation, swift as a deer, used to force her wooers to race before her, but if she caught them she would put them to death. If anybody survived she would marry him.
A man named Melanion (also known as Hippomenes) had a crush on the scrivener beautiful Atalanta, but was astute enough to know he had no chance to beat her in the race. After the essays on a young man beseeched the planning Goddess of Love for her help, Aphrodite gave Melanion three golden apples, which he scattered on the ground as he ran. Atalanta could not help but stop to pick up the exquisite and magical fruit, and essays of spirits, was thus beaten in the race. But Aphrodite wasn#39;t all lovey-dovey. Thinking Problem Solving Making Lesson! She could be harsh to those who defied her. Because the essays on a Lemnian women did not honor her, she inflicted a foul smell on them and caused their husbands to consort with Thracian women. The Lemnian women, abandoned by their husbands, killed all the men on for writing a scholarship essay the island and established a society of women. When Aphrodite caught her lover Ares in bed with Eos (Dawn), she cursed his lover with a constant longing for young mortals.
When the Sirens refused to essays visitation yield their virginity to either mortals or gods, Aphrodite turned them into theories paper birds. Of Spirits! Her power was immense, and her victims included Helen, Medea, Ariadne, Phaedra and Hippodameia, to name but a few. It#39;s been written that Aphrodite#39;s son was Eros (Love, Cupid), a very wicked and mischievous boy some say, lacking all manners. The brat spent his time in running all night from healthy eating, building to on a building, and with his love arrows breaking up respectable homes. Nobody was immune to his capricious nature, not even Zeus, in whom Eros often inspired sexual desires. Her attendants were the Horae (Hours, Seasons, who are worshipped as the wardens of the sky and of Olympus and are also said to attend to about bartleby the scrivener the Sun god, Helios) and the Three Graces (Aglaia, Euphrosyne and essays, Thalia, known in Greek as the Charites); Flora and Zephyrus were ready to do her bidding as well. She was the patroness of gardens and gardeners as well as lovers.
The myrtle was her tree; the rose, lily, hyacinth, crocus and narcissus were also sacred to her. Her animals were the swan, the tips a scholarship essay dove, the sparrow and of spirits, the dolphin. On A Society! The principal places of her worship in Greece were the islands of Cythera and Cyprus, but she was revered just about everywhere. Visitation Of Spirits! The presence of sanctuaries dedicated to Aphrodite on many islands suggests that she was a West Asian goddess who was brought to Greece by sea-traders. Aphrodite appears to have been originally identical with Astarte , the Phoenician goddess of fertility and reproduction, whom the Hebrews called Ashtoreth. The Romans called her Venus. APHRODITE BY ALYANA. The poets liked to persuasive essay paint an on a idealistic picture of Aphrodite, filled with beauty and happiness - The winds flee before her and the storm clouds; sweet flowers embroider the earth; the waves of the sea laugh; she moves in tips for writing a scholarship essay radiant light. Without her there is no joy nor loveliness anywhere. Aphrodite wasn#39;t always sweet. When it suited her, she could be rather malicious and treacherous, and her influence over men was often deadly.
She could turn the essays visitation of spirits heart of analyzing persuasive any man to longing and of spirits, passion, and it was said that when she spoke, even Zeus listened. The lame god of the forge and metalworking, Hephaestus, was her husband, although he was the only god to be physically ugly. Needless to dissertation planning say, Hephaestus considered himself the luckiest god on Olympus. Essays! GREEK APHRODITE STAMP. Web, myth narration and graphics created and maintained by Nick Pontikis.
The Myth Man persona copyright 1988 Nick Pontikis.
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A Visitation of Spirits - Wikipedia
my class homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at essays visitation of spirits school with new backpacks and for writing a scholarship essay, school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the on a start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and essay, make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to on a call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the dissertation planning time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the visitation of spirits student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and persuasive, effect of homework.
Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about essays on a of spirits their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of healthy eating essay support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. I wanted to essays on a of spirits understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. Analyzing Persuasive Essay. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions.
I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. On A Of Spirits. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at french essay Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of essays visitation Washington, DC. Dissertation. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in visitation of spirits, session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break.
During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is analyzing persuasive essay comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is essays on a a high transience rate at analyzing essay Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students.
More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in visitation, the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Essay. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is essays of spirits Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. I am an Asian female. The students in society term paper, my class are all in on a of spirits, the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls.
Sixteen out analyzing persuasive essay of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. Of Spirits. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Analyzing Persuasive. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework.
Two of the visitation boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to thesis the scrivener look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. Essays Of Spirits. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is dissertation planning tool a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for on a visitation, me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for tips, school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister.
His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to essays on a visitation see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. Dissertation Planning. He is well-liked at on a school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on thesis about bartleby, in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation.
My own beliefs and values may be contributing to on a visitation this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. Thinking And Decision Plans. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. On A. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Healthy Eating. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers.
Homework can also accentuate the on a of spirits disparity between students from about the scrivener, low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is visitation of spirits a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at for writing a scholarship home and what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is visitation of spirits also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is french emphasized in essays on a visitation, school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and tips a scholarship, this feeling is conveyed to students.
Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in of spirits, movies that do not do their homework. Thinking Solving And Decision Making. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to essays look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to persuasive essay narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the essays on a visitation most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is healthy eating essay especially dependent on essays on a visitation of spirits, their parents.
Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. The school culture emphasizes an importance on thesis about, homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by essays on a visitation, his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about consumer term my beliefs. I chose to visitation look at these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to healthy essay me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and essays on a visitation of spirits, how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to tips the puzzling situation.
After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at essays on a school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to french healthy be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is essays on a not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and healthy eating, then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about of spirits Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages.
Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. Critical Solving Plans. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to essays on a visitation of spirits determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out thinking and decision making what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Essays On A Of Spirits. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in thinking solving and decision making lesson, elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research.
Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and essays on a, understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Theories On A Consumer Society Term. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the essays visitation classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to tips for writing a scholarship cheating and can emphasize the visitation of spirits disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. The Scrivener. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and of spirits, Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).
Homework improved my ability to french essay cover the of spirits curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and on a society term paper, the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out essays visitation of spirits homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out dissertation tool that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework.
The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. On A Of Spirits. I decided to dissertation go back and interview the other third grade teachers to on a find out what their beliefs about homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. He believed that homework should be given for essay, students to build responsibility and for character building.
In his experience the essays visitation ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. Dissertation Planning Tool. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve. Of Spirits. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is tips for writing a scholarship essay taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in their achievement at school. Visitation Of Spirits. He said that he could tell the essay next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to essays on a be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy.
She referred me to dissertation tool the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in the assignments to visitation individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the healthy pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and essays of spirits, conflicting demands of analyzing persuasive home and visitation of spirits, school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher.
I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by thesis, the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at on a the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. On A. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to of spirits practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to dissertation planning be given. Essays Of Spirits. Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to thesis contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the on a visitation of spirits many messages I left for him.
I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator. After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the English language for us to be able to analyzing essay communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). Essays On A Visitation Of Spirits. I asked him a few questions about his job and dissertation tool, Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned.
Apparently Jose had been telling him since the essays of spirits beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and about bartleby, forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either.
Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and essays on a visitation of spirits, bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn.
Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to theories term paper not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for on a visitation, their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to society term his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to essays on a visitation school with Jose. I have only thesis bartleby the scrivener seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to on a encourage or require that Jose do his homework.
Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the persuasive essay message that homework was not valuable to visitation his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in dissertation tool, second grade. Visitation Of Spirits. I found out dissertation that he rarely brought in finished homework and essays visitation, Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to french eating discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in on a of spirits, school and sometimes was able to essay bring in finished homework. Essays Visitation Of Spirits. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the analyzing essay most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. On A Visitation Of Spirits. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out theories my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for of spirits, a grade and thesis about, they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework.
- I feel unsure about which homework assignment to essays on a visitation do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. About The Scrivener. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of essays their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at thesis the scrivener home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to of spirits note that Jose indicated that he does not like to french do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time.
Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the essays on a of spirits homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and persuasive essay, religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and essays on a visitation of spirits, other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport. French. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school.
Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the visitation time or energy to tips for writing a scholarship essay look at his homework. They both worked long hours and essays on a visitation, it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to analyzing be made at the school or classroom level to on a of spirits help students (CIP 5.4.1). Thinking Problem Making Lesson. It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to essays visitation give less challenging homework. Analyzing Essay. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. Visitation Of Spirits. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at on a consumer society paper school.
I let him start his homework at school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in on a visitation, was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from dissertation planning, school to home and then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack. His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the essays on a visitation checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it.
I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to persuasive check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. Visitation. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the dissertation tool door.
Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. Essays Visitation. He comes up to me with his backpack open and theories society paper, his homework at the top so I can see it. Essays On A Visitation. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about essay half the time.
For the first half of the year he rarely turned in on a visitation, any homework assignments and the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is thesis about just as important as doing work in school. Essays Visitation Of Spirits. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for theories on a term paper, Jose to learn. Essays On A Visitation. The communication between home and school is definitely better. In addition I feel that I am more aware that the persuasive essay situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on essays on a, homework and bring it back to bartleby the scrivener school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and visitation, negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. Theories Society. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. Essays Visitation. I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of theories consumer paper homework.
I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on essays visitation of spirits, students and making them relive how I went through school. Planning. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in on a, the classroom. Although the school and on a consumer society term paper, school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. Essays Of Spirits. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to dissertation tool be overwhelmed with the essays on a amount of theories society term homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. Essays. (2001).
Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. Critical Solving Making Lesson. (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. Essays Of Spirits. E. (1995). The funds of persuasive knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Essays Visitation Of Spirits. Buell, J. Tips For Writing. (2001). End homework now.
Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998). The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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A Visitation of Spirits Summary and …
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Allan Bloom and the Conservative Mind. By JIM SLEEPER SEPT. 4, 2005. CONSERVATIVES in 1987 may still have been basking in Ronald Reagan's morning in America, but nothing prepared their movement, or the essays visitation academic and publishing worlds, for the wildfire success of Allan Bloom's Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the problem and decision making lesson plans Souls of Today's Students. Amid a furor recalling that over William F. On A? Buckley Jr.'s God and Man at Yale in 1951, Bloom indicted liberal academics for betraying liberal education.
His attack sold more than a million copies. Who on an American campus could ignore Bloom's accounts of Cornell faculty groveling before black-power student poseurs, or his sketches of politically correct administrator-mandarins and theories society term paper ditzy pomo professors? What dedicated teacher could dismiss his self-described meditation on the state of our souls, particularly those of the young, and their education? Some thoughtful liberals found themselves reading The Closing under their bedcovers with flashlights, unable either to endorse or repudiate it but sensing that some reckoning was due. Conservatives championed Bloom then, of essays of spirits, course, and they invoke him still.
Roger Kimball, the managing editor of the theories on a term paper conservative New Criterion, writes in an article, Retaking the University: A Battle Plan: Traditionally, a liberal arts education involved both character formation and learning . . . to produce men and visitation women who (as Allan Bloom put it) had reflected thoughtfully on the question 'What is man?' Kimball charges that the adversary culture of the intellectuals has taken over universities, an accusation echoed across a growing web of dissertation planning tool, conservative campus activists, including Daniel Pipes's Campus Watch, which tracks the utterances of leftist professors on the Middle East; the essays on a visitation of spirits Collegiate Network, which trains combative conservative student journalists; the Intercollegiate Studies Institute of conservative campus organizations; and David Horowitz's Center for the Study of tips for writing essay, Popular Culture, whose Academic Bill of Rights -- which would subject professors to student grievances against political discrimination -- is essays visitation of spirits, now before several state legislatures. But everyone seems to have missed the elephant in the room: Bloom's ostensibly conservative meditation in fact anticipated and problem solving and decision making repudiated almost every political, religious and economic premise of Kimball's and Horowitz's movement. Conservatives who reread Bloom today are in for a big, perhaps instructive, surprise. Far from being a conservative ideologue, Bloom, a University of Chicago professor of political philosophy who died in 1992, was an eccentric interpreter of Enlightenment thought who led an Epicurean, quietly gay life. He had to essays on a be prodded to for writing essay write his best-selling book by his friend Saul Bellow, whose novel Ravelstein is a wry tribute to Bloom. Far more than liberal speech codes and diversity regimens, the betes noires of the intellectual right, darkened Bloom's horizons: He also mistrusted modernity, capitalism and even democracy so deeply that he believed the university's culture must be adversarial (or at least subtly subversive) before America's market society, with its vulgar blandishments, religious enthusiasms and on a visitation populist incursions. The semitheoretical attacks of right and left on the university and its knowledge, the increased demands made on it by society, the enormous expansion of higher education, Bloom wrote, have combined to obscure the universities' mission to maintain the permanent questions front and healthy essay center and to provide a publicly respectable place . . . for scholars and students to be unhindered in their use of reason.
Some conservatives may insist they are saying exactly that. But Bloom warned that liberal education is threatened as well by proponents of the free market, whose promise of social well-being no longer compels belief, and by on a visitation, religious belief that, contrary to containing capitalism's propensities, as Tocqueville thought it should, is now intended to encourage them. Bloom argued that our capitalist economy and liberal-democratic order turn civic virtue to mercenary ends. To cultivate the use of reason beyond the calculation of on a consumer society, self-interest, he contended, it is essays, necessary that there be an essay, unpopular institution in our midst that . . . resists our powerful urges and temptations. That unpopular institution was the essays on a visitation of spirits university. Surveying with nuanced regret what he saw as the failures of religion and of the Enlightenment (whose rationalism had collapsed into fascism or Communism), he hoped to rescue a classical Greek pedagogical tradition that wove eros and intellect into persuasive, the love of knowing and essays on a visitation the love of natural virtues. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. Conservatives who reread Bloom will also discover that the 60's left reminded him of the right-wing hordes his mentor Leo Strauss had encountered in Europe in theories on a paper the 30's: The fact that in Germany the politics were of the right and in the United States of the left should not mislead us. Essays Visitation? In both places the universities gave way under the pressure of mass movements whose participants, full of animal spirits and spiritual animus, undertook the dismantling of the structure of rational inquiry.
Yet Kimball and critical problem solving and decision making Horowitz themselves are trying to rouse a mass movement of alumni, the essays on a public and critical thinking and decision lesson legislatures to take back the university. Many parents are alarmed, rightly so, at the spectacle of their children coming back from college and jettisoning every moral, religious, social and political scruple that they had been brought up to believe, Kimball cries. On A Of Spirits? But Bloom wanted reason to overturn familial and religious commitments, if necessary, to forge deeper attachments to critical thinking solving and decision making lesson truth and civic-republican virtue. Essays On A Visitation Of Spirits? Try to imagine Bloom's seconding Kimball's praise for the rise of critical thinking problem solving and decision making plans, conservative talk radio, the popularity of Fox News . . . and the spread of interest in the Internet with its many right-of-center populist Web logs as heartening signs that conservatives are becoming a widespread counter to essays visitation the counterculture of thesis, universities. Similarly, Horowitz's Academic Bill of Rights would force professors to teach scholarly work opposed to their own. Most already do that, but it's hard to of spirits imagine that Horowitz, or his conservative allies, want Milton Friedmanite free-marketeers to be required to tell their packed economics classes about dissertation planning tool Daniel Bell's claim, anticipating Bloom, that our economy had led to corporate oligopoly, and, in the pursuit of private wants, a hedonism that is destructive of social needs. Bloom wanted liberal education to resist both whatever is most powerful and the worship of vulgar success. True openness, he said, means closedness to all the of spirits charms that make us comfortable with the present. He disdained professors who strive to critical thinking problem solving lesson become counselors to the king and forget that the intellectual, who attempts to influence . Essays On A Of Spirits? . Bartleby The Scrivener? . ends up in the power of the would-be influenced.
And he lamented the on a of spirits emergence of new academic departments like mass communications and business management, which wandered in recently to perform some job that was demanded of the university. A few years ago, a great university's government department (not mine) nearly abolished its foreign-language requirement for Ph.D. candidates because rational choice whiz kids were touting a great new, universal language -- computer English. An eminent conservative scholar and consumer term one of his formidable leftist colleagues rolled their eyes empathetically and voted together against the initiative. Horowitz and other conservative activists know very well that Bloom didn't reduce what he saw as liberal education's crisis to on a visitation a contest of left versus right: I don't want the eating essay universities to be conservative, Horowitz himself protested recently to The Chronicle of Higher Education. I want them to be academic, scholarly.
The magazine reported, however, that his small board of directors included John O'Neill of Swift Boat Veterans for Truth. That can't be kind of the truth Allan Bloom had in mind. ESSAY Jim Sleeper, a lecturer in essays political science at Yale, is the author of The Closest of Strangers: Liberalism and the Politics of Race in New York and Liberal Racism. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.
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A Visitation of Spirits Summary and …
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is on a of spirits presented that is illustrative of persuasive essay cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful.
Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and essays visitation not to be enticed by dissertation tool, expensive ones of little benefit. A determinant of the treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. While there is no term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the on a visitation diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by bartleby the scrivener, parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to bad spirits or punishment by God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to on a visitation determine the unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine.
Immigrants often lack support of extended families in theories consumer society paper, an environment not supportive of essays on a of spirits their interpretation of analyzing essay child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to care for immigrant families. Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is nearly impossible to find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. While this reality is on a broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. Tips A Scholarship Essay. These challenges may be due in part to cultural differences in understanding and interpreting illness. The importance of cultural issues on essays visitation, mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on thinking problem solving and decision lesson plans, mental health.
1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in on a of spirits, higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the essay world. Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in on a, China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. For Writing A Scholarship. 5 Although the signs and symptoms of ADHD are basically the on a visitation same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the condition is interpreted and responded to by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. Essay. 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to essays on a visitation 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. Planning Tool. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in essays of spirits, children worldwide, the thesis about bartleby the scrivener subtler question of how the interpretation of symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive.
Studies describing the interpretation of on a visitation ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of ADHD and less likely to connect the school system to thesis about the scrivener ADHD issues than white parents. Of Spirits. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment, and dissertation the threshold of on a visitation of spirits parental recognition and seeking of planning tool services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.
12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in essays on a visitation of spirits, standardized tapes of white and Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the clinical cutoffs for ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in about bartleby, the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in raters' assessments of behavior is uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in essays on a visitation of spirits, the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. Analyzing Essay. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families. Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of ADHD. He was an overactive child from early infancy, and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr.
A was 3 years of essays on a visitation age, his parents became increasingly aware of his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions. Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from thesis, school and was forced to on a of spirits move from one school to planning the next. In his community, he developed a reputation for being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by on a visitation of spirits, a specialist as having ADHD.
His parents accepted counseling to help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of medication. Tips For Writing Essay. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. On A. A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report. Mr. Planning Tool. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on on a of spirits, the defensive all the time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to dissertation tool attend to Mr.
A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the home. Unable to navigate the essays on a different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school. Neither environment had an effect on his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to analyzing persuasive essay live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to tutor, mentor, and supervise Mr. On A. A's school activities. Mr.
A eventually graduated from society term paper, high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. Essays On A Visitation. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one. He continues to be hyperactive and thinking making plans unfocused. At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to take medications and denies his disorder.
WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for visitation of spirits, the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at least 6 of persuasive essay 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and (3) combined (has at least 6 of visitation 9 for both inattention and problem and decision making plans hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to on a visitation manage and are the persuasive essay least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to 8 years, and decrease greatly by adolescence. Impulsive behaviors follow the same early course, but rather than declining in adolescence, remain a problem for essays on a, life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and impulsive spending in adulthood.
In contrast to hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for about bartleby the scrivener, life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of symptoms must occur before the age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of visitation of spirits life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr. A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at an age beyond that commonly encountered by American clinicians. Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in for writing, recent immigrants. 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and on a of spirits child abuse or neglect.
18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in critical solving and decision making lesson plans, evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to immigrant populations. These scales include ones for use by clinicians, parents, and on a teachers. Theories On A Consumer Society. Also, collecting information from other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from on a of spirits, a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about eating, their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories. For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from clinical assessment.
23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and psychological treatments, and complementary and essays on a of spirits alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and tips a scholarship essay psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is superior to on a psychosocial treatment. 26. Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants.
While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Thinking Problem And Decision Making Plans. Studies have found that stimulants improve the defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. 28, 29. Aside from studies suggesting the on a visitation efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. Essay. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for essays on a of spirits, ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for planning, severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of essays on a a teenager and 1 of an adult). Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is dissertation planning conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to visitation of spirits use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to term paper be helpful in children with ADHD.
35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and on a visitation biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in clinical trials. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in french eating, less than 1#x00025; of visitation of spirits children. 39 One role in on a consumer society paper, which the primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by expensive treatments of little benefit.
The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of on a visitation of spirits therapy: initiation and titration, maintenance, and termination. Problem Solving And Decision Lesson. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for essays, examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and side effects. This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Starting and adjusting medications on for writing essay, a weekend provides opportunity for parents to observe effects and side effects directly. During the maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and essays on a of spirits side effects are appropriate. The duration and critical problem and decision making plans approach to essays on a termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and families to support adherence to tips treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Essays Visitation. Stimulant medications and atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial.
In summary, although there are a range of treatment modalities that have been tried in eating, the treatment of ADHD in children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Essays. Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). For Writing Essay. 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is no corresponding term for on a, ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following: Among Haitians, the interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from family to essay family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Essays On A Of Spirits. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about french healthy, governmental agencies, and physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for essays on a visitation of spirits, immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the tool treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the of spirits cause of the ADHD behaviors.
Whether the cause is french eating natural or unnatural is extremely important in the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by God. Essays Of Spirits. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of analyzing ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the United States, as in many other countries, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and psychologists. Essays. However, for most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for care of a behavioral problem.
Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and critical thinking problem plans emergency care; access to primary care is limited and generally available only to the most affluent. ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by essays visitation of spirits, parents, extended family, and school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the child to others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the child. Corporal discipline and analyzing punishment can be inflicted by any member of the of spirits family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of dissertation planning tool whom are given full authority to on a visitation of spirits educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the for writing a scholarship support of the extended family, in an environment that is essays on a visitation of spirits not supportive of tips for writing a scholarship essay their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Like many Haitian American parents living in essays, the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr.
A's parents chose to send him back to thesis bartleby Haiti with the essays visitation hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of tips discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and removal of the interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. Mr. A went to live with his grandmother first and then off to a boarding school, a setting seen by many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the use of essays on a visitation psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Thesis Bartleby. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and even religious leaders. Mr. A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and visitation having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. Examples of folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in the doctor-patient relationship is essay essential in of spirits, obtaining their participation in the development of on a consumer paper a treatment plan to which they will adhere.
Clinicians should work to disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and family members. Essays. It may be helpful to on a society paper learn a few words of essays on a of spirits Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to on a consumer society term paper other treatments recommended. Cultural sensitivity is essential in dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the of spirits interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is analyzing a useful context for examining the integration of psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of models of such primary care and essays on a visitation of spirits behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is particularly useful in managing families from other cultures. The goal of dissertation planning tool this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider.
This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the on a visitation of spirits philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of primary care. This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and allows for behavioral health and primary care comanagement of patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for assisting Mr. A and his family and other Haitian children and adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the theories on a consumer society Haitian Health Institute at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the case and for commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people.
Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of clinicians caring for patients and essays on a visitation of spirits families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the tips for writing essay mainstream of society. Visitation Of Spirits. At times, those very clinicians will be in the position to provide rich insights afforded by their own unique cultural backgrounds. Analyzing Essay. These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from other cultures. This article is essays visitation of spirits based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of critical problem plans Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article.
Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly. Drs. Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of essays visitation of spirits this article.