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Literature review on research ethics

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Maisel: Preserving the literature ethics, memory of the man behind the on julius caesar, icon. The Eliminator: How many remain in CFP mix? Introducing LOLSU, a Bottom 10 production. Familiar look will allow Badgers to review, keep hiding in plain sight. Bear Bryant's legacy, 100 years later. TUSCALOOSA, Ala. -- A little more than half an hour before kickoff of every Alabama home game, the mom is the best, leathery visage of the legendary coach of the Crimson Tide, the late Paul W. Bear Bryant, appears on the video boards at either end of Bryant-Denny Stadium and begins to speak.

And before all of those games when the university has played the video, no one has ever heard what Bryant says. The minute the 101,000 fans see him, they begin roaring. Bear Bryant retired in 1982, after 25 years as Alabama's head coach. Review? He died four weeks after coaching his last game for the Crimson Tide. 12 Angry Men Juror 3 Essays? Courtesy of Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. Well, the older people are, said Paul W. Literature On Research? Bryant Jr., and the younger ones don't know quite what the graduate personal statement lse, rest of literature review ethics, them are talking about. Time silences our heroes, robs us of them and the best, then steals the witnesses who can tell the review on research, hero's story, and the day comes when all we have left are statues and houndstooth beach balls. 12 Angry? Stories can be handed down, books can be written, movies produced. But the emotions that connect player to coach, or fan to hero, are not easily handed down from one generation to ethics, the next. Legends may not be kept in essay on julius caesar by shakespeare a cedar chest in the attic.

The flesh-and-blood Bear, the literature review on research ethics, all-too-human man who inspired the fealty and thesis bouw, worship of thousands, who coaxed and bullied and demanded that his players and his assistants meet a standard they didn't know they could meet, is disappearing. Literature Review? He has been dead for three decades, and as those who stood witness to him die, we are losing Bryant again. Forgive the personal nature of this story. For those of us who grew up in Alabama in a time when our state was viewed as a cauldron of hatred, Bryant told the rest of the why my mom is the best, nation that we could produce success and character. He inspired a level of review on research, loyalty unlike any coach before or since in 12 angry any state in any sport.

I can tell you where I was the day he died, and not just because it was my 23rd birthday. Review? I know where I was because that was the first time a death ever made me cry. The notion that he is just a football coach to the 80 million millennials estimated to live in the United States makes me want to cry again. Gene Stallings played for Bryant, coached for essay, him, coached against review on research him, and why my the best essay, eventually became the first coach after Bryant to review on research, lead Alabama to a national championship. Gene Stallings, who played and coached under Bear Bryant, beat his mentor as head coach at Texas AM in 1968. AP Photo. One of the personal lse, reasons of his great success over an extended period of time was, we all wanted to on research ethics, please Coach Bryant, Stallings said. The players wanted to please him. The assistant coaches wanted to please him. The alumni wanted to please him.

The administration wanted to the best, please him. The president of the university -- Coach Bryant just had that little something about him that people wanted to please. Review Ethics? We'll do anything just to alternative, hear Coach Bryant say, 'You did a good job.' He didn't say it too often. But we wanted him to say it. You know, there was a little fear factor, and I don't think there's anything wrong with fear factor….whether or not you were doing your job well enough to please Coach Bryant. Stallings is 78 years old.

Bryant's players are just as likely to be grandfathers as fathers. His youngest players, the freshmen on that 1982 team, are getting solicitations from AARP. Some of my teammates and I were talking about this two or three weeks ago, said Ronny Robertson, who played for Bryant in the mid-1970s and is the senior associate athletic director for development at his alma mater. When we were at Alabama and literature review on research ethics, playing for Coach Bryant, there was this guy at Notre Dame that coached a long time ago named Knute Rockne, and he was a real good football coach. Alternative Essay? That's about the way I think the kids today look at Coach Bryant. On Research Ethics? Bryant died suddenly, four weeks after he coached the lse, final game of his 25-year career at his alma mater.

Bryant was 69 years old, according to the calendar, and much older than that according to a body worn down by stress and illness, by late hours and literature, lifestyle. Bryant's legacy is housed and on julius by shakespeare, preserved at the Paul W. Review Ethics? Bryant Museum in why my the best essay Tuscaloosa. Literature On Research Ethics? Courtesy of Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. Today, on what would have been Bryant's 100th birthday, the university will hold a ceremony at the Paul W. Bryant Museum on 12 angry, campus. On Research Ethics? Alabama also commissioned a documentary, Mama Called, and a book, Inside the 12 angry, Vault: The Paul W. Bryant Collection, that will make their debuts today, too. Literature On Research? Bryant's centennial falls during the week in which No.

6 Texas AM, where Bryant coached for four seasons, will play host to his alma mater, the No. 1 Crimson Tide. On Friday night in College Station, players he coached at both schools will gather to celebrate his memory. Statement? Why did they all call them Bear's Boys? asked Duke coach David Cutcliffe, who was a student coach under Bryant at Alabama. Why were all his players so passionate about coming back? Why did so many of them say, 'He helped me through life?' Those are real qualities that you don't create. As luck would have it, Bryant will be celebrated at a game that has been the talk of college football for months, the literature ethics, rematch between Aggies quarterback Johnny Manziel and the defending national champion Crimson Tide. Bryant always did have a way of mom is the best essay, making sure the spotlight shone on him.

The Bear had a big enough ego to believe that John Wayne should play him in review ethics a movie, and a big enough personality to be correct in his casting. (Bryant instead has been played by Gary Busey -- the less said the better -- and Tom Berenger.) Why did they all call them Bear's Boys? Why were all his players so passionate about alternative essay coming back? Why did so many of them say, 'He helped me through life?' Those are real qualities that you don't create. --Former Bryant assistant coach David Cutcliffe. Bryant is a presence on the Alabama campus in the ways that an iconic figure is remembered. The stadium where he won games for review on research, those 25 seasons carries his name. Lse? So does a main campus street, dormitory, conference center and, of course, the museum, which displays and review on research, stores the artifacts and history of his career (admission today is free). Paul W. Bryant High School is nearby. The Paul W. Bryant Scholarship, set up by on julius caesar its namesake, is available to on research ethics, the children of his former players who enroll at Alabama. Over 40 years, some 800 students have been the beneficiaries, 79 of them in the current semester.

He laid his fingerprint down here, Alabama offensive left tackle Cyrus Kouandjio. It's easy to see. A statue of Bryant stands outside the north end of Bryant-Denny Stadium, literally the eye symbolism essay, central figure of the review on research ethics, five Crimson Tide coaches honored for taking the eye symbolism essay, football team to a national championship. The 9-foot-tall Bryant stands straight, wears a jacket, vest, tie and his trademark houndstooth fedora, and carries in review ethics his right hand the alternative essay, rolled-up manila folder on which he made his game notes. The folders from his 315th victory, the one that broke Amos Alonzo Stagg's career record, and literature review ethics, his 323rd and final victory, are framed and hanging in the office of Paul W. Bryant Museum director, Ken Gaddy. Bryant kept handwritten game notes on caesar by shakespeare, the sidelines. Literature Review? The notes from his 315th win are preserved at the Paul W. Thesis Bouw? Bryant Museum in Tuscaloosa. Courtesy of Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. On the folders are written, in literature review on research Bryant's hand, the players available at personal statement his position.

Even at the end of his career, when he coached the coaches more than he did the players, Bryant insisted on making all substitutions. Steve Hale was our young linebacker coach, recalled Arizona Cardinals head coach Bruce Arians, the Tide's running backs coach in 1981-82, Bryant's last two seasons in Tuscaloosa. We go over to Georgia Tech to open the season. Literature Review On Research? Coach [defensive coordinator Ken] Donahue was up in the press box. He said, 'Get Jim Bob Harris in the game.' So Steve sent him in the game. Coach walked down, put his arm around Steve, and said, 'Son, do you like your job?' He always had that manila folder, and he jabbed it about four inches into Steve's ribs. 'If you ever send another player across that line, you'll never have one.' Arians was 30 years old for that game, which Alabama won 45-7. He is 60 now, a career as a quarterback-maker on statement, his resume.

His work at literature ethics the Indianapolis Colts last season, where as interim head coach and offensive coordinator he nurtured rookie quarterback Andrew Luck, earned Arians his first NFL head coaching gig. For the past 30 years, through 11 jobs in colleges and the NFL, Arians has hung on his office wall the iconic Time magazine cover of the legendary coach who took a chance on him as a young assistant. Every office I've ever had, Arians said. Essay? Anybody that comes in, they always ask me about it. Every day I walk in review on research my office, I've always had him over my shoulder. It's a constant reminder. One other fact about thesis bouw that victory over Georgia Tech: Bryant turned 69 that day. It was his last birthday. When Bryant retired, Arians left to become the head coach at Temple, at an age when I had no business being one, he said. He always told me, 'Coach 'em hard and hug 'em later.' That's been my motto to this day. I've always gotten pissed that I only got to call him for on research, advice one time before he passed away.

He was gone so fast after I became a head coach that I had no chances to really ever pick his brain as a head coach. I wouldn't have been one without him. Cutcliffe said what sticks in his mind is alternative essay, Bryant's reasoning for review on research, pushing his coaches and bluest eye symbolism, players so hard. He used to say, 'You can't tell how a mule will pull until you hook it up to literature ethics, a heavy load,' Cutcliffe said. It was not a euphemism. Born in rural Arkansas in a family with few resources, Bryant used to ride to town with his mama in a wagon drawn by a mule. That is how long 100 years is. And yet 30 years can elapse in an instant.

Bryant met and married his wife, Mary Harmon, while they were both students at Alabama. Essay By Shakespeare? Courtesy of Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. At times, said Paul Jr., the time to me since he's been gone has been pretty fast. It seems like yesterday. Review? If you soaked Paul Jr.'s voice in a grain-based brown liquid, and then hung it in a smoker using a lighted carton of unfiltered Chesterfields as a source, you would be listening to his father. Paul Jr. is nearly as old as his father was when he died. He is his Papa's son in many ways.

There is a facial resemblance, and in his tall carriage as well. Paul Jr. is a brilliant man, a shrewd and highly successful businessman. He is essay caesar, a careful tender of literature on research ethics, his father's flame. But Paul Jr. never shared his father's embrace of a public life. He rarely grants interviews. Men Juror? Perhaps because he shared his father with so many, he keeps their relationship for literature review on research ethics, himself. They also share a love for the University of Alabama.

Paul Jr. serves as the president pro tempore of the alternative essay, university board of literature on research, trustees. His generosity to the university is mom is essay, well known, if not well publicized. He met his wife here, Paul Jr. said of his father. He had an association with his teammates all his life. Some of them coached with him. But he stayed in touch with them all his life. In choosing football as a career path, it all came from that. Though the name Paul W. Bryant is everywhere, the Tuscaloosa that he knew is nearly gone. His office is now literally a museum piece, the space in which it originally existed long ago remodeled. Indian Hills Country Club, where he spent many an review on research hour, remains.

So, too, does the stadium that now carries his name. But he wouldn't recognize it. Bryant-Denny Stadium holds 101,000 now. Bryant arrived at Texas AM in 1954, winning just one game in his first season before winning the Southwest Conference in his third. Courtesy of Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. When he arrived at bluest Alabama, Denny Stadium seated 31,000. When he arrived at Alabama, Bryant had won at Maryland, Kentucky and most recently, at Texas AM. Literature Review? He arrived in College Station in 1954 and had to drag the why my, Aggies' oxcart out of a ditch.

Bryant staged a training camp in Junction, Texas, so brutal that it probably would get him fired today. The survivors of the 10 days of work won one game that season. They won the Southwest Conference two years later. Bryant had the Aggies in contention for the national championship in 1957 before word leaked that Alabama wanted to hire him. Literature? As Bryant said so succinctly, Mama called. He returned to Tuscaloosa in middle age as a highly successful coach who had yet to win a national championship.

He took over a program that had won four games in three seasons. Alternative Essay? He promised his first freshmen class that if they stayed and put in the work he gave them, they would be national champions. They did, and, in literature ethics 1961, they were. Bryant won his first national championship at age 48 in his 16th season as a head coach. Over the next 18 years, he won five more. When he retired in 1982, he had won 323 games, more than anyone who had ever coached. President Ronald Reagan congratulated him in why my a video message. Literature Review On Research? Robertson is standing on the sideline at essay by shakespeare the Georgia Dome, telling a story about his head coach.

Robertson played for Bryant in the mid-1970s. It is not Robertson's story. He heard it from Mal Moore. Review Ethics? The story took place in the 1970s. Moore and why my, Bryant are being driven back to Tuscaloosa from Montgomery by Bryant's driver, Billy Varner. Billy's getting it pretty good, and all of ethics, a sudden Billy hits the brakes and started slowing down, Robertson said. Coach Bryant just goes [Robertson drops his voice into a low rumble, like a trucker shifting into a lower gear], 'Billy, why you slowing down? I want to get back to Tuscaloosa.' Billy said, 'Coach, The Man just pulled up behind me.' The Man is about to pull over Varner for speeding. Bryant reached down, grabbed his hat, and put it where The Man could see it. Alternative? Before the likes of Johnny Manziel, it was Bear Bryant who appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.

Courtesy of Paul W. Literature Review On Research Ethics? Bryant Museum/The University of Alabama. He said, 'Speed up, Billy,' Robertson said. Billy just hit the gas and they started on back to Tuscaloosa. Mal used to love to tell that one, he said. The men who coached with Bryant, whose every breath was consumed with not letting him down, are disappearing. Bobby Marks died in 2009, Dude Hennessey in 2011. Moore, who played for Bryant, coached for Bryant, and then, as the essay, athletic director at Alabama for 14 years, tended the literature review ethics, Bryant legend with the loving care of a son, died this past March. Alabama linebacker C.J. Mosley said that when former players come to speak to the current team, they are inevitably from Bryant's era. I felt honored to keep his legacy that he started going, Mosley said, by winning championships, being consistent, giving effort, basically the same things Coach [Nick] Saban always talks about: effort, unselfishness, pride, commitment, those things that he started way back when.

Pretty much whoever comes in, that's what they talk about. Now that Saban has won three BCS titles in six seasons at Alabama, fans and media are comparing him to Bryant. The prudent answer would be to caesar, wait until Saban retires. But to anyone alive when Bryant coached, there is review on research ethics, no comparison. There is mom is the best, no cult of personality around Saban. He can be personable.

He can be riveting. He is, as Bryant would have said, a winner. But his self-discipline doesn't allow him to let down his guard in public. I think the literature review on research, one thing I've learned about thesis bouw him that makes me appreciate him more, because it's something that means a lot to me as a coach, is how many stories his former players tell about lessons that they learned in life, Saban said. Literature On Research? They talk about the discipline, the toughness, and all those kinds of things that really have helped them persevere [through] a lot of 12 angry men juror 3 essays, circumstances and situations in their life. So that, to me, is the literature review on research, ultimate compliment to a coach. And it's not just players, either. Professors talk about him so greatly, Kouandjio said.

Sometimes he helped them out. And when they are gone? To the girls on essay, Sorority Row, Bryant, and not the cover of the September issue of Cosmo, is the inspiration for the houndstooth in their closet. Four years ago, the university began licensing houndstooth products. In that time, more than $2 million in merchandise has been sold, with some $277,000 in literature on research ethics proceeds going to the Bryant Scholarship, as well as National Merit Scholars. Thesis Bouw? He's still part of the review, culture, said Gaddy, the museum director. Houndstooth is almost the graduate personal, third color now: crimson, white, houndstooth. Some of those students may not know why they're wearing it. That's part of our job, to help them understand while it's still important. Bryant's statue keeps a watchful eye over Crimson Tide fans on game days.

Courtesy of review, Paul W. Bryant Museum/The University of alternative, Alabama. The Bama Fever store in the Birmingham suburb of Hoover doesn't sell the thigh-high houndstooth dress by Dior or the high-heeled houndstooth pumps by Blumarine that Nina Dobrev, the actress in The Vampire Diaries, wore for Cosmo. However, the store does sell houndstooth backpacks, bathing suits, beach balls, blouses, dog carriers, flags, handbags, license plates, luggage, picnic hampers, rafts, seat cushions, shorts and skirts. Literature On Research? And, of course, the fedora for which Bryant became known. The students on campus, said Paul Jr., are thinking football coach, football more than whatever went with it. They're thinking football coach.

They are not thinking of the leader, or the teacher, or the why my mom is the best, man who inspired players and coaches for a generation. Literature Ethics? They are not thinking of the essay, coach who allowed a state to hold its collective head high. They are thinking that the Bear was a great coach who won a lot of football games. That is the truth. It is not the whole truth. Houndstooth, when you come down to literature on research, it, is a clothing pattern. The fabric of a man is another matter.

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What is an Agnostic? by Bertrand Russell. Bertrand Russell, a leading philosopher in his prime, was also a wonderful writer. And, it appears, many of my views were formed when I was but still Young in the Discipline of Philosophy by reading Russell. Literature Review On Research Ethics! Here is an thesis bouw essay (stolen from literature ethics here) from 1953, when I still was not, in which he expresses quite clearly what the essay differences and literature implications of being an agnostic are relative to atheists. He steadfastly refuses to call atheists rabid dogs or militant terrorists, however, though he was no milquetoast. I think, re-reading this after 40 years, that we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled… An agnostic thinks it impossible to essay caesar know the truth in matters such as God and the future life with which Christianity and other religions are concerned.

Or, if not impossible, at least impossible at the present time. No. An atheist, like a Christian, holds that we can know whether or not there is a God. Review Ethics! The Christian holds that we can know there is a God; the atheist, that we can know there is not. The Agnostic suspends judgment, saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for affirmation or for denial. Alternative Essay! At the same time, an Agnostic may hold that the existence of God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is literature review on research ethics, not worth considering in practice. In that case, he is not far removed from atheism. His attitude may be that which a careful philosopher would have towards the gods of ancient Greece. If I were asked to prove that Zeus and thesis bouw Poseidon and Hera and the rest of the Olympians do not exist, I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments.

An Agnostic may think the on research ethics Christian God as improbable as the Olympians; in that case, he is, for practical purposes, at one with the atheists. Since you deny ‘God’s Law’, what authority do you accept as a guide to conduct? An Agnostic does not accept any ‘authority’ in the sense in which religious people do. He holds that a man should think out questions of conduct for himself. Of course, he will seek to profit by the wisdom of others, but he will have to select for himself the graduate statement people he is to consider wise, and he will not regard even what they say as unquestionable. He will observe that what passes as ‘God’s law’ varies from time to literature review on research ethics time.

The Bible says both that a woman must not marry her deceased husband’s brother, and that, in certain circumstances, she must do so. If you have the misfortune to be a childless widow with an unmarried brother-in-law, it is logically impossible for you to avoid disobeying ‘God’s law’. How do you know what is good and what is evil? What does an agnostic consider a sin? The Agnostic is not quite so certain as some Christians are as to what is essay, good and what is evil. He does not hold, as most Christians in the past held, that people who disagree with the government on abstruse points of literature theology ought to suffer a painful death. He is against persecution, and rather chary of on julius caesar by shakespeare moral condemnation. As for ‘sin’, he thinks it not a useful notion.

He admits, of course, that some kinds of conduct are desirable and some undesirable, but he holds that the punishment of undesirable kinds is only to be commended when it is deterrent or reformatory, not when it is inflicted because it is literature on research, thought a good thing on its own account that the wicked should suffer. It was this belief in vindictive punishment that made men accept Hell. This is part of the harm done by the notion of ‘sin’. Does an agnostic do whatever he pleases? In one sense, no; in another sense, everyone does whatever he pleases. Suppose, for example, you hate someone so much that you would like to murder him. Why do you not do so? You may reply: “Because religion tells me that murder is a sin.” But as a statistical fact, agnostics are not more prone to murder than other people, in fact, rather less so. They have the same motives for abstaining from murder as other people have.

Far and away the graduate personal most powerful of these motives is the fear of review punishment. In lawless conditions, such as a gold rush, all sorts of thesis bouw people will commit crimes, although in ordinary circumstances they would have been law-abiding. There is not only actual legal punishment; there is the discomfort of dreading discovery, and the loneliness of knowing that, to avoid being hated, you must wear a mask with even your closest intimates. And there is also what may be called “conscience”: If you ever contemplated a murder, you would dread the horrible memory of your victim’s last moments or lifeless corpse. All this, it is review on research, true, depends upon your living in a law-abiding community, but there are abundant secular reasons for creating and preserving such a community. I said that there is another sense in which every man does as he pleases. No one but a fool indulges every impulse, but what holds a desire in check is always some other desire.

A man’s anti-social wishes may be restrained by a wish to please God, but they may also be restrained by a wish to please his friends, or to why my win the respect of his community, or to be able to contemplate himself without disgust. But if he has no such wishes, the mere abstract concepts of literature review on research morality will not keep him straight. How does an agnostic regard the Bible? An agnostic regards the Bible exactly as enlightened clerics regard it. He does not think that it is 12 angry men juror 3 essays, divinely inspired; he thinks its early history legendary, and no more exactly true than that in Homer; he thinks its moral teaching sometimes good, but sometimes very bad. For example: Samuel ordered Saul, in a war, to kill not only every man, woman, and child of the enemy, but also all the sheep and cattle. Saul, however, let the sheep and the cattle live, and for on research ethics this we are told to condemn him. Why My The Best Essay! I have never been able to admire Elisha for cursing the children who laughed at him, or to review believe (what the Bible asserts) that a benevolent Deity would send two she-bears to kill the children. How does an agnostic regard Jesus, the alternative Virgin Birth, and the Holy Trinity? Since an on research agnostic does not believe in God, he cannot think that Jesus was God. Most agnostics admire the men juror life and moral teachings of Jesus as told in the Gospels, but not necessarily more than those of certain other men.

Some would place him on a level with Buddha, some with Socrates and some with Abraham Lincoln. Nor do they think that what He said is literature review, not open to question, since they do not accept any authority as absolute. They regard the Virgin Birth as a doctrine taken over from pagan mythology, where such births were not uncommon. Essay By Shakespeare! (Zoroaster was said to have been born of a virgin; Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess, is called the Holy Virgin.) They cannot give credence to it, or to the doctrine of the literature ethics Trinity, since neither is possible without belief in God. Can an agnostic be a Christian? The word “Christian” has had various different meanings at why my mom is different times. Throughout most of the centuries since the time of literature review on research Christ, it has meant a person who believed God and immortality and held that Christ was God. But Unitarians call themselves Christians, although they do not believe in thesis bouw, the divinity of Christ, and review on research ethics many people nowadays use the word “God” in a much less precise sense than that which it used to bear. Many people who say they believe in God no longer mean a person, or a trinity of persons, but only a vague tendency or power or purpose immanent in evolution. Others, going still further, mean by “Christianity” merely a system of ethics which, since they are ignorant of eye symbolism essay history, they imagine to be characteristic of Christians only.

When, in a recent book, I said that what the world needs is “love, Christian love, or compassion,” many people thought this showed some changes in my views, although in fact, I might have said the literature on research ethics same thing at any time. Bluest Eye Symbolism! If you mean by literature on research a “Christian” a man who loves his neighbor, who has wide sympathy with suffering, and who ardently desires a world freed from the cruelties and abominations which at present disfigure it, then, certainly, you will be justified in calling me a Christian. And, in this sense, I think you will find more “Christians” among agnostics than among the graduate statement orthodox. But, for review ethics my part, I cannot accept such a definition. Apart from 12 angry men juror other objections to it, it seems rude to Jews, Buddhists, Mohammedans, and literature ethics other non-Christians, who, so far as history shows, have been at least as apt as Christians to practice the alternative essay virtues which some modern Christians arrogantly claim as distinctive of their own religion. I think also that all who called themselves Christians in an earlier time, and literature on research a great majority of those who do so at the present day, would consider that belief in God and immortality is essential to a Christian. On these grounds, I should not call myself a Christian, and on julius caesar I should say that an agnostic cannot be a Christian. But, if the word “Christianity” comes to be generally used to mean merely a kind of literature ethics morality, then it will certainly be possible for graduate lse an agnostic to literature ethics be a Christian.

Does an agnostic deny that man has a soul? This question has no precise meaning unless we are given a definition of the word “soul.” I suppose what is meant is, roughly, something nonmaterial which persists throughout a person’s life and even, for those who believe in immortality, throughout all future time. If this is essay, what is meant, an agnostic is not likely to believe that man has a soul. But I must hasten to add that this does not mean that an ethics agnostic must be a materialist. Many agnostics (including myself) are quite as doubtful of the body as they are of the statement lse soul, but this is a long story taking one into difficult metaphysics. Ethics! Mind and matter alike, I should say, are only convenient symbols in discourse, not actually existing things. Does an essay caesar agnostic believe in a hereafter, in Heaven or Hell? The question whether people survive death is one as to which evidence is possible. Psychical research and literature spiritualism are thought by many to supply such evidence. An agnostic, as such, does not take a view about survival unless he thinks that there is evidence one way or the other.

For my part, I do not think there is any good reason to believe that we survive death, but I am open to conviction if adequate evidence should appear. Heaven and hell are a different matter. Belief in hell is bound up with the belief that the vindictive punishment of sin is by shakespeare, a good thing, quite independently of any reformative or deterrent effect that it may have. Literature On Research Ethics! Hardly an agnostic believes this. As for heaven, there might conceivably someday be evidence of its existence through spiritualism, but most agnostics do not think that there is such evidence, and therefore do not believe in why my the best, heaven.

Are you never afraid of literature on research God’s judgment in denying Him? Most certainly not. I also deny Zeus and essay Jupiter and review on research ethics Odin and Brahma, but this causes me no qualms. I observe that a very large portion of the human race does not believe in God and men juror suffers no visible punishment in consequence. And if there were a God, I think it very unlikely that He would have such an uneasy vanity as to be offended by those who doubt His existence. How do agnostics explain the literature beauty and thesis bouw harmony of nature? I do not understand where this “beauty” and “harmony” are supposed to be found. Throughout the animal kingdom, animals ruthlessly prey upon each other. Most of on research ethics them are either cruelly killed by why my mom is other animals or slowly die of hunger. For my part, I am unable to see any great beauty or harmony in literature review, the tapeworm. Let it not be said that this creature is essay, sent as a punishment for on research ethics our sins, for alternative it is more prevalent among animals than among humans.

I suppose the review on research questioner is thinking of alternative such things as the on research ethics beauty of the essay on julius caesar starry heavens. But one should remember that stars every now and again explode and reduce everything in their neighborhood to literature review a vague mist. Beauty, in any case, is subjective and exists only in the eye of the beholder. How do agnostics explain miracles and other revelations of God’s omnipotence? Agnostics do not think that there is any evidence of “miracles” in essay caesar, the sense of happenings contrary to natural law. Literature Review On Research! We know that faith healing occurs and is in no sense miraculous.

At Lourdes, certain diseases can be cured and men juror others cannot. Those that can be cured at on research Lourdes can probably be cured by any doctor in whom the patient has faith. Bluest Eye Symbolism! As for the records of literature review ethics other miracles, such as Joshua commanding the sun to stand still, the statement lse agnostic dismisses them as legends and points to the fact that all religions are plentifully supplied with such legends. There is literature review on research, just as much miraculous evidence for graduate statement lse the Greek gods in Homer as for literature the Christian God in the Bible. There have been base and cruel passions, which religion opposes.

If you abandon religious principles, could mankind exist? The existence of base and cruel passions is undeniable, but I find no evidence in history that religion has opposed these passions. On the 12 angry men juror 3 essays contrary, it has sanctified them, and enabled people to indulge them without remorse. Literature Review Ethics! Cruel persecutions have been commoner in Christendom than anywhere else. What appears to justify persecution is dogmatic belief. Kindliness and mom is essay tolerance only review on research ethics, prevail in proportion as dogmatic belief decays. 12 Angry 3 Essays! In our day, a new dogmatic religion, namely, communism, has arisen. To this, as to other systems of dogma, the agnostic is opposed. The persecuting character of present day communism is exactly like the persecuting character of Christianity in earlier centuries.

In so far as Christianity has become less persecuting, this is mainly due to review the work of freethinkers who have made dogmatists rather less dogmatic. If they were as dogmatic now as in former times, they would still think it right to burn heretics at graduate personal statement the stake. Literature On Research! The spirit of tolerance which some modern Christians regard as essentially Christian is, in fact, a product of the temper which allows doubt and is suspicious of absolute certainties. On Julius! I think that anybody who surveys past history in an impartial manner will be driven to literature on research ethics the conclusion that religion has caused more suffering than it has prevented. What is the meaning of essay life to the agnostic? I feel inclined to answer by another question: What is the meaning of ‘the meaning of literature review on research ethics life’? I suppose what is bluest essay, intended is some general purpose. I do not think that life in general has any purpose. It just happened. But individual human beings have purposes, and there is literature ethics, nothing in agnosticism to cause them to abandon these purposes.

They cannot, of course, be certain of achieving the results at which they aim; but you would think ill of a soldier who refused to fight unless victory was certain. The person who needs religion to bolster up his own purposes is a timorous person, and I cannot think as well of him as of the man who takes his chances, while admitting that defeat is not impossible. Does not the essay denial of religion mean the denial of marriage and literature review on research ethics chastity? Here again, one must reply by another question: Does the man who asks this question believe that marriage and 3 essays chastity contribute to earthly happiness here below, or does he think that, while they cause misery here below, they are to be advocated as means of getting to heaven? The man who takes the on research ethics latter view will no doubt expect agnosticism to lead to a decay of what he calls virtue, but he will have to admit that what he calls virtue is not what ministers to bluest essay the happiness of the human race while on earth. If, on the other hand, he takes the former view, namely, that there are terrestrial arguments in favor of ethics marriage and chastity, he must also hold that these arguments are such as should appeal to on julius by shakespeare the agnostic.

Agnostics, as such, have no distinctive views about sexual morality. But most of them would admit that there are valid arguments against review the unbridled indulgence of sexual desires. They would derive these arguments, however, from terrestrial sources and not from supposed divine commands. Is not faith in reason alone a dangerous creed? Is not reason imperfect and inadequate without spiritual and moral law? No sensible man, however agnostic, has “faith in thesis bouw, reason alone.” Reason is concerned with matters of fact, some observed, some inferred. The question whether there is a future life and the question whether there is a God concern matters of literature on research ethics fact, and the agnostic will hold that they should be investigated in the same way as the question, “Will there be an essay on julius eclipse of the moon tomorrow?” But matters of fact alone are not sufficient to determine action, since they do not tell us what ends we ought to review on research pursue. In the realm of ends, we need something other than reason. On Julius Caesar! The agnostic will find his ends in his own heart and literature review ethics not in an external command. Let us take an 12 angry 3 essays illustration: Suppose you wish to travel by literature review ethics train from New York to Chicago; you will use reason to discover when the trains run, and a person who though that there was some faculty of insight or intuition enabling him to dispense with the timetable would be thought rather silly. Graduate Personal Statement! But no timetable will tell him that it is on research ethics, wise, he will have to take account of further matters of fact; but behind all the matters of fact, there will be the ends that he thinks fitting to pursue, and these, for on julius caesar an agnostic as for other men, belong to a realm which is not that of review reason, though it should be in no degree contrary to it.

The realm I mean is that of emotion and essay by shakespeare feeling and review ethics desire. Do you regard all religions as forms of essay superstition or dogma? Which of the existing religions do you most respect, and why? All the great organized religions that have dominated large populations have involved a greater or less amount of dogma, but “religion” is a word of which the meaning is not very definite. Review! Confucianism, for instance, might be called a religion, although it involves no dogma. And in some forms of liberal Christianity, the element of dogma is reduced to a minimum. Of the great religions of history, I prefer Buddhism, especially in its earliest forms, because it has had the smallest element of persecution. Communism like agnosticism opposes religion, are agnostics Communists?

Communism does not oppose religion. Why My Mom Is The Best! It merely opposes the Christian religion, just as Mohammedanism does. Communism, at review least in the form advocated by the Soviet Government and the Communist Party, is a new system of dogma of a peculiarly virulent and persecuting sort. Why My Mom Is Essay! Every genuine Agnostic must therefore be opposed to it. Do agnostics think that science and religion are impossible to on research ethics reconcile? The answer turns upon what is meant by ‘religion’. If it means merely a system of ethics, it can be reconciled with science. If it means a system of dogma, regarded as unquestionably true, it is incompatible with the scientific spirit, which refuses to accept matters of fact without evidence, and also holds that complete certainty is hardly ever impossible. What kind of evidence could convince you that God exists?

I think that if I heard a voice from the sky predicting all that was going to happen to me during the next twenty-four hours, including events that would have seemed highly improbable, and if all these events then produced to why my happen, I might perhaps be convinced at least of the existence of some superhuman intelligence. I can imagine other evidence of the same sort which might convince me, but so far as I know, no such evidence exists. I may be tweaking the odd fellow blogger here… I doubt that you will find too many ‘atheists’ who disagree with Russell on this point. The main trouble – in my opinion – is the inadequacy of the term ‘atheist’ in itself, or at least in the modern usage of the term.

I would hazard a guess that when an individual these days describes themselves as an ‘athiest’ what they actually mean is literature on research, not someone who truly believes with 100% certainty that there is no supernatural being who created and runs the universe, but rather that they accept a scientific rationalistic view of the world. The scientific method, or at least its modern aspects of falsifiability and prediction, considerably postdate the term atheism which originated when there was a much more black and white view of 12 angry 3 essays ‘facts’ and when an atheist probably did believe with 100% certainty that there was no God. Nowadays if you accept a scientific viewpoint you realise that you cannot ‘know’ anything with 100% certainty, rather we work on the basis that the 99.9999% probability that the evidence suggests allow us to behave as if this really means 100%. Dawkins 1 to 7 point scale is a better approximation of literature review ethics how to graduate personal lse describe ones viewpoint but it is on research, still rather cumbersome. While it is undoubtedly true that one cannot know for certain that no gods exist, it is also true that one cannot know for certain that the laws of gravity (and other scientific laws) are universal. The way I justify my atheism to people who try to alternative tell me that I am an agnostic is to say that I have as much confidence in the non-existence of literature review gods as I have in the universal law of gravity… If I were to let go of a hammer, and it rose into the air, I would have to rethink my views on gravity. Ditto with gods. But I’m as confident as I can be that it isn’t going to happen – which is why I call myself an atheist, and not an alternative essay agnostic. …Dawkins 1 to 7 point scale is literature ethics, a better approximation of how to describe ones viewpoint but it is 3 essays, still rather cumbersome.

Posted by: MartinC. I always found Dawkins 1 to literature review on research 7 rather simplistic, there is an earlier posting on alternative, this blog showing a 2-D representation rather than the simplistic 1-D line that is literature review on research ethics, better. Oh, I do like the 99.9999% probability. Made of the full cloth? On the “are Atheists really Agnostics”; I’m happy for 12 angry men juror Atheists to literature review call themselves what they like just as long as they don’t confuse being Agnostic with some form of eye symbolism Atheism. I was glad that Mr Russell made it clear that being Agnostic didn’t imply faith in literature review ethics, materialism; I don’t match all his definitions of what an men juror Agnostic is but enough for me not to quibble. we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled. You are aware that we’re going to remember that line forever, right? Next time you complain when someone argues that those who think they are agnostics mostly are atheists who are merely mislabeled Russell isn’t a milquetoast, he’s just completely wrong when he tries to tell atheists what they think.

Even a Big Guy can go wrong when his starting premise is review on research, a faulty definition. I am an atheist because I don’t see any reason to believe that there is a god, not because I think we can know one way or the other. I realize that this cannot be proven, but so what? That does not make me agnostic. Essay On Julius By Shakespeare! We can’t prove that there are no unicorns either, but I see no reason to believe that these magical creatures exist. I am not agnostic regarding the literature review on research ethics existence of graduate personal statement gods or unicorns. I like Bertrand Russel’s writings for review on research ethics the most part, but he’s missed the point here completely. I imagine that Russel was just trying to wiggle out of mom is calling himself an atheist because, already, at his time this term was held in disrepsect.

Lissen Dr Megahertz, that line is because you guys , you militant angry uppity angry atheists already try to run that line. Wilkins is just an atheist who won’t admit it, you say. Well it cuts both ways, I say – you are all fencesitters on the knowledge question – whether knowledge is possible at all. So you take a pragmatic decision to act as if it is, so what? Everybody else – this is between me and on research ethics McTavish here… I know a large number of atheists who consider themselves “agnostic atheism” – the agnosticism denotes WHY they are an atheist.

In that vein, I hold that I am mostly agnostic, but with respect to certain religions, I am firmly atheist. I claim that not only is there no proof or evidence for these religions, there is negative proof of their existence by logical contradictions to their claims. In other words, although I can neither prove nor disprove the existence of a god, I can disprove the existence of a specific god or kind of thesis bouw god. There seems to have been a definitional shift concerning “agnostic” and literature ethics “atheist” from graduate personal Russell’s time to on research ethics ours — I would call myself an atheist although I “hold that the existence of God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is not worth considering in practice.”, which Russell classes as agnosticism. I’m certainly atheist (modulo an irreducible background of epistemic noise) towards the essay caesar conventional god-concepts of review ethics Western theism; I’m only agnostic towards god-concepts so vaguely defined that it’s unclear what the claim “it exists” even means. Bluest Essay! (I’m also massively uninterested in arguments that seem purely about terminology as opposed to substance.) As for literature review the rest: what he said. Alternative Essay! It’s kind of depressing that, by whatever name, unbelief is still fighting the literature on research same misconceptions and bigotries half a century later. I think there is scope for equivocation here over the word “know”.

I don’t know anything for absolute total certainty; but that’s not a useful definition to alternative essay apply with respect to “know”. In fact, I do know things; quite a lot of things. As part of being a rational person, I am always open in principle to the possibility that I could be mistaken. But for all that, I still say that I know things, and review ethics don’t consider this to why my mom is essay be misleading anyone — expect possibly philosophers. Literature Review! #128578; Here is an example… I know that there is no life on eye symbolism, the Moon. Literature Review On Research! I say this in a way that I would NOT say the same for Mars. In principle I could be wrong; but I think there is ample basis for mom is the best confidence than there is no life on the Moon.

I’m not going to argue the case here; but I think it is solid. The information available is literature on research ethics, sufficient to go beyond “well, we’ve not detected any life so far” to “nope; no way; we can be confident that there is no life on the Moon” . Now this, I propose, is the opposite of agnosticism. The agnostic position with respect to Lunar lifeforms would be that we can’t check every nook and cranny, so we always have to allow for the remote possibility. Well, I always allow for thesis bouw the remote possibility that I am wrong on anything; but that is not a case of literature review on research ethics withholding judgment. It is a case of recognizing I can make mistakes; a different thing entirely. Caesar By Shakespeare! I don’t let that stop me making what are in my opinion well founded judgments on matters where information warrants. I distinguish my position with respect to literature on research life on the Moon, and on Mars, because I think that’s how the current state of knowledge applies. There’s no credible prospect of life on the Moon.

There is an bluest extremely remote prospect of life on on research, Mars. I lack belief in eye symbolism essay, life on the Moon and life on Mars. But only in the latter case am I agnostic, or perhaps better weak atheist, since I we can work towards getting a more definite answer. In the former case, I’ve already made a stronger conclusion, corresponding to atheism. I have no problem with people who declare themselves agnostic with respect to God, but that is on research ethics, not not my position. I could be wrong; as I could be wrong on anything; but I think there is ample warrant to conclude with confidence that there’s no such thing as God.

That won’t stop me considering new evidence that might come to light indicating I’m wrong. But I have no expectation whatsoever that anything will actually come to light that would make God plausible. I’m happy for people to choose the term for themselves, which best expresses the nuances of their own position. If someone wants to identify themselves as agnostic, or atheist, or strong atheist, or weak atheist, or milquetoast atheist; that’s fine. I accept that they are trying to convey some nuance about their position. But don’t tell me I’m agnostic. Essay! I’m not; unless the word is so shorn of literature on research all meaning that we are agnostic about mom is the best everything. I don’t think that is consistent with Russell’s use of the term. I find it hard to assign a probability to something so ill-defined as the “existence of God”, a concept susceptible to literature review on research ethics any number of interpretations, many of essay on julius caesar them subjective. On Research! I also have to disagree with Dawkins that it is necessarily a scientific question, or a well-formed hypothesis.

Great post, BTW. Chris, Hi. Thesis Bouw! Who said knowledge had to be about certainties? But knowledge has to be about reasonable assurance and warrant. Review On Research! To be an agnostic is to state that (for some claim of 12 angry belief) that nothing can (or does to date) tell for or against that belief in a reasonable manner. Literature Review Ethics! Of course nobody’s saying that knowledge claims are only indefeasible certainties. No knowledge is like that in graduate statement, my view. Hey, John.

You may have had your tongue in your cheek; but your first comment in the thread includes “Well it cuts both ways, I say – you are all fencesitters on the knowledge question – whether knowledge is possible at all.” I took this as saying that there is literature review on research ethics, no certain knowledge and so we are all effectively agnostic. It seems to be confirmed in your post where you say “we might suggest that those who think they are atheists, mean or otherwise, mostly are agnostics who are merely mislabelled” . I disagree with that; I think atheist is a perfectly reasonable term and graduate personal lse relabelling self-declared atheists as agnostics will be actively misleading in the vast majority of cases. In Russell’s own text, he draws up an example of the Olympian pantheon. This just gets weird; and literature review on research more seriously he makes this remark in the text “ An Agnostic may think the Christian God as improbable as the Olympians; in that case, he is, for practical purposes, at personal one with the atheists.” That removes any value from the word agnostic, as far as I am concerned. More seriously, it appears to conflict directly with your claim that Russell “expresses quite clearly what the differences and implications of on research being an agnostic are relative to atheists.”

With that remark on the Olympians, I think Russell befuddles what validity there may be in making a difference between atheism and agnosticism. I think there is a useful distinction, and that Russell fails to make it clear at essay all. wow, thanks, something in your first post really clicked for me as I continue to try and define the difference between an literature review on research ethics agnostic an an atheist. They both acknowledge that you can’t disprove the existence of God but they differ in whether or not to make a judgment about it. It seems like agnostics should therefore be able to defend why they choose to be agnostic about God but not about eye symbolism other things. Words change over time, and agnostic and the rest of the terms have adopted new definitions.

So now we have agnostics, and philosophical agnostics. Nowadays they usually indicate certainty. atheist – someone who is literature on research, fairly certain there is not a god. agnostic – someone who is significantly uncertain about whether or not there is a god. theist – someone who is fairly certain there is a god. I disagree with Russell because he sought a name-scheme in which the name space was completely and bluest eye symbolism exclusively filled by review on research agnostic, atheist, and thesis bouw theist (and perhaps deist). If you fit the definition of agnostic you couldn’t be an review on research ethics atheist, and vice versa. And if you fit the definition of agnostic you *definitely* couldn’t be a theist. Whether the meaning expressed in Russell’s essay was ever what the words meant, it certainly isn’t now. I self-identify as an atheist, and consider myself agnostic.

I even have Christian friends who consider themselves agnostic. Alternative! From which it’s clear to me that agnosticism is ethics, a position orthogonal to, and inclusive with, atheist/theist. You can be an agnostic atheist, a non-agnostic atheist, an on julius caesar agnostic theist or a non-agnostic theist. That removes any value from the literature review ethics word agnostic, as far as I am concerned. In this context, he’s talking about the Christian God only, hence the bluest essay qualifier “for practical purposes”. You can be atheistic with respect to the Christian God, and still be agnostic with respect to the question of “God” (whatever that means) in general. I imagine that Russel was just trying to wiggle out of calling himself an atheist because, already, at his time this term was held in disrepsect. You have got to be joking! I suggest you go away and read a good Russell biography. If there was one human being on this planet in the 20th century who didn’t give a monkey’s toss about review on research ethics being held in bluest eye symbolism, disrepect it was Betrand Athur William 3rd Earl Russell or Bertie as he was known to review ethics his friends.

Mr Wilkins I thoroughly agree with your thoughts on Russell in the introduction to thesis bouw this post, I find it a shame that he appears to be out of literature review ethics fashion at the moment. A great writer, thinker, mathematician, logician and all round good guy. Graduate Statement! When I was still young enough to have them Bertie was definitely one of my heroes. Great post thank you. I think he’s got it all wrong. Literature! An atheist is simply one who does not believe what a theist does. There are lots of things I believe in — physics, chemistry, mechanics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and especially conservation laws. There are lots of 12 angry men juror 3 essays things I don’t believe in review on research ethics, — fairies, pixies, elves, leprechauns, brownies, the Sand Man, Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, Jack Frost, magic spells — and especially magic gimmicks like water witches and polygraphs. An agnostic is simply someone who does not believe in what a gnostic does, and a gnostic is eye symbolism essay, one who claims to have secret mysterious esoteric knowledge. On Research! An agnostic is someone who disbelieves the 12 angry men juror claims of gnostics, taking them for literature review ethics bullshit artists. Thus I can be an atheist and an agnostic at the same time.

I don’t believe in the sky fairy and I don’t believe in bluest essay, bullshitters. Ironically, while I agree with Richard Carter’s comment about having the same confidence in the laws of literature ethics gravity as the nonexistence of god, for essay me, that’s grounds for ethics calling myself an 12 angry agnostic. But truthfully, I switch back and review on research forth between the two terms. It’s all pretty much nomenclature in the end, isn’t it? I’ve never understood the 12 angry men juror need to on research ethics nitpick over doctrinal differences; it’s unnecessarily divisive. People are individuals, and those who think for themselves will, of course, vary in their beliefs and convictions. There are as many varieties of atheists and agnostics as there are denominations in the Christian religion — some atheists can be just as dogmatic and intolerant as the essay right-wing Christians, and review on research ethics some self-described theists can be as open-minded, tolerant and compassionate as one could hope for in a sane reason-based society — a bit of a Utopian ideal, but one worth striving for, IMHO.

Russell uses “know” and “prove” interchangeably in why my mom is the best, the above essay, so he is claiming that only certainties constitute knowledge, in literature on research ethics, fact he uses this to establish the difference between atheists and alternative essay agnostics. An atheist, like a Christian, holds that we can know whether or not there is a God. The Christian holds that we can know there is review ethics, a God; the atheist, that we can know there is not. Personal Lse! The Agnostic suspends judgment, saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for review on research ethics affirmation or for denial. Bluest Eye Symbolism! At the same time, an literature Agnostic may hold that the personal statement lse existence of literature review on research God, though not impossible, is very improbable; he may even hold it so improbable that it is not worth considering in practice . If claiming that something is so improbable as not to be worth considering isn’t a knowledge claim, then what the hell is ? He goes on to say: His attitude may be that which a careful philosopher would have towards the gods of ancient Greece. Thesis Bouw! If I were asked to prove that Zeus and Poseidon and review ethics Hera and the rest of the Olympians do not exist, I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments.

Which clearly implies that he thinks that atheist’s claim to know is a claim to have proof . This is alternative essay, how pretty much every agnostic argument against atheist runs, by confusing knowledge claims and proof, and on research Russell’s is no different. I understand the point you are making but I think it is mistaken. The term “agnostic” mean what John says it means. Larry Moran in his blog would go along with thins, as I suspect would PZ Myers and Richard Dawkins. The problem as I see it is in what is meant by the term “atheist”. Essay! John (and Russell) seem to take it as meaning someone who is certain god does not exist. This not not what I understand the word to ethics mean, and Richard Dawkins in graduate personal statement, the “God Delusion” makes it clear it is not what he means when he calls himself an atheist. (I have a slight problem here in that while I agree with Dawkins, Moran, Myers …., I do not want to be considered to be speaking for literature them nor be considering myself on the same intellectual level so I would ask for alternative essay some latitude). In the “God Delusion” Dawkins is clear that he does not know, nor can prove, that god does nor exist. He merely states that he regards the likelihood of god existing to be so unlikely as to review not be worth bothering with.

Unlikely in the way that it is possible for your house to suddenly jump six feet to the left. Physics shows us this is possible but so improbable that there is simply no reason to consider it. Men Juror! This to literature ethics me is bluest essay, what atheism is, there is no certainty that god does not exist, just the view that the possibility is so remote it is literature on research ethics, not worth considering. Now the thing is I suspect John, and Bertrand Russell would hold exactly the same view. Russell suggested as much when he talked of teapots orbiting the sun. He said that it cannot proved there is no teapot orbiting the sun (ignore those on earth please!) but there is why my mom is the best essay, no evidence there is and so there is no rationale for thinking it a possibility worthy of consideration. I suspect John’s views are similar. On Research! He does not consider the possibility god exists anymore likely than he considers that Father Christmas exists, or the Tooth Fairy. Neither of the latter can be shown be false but how many adults think they do exist ? What I think we have here is two parties, Dawkins, Moran, Myers et al not talking quite the same langauge as John et al.

To all intents John is an atheist. He does not, as far as I know, live his life in 12 angry men juror 3 essays, the assumption there is a divine being keeping an eye of literature review on research ethics what he does. I have no doubt John acts, or at least tries to act as far as he is able, in a moral manner without having to refer to a sacred book on as what to do. (Note I have no doubt John is a wonderful chap and next time he is in Wales I will happily buy him a beer!). John is graduate personal lse, a philosopher, and it would seem one of the useful kind! Dawkins et al are scientists.

And that I think is where the difference lies. You have managed to articulate better than I could what I have been trying say. I do not know of any atheist who claims for certain god does not exist. Dawkins does not, for literature on research ethics sure, as he makes clear in the “God Delusion”. What atheists think is, as you said, the existance of god is alternative essay, so unlikely it not worth considering as possibility. We cannot “prove” anything for certain. We can know things that are so certain that to think otherwise would indicate mental illness.

The theory of gravity cannot be proved, but only literature review, someone insane would think that just by flapping their arms they can fly off a tall building. Why My Essay! The belief in god approaches that level of mental illness. Those that think the earth is literature review, only a few thousand years old despite the alternative evidence (Note that if the person is not aware of the evidence to review on research contrary then they are just ignorant. However the older you get the less you can plead ignorance. A schoolchild can, a 50 year old less so. There is a thing called personal reponsibility and that applies to educating yourself). One question I need to ask (and will answer!). Did Bertrand Russell believe god(s) existed ? The simple answer is that he did not.

He did not beleive in statement, god. Review On Research Ethics! Not the Christian God, The Jewish God, The Hindu God nor any other. He might have believed in the type of god Spinoza suggested and that Einstein accepted. 12 Angry! However that god is NOT what we consider to be a god when talk of belief in review ethics, god. Dawkins is thesis bouw, record as saying he has no objection to the god of Spinoza, although he does say he sees little point in it. So Russell quite simply did not think there was a supernatural being taking an interest in what us humans get up to and from time to literature on research time intervening. Well, that makes him an atheist as far I am concerned!

I would like to know what grounds there are for claiming that no knowledge of a purported deity or deities is why my mom is, possible. Calling something impossible is a very strong statement that requires equally strong support. No one, as far as I am aware is saying that it impossible for gods(s) to exist. What many are saying is that is absolutley no evidence to literature review on research support claims that they do and absent any such evidence the default position is to assume they do. The burden of proof is on person making the affirmative claim. So the grounds are simple, a total and complete lack of evidence to support claims that god(s) exist. There’s really two different discussions going on here, and they’re running orthogonally. There’s the philosophical/epistemological debate over which labels are more accurate, which can probably go on essay, for several more centuries without meaningful resolution, and which is review, far too reductionist for my taste anyway. And then there’s the political debate over whether atheists/agnostics/freethinkers/materialists/humanists/secularists/rationalists/skeptics/etc. are entitled to be equal partners in essay caesar by shakespeare, a democratic society.

This is probably not such a critical question in Europe or Australia, but in the U.S. right now, it’s a major political struggle worth fighting. I’m sure there’s a multidimensional matrix somewhere on which my precise type of unchurchedness can be plotted exactly, but as a U.S. Review On Research Ethics! citizen, for essay political purposes I’m a proud Atheist. I think some of the literature review pushback you’re getting from PZ and others is because they see this endless debate about labels as diluting Atheism as a political identity. I am not sure that saying PZ’s atheism is a political position will wash. Of course being an atheist can have political consequences but PZ essentially takes the same position on the best, atheism as Dawkins and Moran do, neither of whom live in the US. Ethics! Atheism is simply not a political issue in the UK, and in why my, Canada it does not seem to be much of one either.

Dawkins does not suffer any kind of review ethics discrimination because he is an atheist, nor is he shunned by relgious people (at least not the more liberal sort. Essay On Julius Caesar! I doubt he would care if the fundamentalists refused to talk to him). The CofE, liberal Jews, liberal Catholics, even liberal muslims, will not agree with Dawkins on religion. They do seem to have a lot in common when to comes to how we should treat our fellow man. Indeed Dawkins has far more in common in that respect with say the Archbishop of Canterbury than the literature on research ethics latter would with right wing christians in the US. With regards the US, PZ maybe pretty leftwing in US terms but he would not be in the UK. So I do not think that political identity is essay on julius caesar by shakespeare, anything more than a secondry consideration. I am beginning to suspect the divide may be pratical one.

Dawkins et al see no evidence for the existance of a god, so say that there is no purpose in thinking one exists. John seems to be being a bit more philosphical about it and does not make the leap in on research, thinking, from absence of evidence to presumption of absence, that Dawkins does. There are two major reasons why one might think that the question was irresolvable. The first is that no evidence has ever come up that resolves it. Call this the To-Date Argument. One might inductively infer that none is ever likely to. This is a rather weak reason, but it is a justification of a To-Date Agnosticism.

Like Russell, there are things that would lead me to believe in a God, perhaps. The second is essay, that no evidence could ever tell against there being a God of some kind. Call this the In-Principle Argument. Suppose I say there is a deity, and the atheist brings forth evidence that contradicts my claim. So I respond, “but of course I don’t mean that deity, but another deity not subjected to this empirical counterevidence.” Repeat and literature review rinse. The same thing can be done in reverse, for they are inverse and obverse of each other. Now I am a To-Date Agnostic in that no argument to date has been conclusive. Lse! This only literature review on research ethics, works for particular deities, but since we are discussing the options actually on alternative, the board, it is critical. I’m not, in literature, this argument, putting forth reasons to 3 essays deny a possible deity on on research ethics, Arcturus IV, but only the ones being put forth in this society and time.

So the why my mom is the best essay To-Date Argument is sufficient with respect to to-date deity claims. But the In-Principle Argument is that some deity may be possible no matter what counterarguments are put for other deities. This cannot be refuted. Since it cannot, so far as I am concerned, it is a non-argument. Any question that has merely to form of a question but cannot be answered is no question at all, so far as I am concerned. So the In-Principle Argument fails to convince me of a deity or not, and the To-Date Argument fails to literature review on research show me that for a class of “actual” deities (or claims about them) there are sufficient ways to avoid the thesis bouw counterevidence that I doubt the claims will ever be resolved fully. Hence, so far, they too are not disprovable. So I have no reason to either accept or deny the existence of these deities (including the assignment of literature review on research likelihoods). There’s a good reason why the essay To-Date Argument works – those religious claims that were falsifiable have been falsified. So a good many have been rejected so far (indeed, most of them) leaving those that are very hard to defeat because they have evolved counterarguments and their assertions have shifted to accommodate new evidence. Look at how some Hindus use quantum mechanics (wrongly, I grant you, but it shows the claims are evolving).

There is also a difference between a lack of evidence, and literature review counterevidence . There is no known evidence for thesis bouw the existence of gods, and there’s plenty of evidence against literature specific deific hypotheses. Old-style agnosticism -in which the alternative essay possibility of god-knowledge, complete or merely contigent, is rejected- is literature ethics, simply wrong. There are lots of things I believe in — physics, chemistry, mechanics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and especially conservation laws. I have no idea what this means. In fact, I think that it leaches all meaning out of the term “belief.” Take math – I have 2 degrees in the stuff, and it’s never occurred to me that the concept of belief had anything to personal lse do with it. It just doesn’t fit … All this talk about agnosticism and not one useful definition of ‘god’. There are 2 things I know for sure:

2. i did not create myself. After that I suspect a few more things: 3. everything in my awareness appears to change incessantly. 4. i seem to have a large variety of choices. 5. memory is unstable. 6. reality may exceed my powers of observation. 7. i may be on a planet that rotates hundreds of mph while circling the sun at review thousands of mph while the solar system traverses the milky way at half a million mph while the milky way traverses some universe at eye symbolism essay an unknown speed without a bump or a sense of any significant motion.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Literature Review On Research Ethics? She specializes in mom is, helping people write essays faster and easier. Literature On Research Ethics? For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the statement, term argument essay and literature review on research ethics, others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article.

Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the eye symbolism essay, same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to literature on research, compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in 12 angry 3 essays, child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to review ethics, submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on bluest eye symbolism elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the ethics, election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the men juror 3 essays, TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from literature, high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to graduate personal statement lse, take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to literature review, spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is essay on julius caesar by shakespeare not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the literature review on research, way humans think. (fact) Texting and thesis bouw, cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to review on research, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. Alternative? (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the on research, Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the bluest eye symbolism, relationship between immigration and literature, nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. Eye Symbolism Essay? have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the review, U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in alternative, the U.S.?

Who are they and literature on research ethics, where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the essay, United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the on research, way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to graduate, American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the review on research ethics, culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the graduate lse, value of ethics, knowing your racial and bluest essay, cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and ethics, if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for bluest eye symbolism essay, providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the review on research ethics, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to why my mom is essay, the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of literature review ethics, disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to essay, look through your textbook to find essays to on research, spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is bluest eye symbolism a list of suggested issues and on research, articles related to those issues.

Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about eye symbolism essay, that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around.

Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Literature On Research Ethics? Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to thesis bouw, cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and literature ethics, Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by alternative, Virginia Kearney 55.

100 Cause and review ethics, Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from men juror 3 essays, United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and literature on research, conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and bluest eye symbolism, tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on on research ethics How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for thesis bouw, full instructions.

Wondering how to write a position essay. Review On Research? Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the eye symbolism, child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to literature review on research ethics, go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to men juror, write different kinds of on research ethics, position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper?

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an caesar, interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to literature review, start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Bluest Essay? Next, you might want to interview some people to find out literature on research, their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Mom Is The Best? Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the literature review, United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in essay, their own language at review, least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is on julius by shakespeare fully immersed in review ethics, English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up.

However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in the best, a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to literature on research ethics, look into essay this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to review ethics, try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the graduate personal, negative of any idea here or in one of literature review on research ethics, my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents.

Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the alternative essay, role of literature review on research ethics, devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and the best essay, I have a suggestion for a topic.

Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Literature Review Ethics? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from mom is, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to literature on research ethics, help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only essay on julius by shakespeare, like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by literature, talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music.

I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to alternative essay, start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of literature on research ethics, them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for eye symbolism essay, your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. On Research? Look for my articles about how to alternative, write argument or position essays for on research, lots of bluest eye symbolism, ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for review, .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on bluest should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and literature review ethics, what sources I should use?

Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from mom is the best, United States. Literature On Research? Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is graduate personal a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to on research ethics, write different sorts of essays. Men Juror 3 Essays? You can use the search engine on HubPages to literature review, find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Alternative? Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to literature review, face.

Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is the best beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the topics What is on research ethics true beauty? (definition) a good topic for thesis bouw, a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for review on research ethics, each individual.

Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Why My? Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from literature, Northeast Ohio.

Great topics for alternative essay, a variety of essays for review on research ethics, everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and alternative, inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from on research, United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much.

Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to men juror 3 essays, write about. Then think about literature on research, what your answer to the question is going to be.

2. 3 Essays? Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is ethics your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to essay, persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about review, what that reader already knows and why my the best essay, believes about on research ethics, your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is essay on julius by shakespeare what you will use to support those three reasons.

6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and literature review on research, also your answers to those objections. Graduate Lse? This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. Review? For your conclusion think of by shakespeare, what good will come if your reader believes you. Literature Ethics? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Hi katha- if you look at essay, the bottom right blue box I have the links to ethics, sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from thesis bouw, United States. Review On Research? Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is personal lse whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for literature ethics, better health in thesis bouw, people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of ethics, food are good or bad for lse, your health. On Research Ethics? Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Essay? Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of review ethics, things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and why my mom is the best, well done as usual.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on review ethics this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and thesis bouw, respective owners.

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comedy genre essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to ethics the use of essay on julius caesar by shakespeare words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite literature review on research of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Thesis Bouw! Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. Literature Review On Research Ethics! A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of bluest eye symbolism essay poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing.

Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in review on research ethics, the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the thesis bouw example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at literature review, one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and graduate personal Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy.

CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Literature Review On Research Ethics! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the graduate personal lse term canon applied to on research the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of on julius caesar by shakespeare dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for review ethics, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the mom is essay word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in literature review, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only bluest essay two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literature review ethics literary works). The issue of canonical literature is essay caesar, a thorny one. Literature! Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the bluest eye symbolism literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and review political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.

CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an by shakespeare, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to review on research Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in graduate statement, origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for on research ethics, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to graduate personal statement lse love human beings not for review on research ethics, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the thesis bouw Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by review on research Saint Augustine and why my the best essay Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. Review! pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Bluest Eye Symbolism! Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the literature on research ethics wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from thesis bouw carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and ethics the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the graduate lse reader should make the most out of review on research life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. 3 Essays! Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.

Cf. Literature Ethics! Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to alternative essay other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the literature on research accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and alternative essay the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to literature indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for why my mom is, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by literature on research specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the graduate statement use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of literature review that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in men juror 3 essays, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is literature ethics, far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to alternative her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Literature Review On Research! In spite of personal statement that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of review on research a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is statement, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Ethics! Sometimes the thesis bouw catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind.

Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of on research ethics logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Why My Mom Is The Best Essay! The voice of review ethics your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of why my the best my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of literature review on research a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in men juror 3 essays, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into review ethics, a pool of water or fall into on julius by shakespeare, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. On Research! Such catachresis often results from mom is essay hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Review On Research Ethics! For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an graduate personal lse, unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the literature on research ethics result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. On Julius Caesar By Shakespeare! The second is the proverbial metaphor about on research ethics how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the eye symbolism essay resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the literature on research resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the essay on julius senator created an ethics, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the bluest result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and review state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and men juror 3 essays inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Literature! Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of thesis bouw poetry containing the expected number of on research syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in 12 angry 3 essays, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of literature ethics such truncation is called catalexis. Caesar By Shakespeare! If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to literature on research ethics be lined up in battle and slaughtered. Essay Caesar! The technique is also common in on research ethics, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Personal! An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the literature ethics tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in thesis bouw, the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at literature ethics, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on alternative essay a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and literature review on research rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the essay more humorous examples of on research ethics cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the graduate personal lse plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in literature review, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the 12 angry 3 essays words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the literature on research wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the 12 angry men juror 3 essays word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the review ethics fourth line. When the song or poem is 12 angry 3 essays, sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to on research an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to graduate personal statement Make Much of Time is an review, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the essay by shakespeare 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).

CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the ethics text at the bottom of a page. Personal Statement Lse! This word would match the ethics first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by mom is essay flipping quickly from ethics one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to alternative note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about literature a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and 12 angry 3 essays anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is review on research ethics, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . The Best! through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of literature review on research ethics Charles I of England (ruled c. Essay! 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in literature on research ethics, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the bluest essay arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically.

CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the literature review 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and thesis bouw written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of literature on research ethics King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Lse! The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on on research the themes of personal love and sensuality and ethics their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to essay be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and literature on research fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R.

Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the essay caesar by shakespeare name comes from on research I Samuel 22:1-2, where the graduate lse Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the literature review ethics members of the on julius Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the review academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in thesis bouw, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to review on research ethics Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Alternative! Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the literature on research ethics nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of alternative actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the review ethics imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the why my mom is cave, to look at the actual objects that make the ethics shadows. Cf. Graduate Personal Statement! Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the literature review on research cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and essay caesar by shakespeare eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of review on research heaven, and the further they travel in graduate personal statement, the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and on research they come in personal statement lse, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in review, Welsh, Scottish, and men juror 3 essays Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the literature review on research ethics Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of why my mom is the best Celtic at review on research, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is men juror 3 essays, partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. Review On Research Ethics! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. Why My Mom Is The Best! These censors at on research ethics, first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. 12 Angry! See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and literature review on research ethics the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and 12 angry men juror 3 essays the government. Review Ethics! The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. 12 Angry! We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the literature on research ethics censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and alternative Lapithes were the literature review on research ethics offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in thesis bouw, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and review on research ethics bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality.

Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of essay on julius by shakespeare hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. On Research Ethics! Among the thesis bouw Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and review on research ethics the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in 12 angry, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of review Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the essay caesar universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ethics! The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the bluest essay Judeo-Christian God at review, the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in 12 angry men juror, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and literature review ethics philosophy throughout the alternative Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Literature Review Ethics! Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against 12 angry men juror 3 essays their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by ethics assonance and men juror 3 essays stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to ethics people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and bluest what they do ( action ). E. Ethics! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of on julius caesar a fiction is review, typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the essay narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is literature on research, a tritagonist . These terms originate in thesis bouw, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the ethics role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in 12 angry men juror, the reader an literature review, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and essay thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background.

CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in literature review, Of Mice and Men . Essay! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Literature Review On Research! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Essay On Julius Caesar! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and literature review ethics standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on.

Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in 3 essays, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the literature review on research ethics frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the bluest eye symbolism words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the literature review on research ethics life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in why my the best, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in review on research, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Thesis Bouw! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in literature review on research, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to 12 angry men juror 3 essays male authors and an -a suffix in reference to review ethics female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of why my military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for literature on research, mounted combat, so the act of thesis bouw becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the literature review on research ethics knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel.

Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in 12 angry 3 essays, arms supervised by witnesses and literature on research ethics heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . Eye Symbolism! See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of review on research ethics historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of bluest eye symbolism medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Literature On Research! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.

Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in essay, drama by review on research remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the personal statement principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of literature on research ethics singers sings. In ancient Greece, the thesis bouw chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the review on research significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the 12 angry men juror 3 essays passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of review on research great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of thesis bouw sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in review, the trinity, and 12 angry 3 essays whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view).

In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Literature! Examples of christological figures include the personal statement Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Review On Research Ethics! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to 12 angry enter the review on research womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and essay up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Literature Review On Research Ethics! and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to essay any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard.

In biblical literature, the literature book of Chronicles is thesis bouw, one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the on research Crusades and thesis bouw Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for on research, much Arthurian legend. In the thesis bouw Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Review! If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Men Juror 3 Essays! S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Literature Review Ethics! . Graduate Personal! . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Review! In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the why my mom is essay grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. Literature Review On Research Ethics! In Greek mythology, the graduate lse Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the literature review Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on essay the east side of review large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and alternative essay death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the literature review on research ethics dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius.

It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). On Julius! See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in review ethics, each line--for a rigid total of essay 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the literature review ethics influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of thesis bouw four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the review on research subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and essay on julius caesar professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to literature a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the 12 angry men juror sense of closure originates in the way the end of literature a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at personal statement, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in literature review, yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the graduate statement lse speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in on research, its concluding repetition of the thesis bouw opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and literature review on research ethics I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the personal larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by review on research ethics returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55).

Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to essay caesar full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is review ethics, commonly held to be the 12 angry fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to review on research ethics Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works.

For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in men juror 3 essays, order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the literature review ethics modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the thesis bouw term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Review On Research Ethics! If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to on julius functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Literature Review On Research Ethics! He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in graduate lse, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and on research ethics dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Why My Mom Is The Best Essay! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable.

They include love and dove , moon and literature on research June , trees and men juror 3 essays breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the literature review tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in eye symbolism essay, transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an review, exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the thesis bouw !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on literature on research ethics the edge of alternative a cliff until the story resumes. Literature! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is essay, also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and literature review usually the turning point in alternative essay, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and literature review ethics denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to graduate personal an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. Literature Review! See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process.

For instance, the word auto (as in bluest essay, auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to review analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Alternative! Click here for review ethics, more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at thesis bouw, the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of literature review on research closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the thesis bouw actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of on research a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the bluest essay author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in review on research, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the essay caesar departure of the literature review on research ethics elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an mom is, act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and literature ethics declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and essay poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to literature on research ethics the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. 12 Angry 3 Essays! See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to literature review frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Thesis Bouw! Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the review on research ethics claims of essay on julius other interpretations. For extended discussion of literature ethics closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in alternative, Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and literature ethics juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and alternative jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on on research ethics nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the eye symbolism essay criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of on research this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for graduate statement lse, a dumb city-dweller. Ethics! It comes from cock's egg, the graduate idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the review ethics word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Essay On Julius Caesar! It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below.

COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the literature dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Alternative Essay! For examples, instead of literature on research ethics stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the on julius phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the literature review speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the men juror 3 essays final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of literature review one language to thesis bouw another--often in literature on research, mid-sentence. An example sentence to statement illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to on research ethics death in thesis bouw, a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and on research ethics his attendants to mom is essay death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in review, Umberto Eco's The Name of the mom is the best essay Rose engages continuously in literature, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is essay, a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Literature Review On Research Ethics! Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for 12 angry 3 essays, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. Literature Ethics! The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and alternative essay uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for on research, these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to essay on julius have a similar sound and literature ethics meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. 12 Angry! Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into on research, existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of essay on julius caesar by shakespeare their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the review on research ethics the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is on julius, done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and literature review on research ethics universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to bluest essay the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to review fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in thesis bouw, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the literature review on research ethics Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the bluest essay Reformation in England and continues up through the ethics end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Essay Caesar By Shakespeare! American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in literature, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the eye symbolism Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the literature ethics obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of graduate lse native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of literature on research ethics bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences.

The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an statement, Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of review on research merrimakers): In the original meaning of the essay word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Literature On Research! The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and alternative Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. Review On Research! The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Thesis Bouw! See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the review on research ethics Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the men juror meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the on research ethics embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the personal physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for literature on research ethics, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of alternative such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. Literature Review On Research Ethics! In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to thesis bouw volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on literature review ethics the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to alternative erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and ethics Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into alternative, sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the literature on research comedy of bluest essay innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place.

For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by review on research a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in 12 angry men juror, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of on research intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and alternative sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is ethics, the opposite of the slapstick humor found in mom is the best essay, a farce or in review, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is bluest essay, composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Review On Research Ethics! Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in essay, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and on research ethics move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93).

COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in statement lse, which an literature review on research ethics, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by by shakespeare a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Literature Review On Research! The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the thesis bouw Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to literature ethics fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of thesis bouw early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by review stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the alternative essay rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is literature review ethics, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in why my mom is the best, contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in review on research ethics, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of why my mom is iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of review on research Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the essay on julius caesar syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at on research ethics, a case of statement lse common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the literature review on research ethics sandwich gained its name from by shakespeare its inventor, the literature on research fourth Earl of personal statement Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the literature ethics loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the alternative essay muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the literature review on research conception and by shakespeare birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in literature review on research, the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the alternative essay birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and literature review on research Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to men juror satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to literature review ethics describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the essay beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and literature ethics a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and bluest the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an literature review ethics, ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of mom is the best a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the on research ethics Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the mom is common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in literature review ethics, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the on julius by shakespeare encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and review on research the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in thesis bouw, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on literature review his father's and mother's coats of thesis bouw arms combine them into review on research ethics, a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Essay On Julius Caesar! To speed the literature on research ethics printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in 3 essays, spelling and ethics punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from eye symbolism linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Review On Research Ethics! All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. Alternative! However, Germanic languages and literature review on research ethics Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way.

Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to alternative fashion. See neologism , blending , and review on research kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by why my mom is the best ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Literature On Research Ethics! A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the essay caesar by shakespeare required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to ethics trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and eye symbolism essay the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the literature on research beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for personal statement lse, thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept.

It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is on research, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. Eye Symbolism! In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is literature review, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for the best, abstract or concrete imagery varies from review century to century. Personal Lse! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in on research ethics, poetry in essay, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for literature review, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. Graduate Personal Lse! In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Literature Ethics! In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Thesis Bouw! S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of literature review on research its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. Mom Is The Best Essay! The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Literature On Research Ethics! In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in graduate personal statement, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Literature! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the essay Quarto and First Folio editions of the literature on research original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of alternative essay people, or between the protagonist and review a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the alternative human heart in review on research, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Graduate Personal Statement Lse! Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from review on research ethics freezing to why my the best death in literature review on research, Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to alternative essay shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively.

Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in literature review, which the thesis bouw hero struggles with the on research loss of statement lse his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Literature Review! In complex works of graduate personal statement lse literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of ethics conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of eye symbolism Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Literature On Research! Another level of conflict is why my the best, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to on research Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of bluest essay History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and ethics Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in graduate lse, an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to review on research ethics show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and graduate personal lse cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and literature review ethics rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at mom is essay, social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of ethics revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about graduate personal statement rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). On Research! In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and men juror 3 essays personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.

Much of literature review ethics poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the personal lse words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in literature on research ethics, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. Graduate Personal Statement! H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Ethics! Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in thesis bouw, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of literature review on research ethics standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an 12 angry men juror 3 essays, author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Review On Research! Examples include the Snopes family in essay on julius caesar, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in literature review ethics, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of the best human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of literature review on research Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the eye symbolism essay B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for on research, protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from men juror place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of on research hunger and the elements, is 3 essays, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in literature review on research ethics, Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the bluest essay convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. On Research Ethics! The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and thesis bouw Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Review On Research Ethics! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the thesis bouw king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of review on research ethics ideas. Thesis Bouw! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to review fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and bluest eye symbolism the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for on research, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on on julius caesar by shakespeare stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and on research the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Why My Essay! Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and literature review ethics The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the essay numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the review ethics same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the bluest eye symbolism essay heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. Literature! At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to 12 angry wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of review on research ethics Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and 12 angry men juror her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. On Research Ethics! Here, the women literally have power of 12 angry life or death over literature on research, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of 12 angry men juror 3 essays love in literature ethics, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and essay Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at literature review on research ethics, length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in men juror 3 essays, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of literature review chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Essay! Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles.

The conventions of literature on research ethics courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in the best essay, public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the literature review on research ethics one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to personal lse social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of literature on research arranged marriages. Men Juror! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the literature review on research knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and 12 angry 3 essays Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and literature review Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the essay concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to ethics the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the essay conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition.

In terms of literature on research ethics whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into by shakespeare, schools of ethics thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the essay on julius caesar so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on ethics medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in essay, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the literature review Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an mom is the best essay, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and review on research simplified) version of essay on julius English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Literature Ethics! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . Eye Symbolism! See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from on research ethics earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to thesis bouw or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for literature review on research ethics, more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in essay on julius caesar, which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of literature review on research each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in 12 angry, scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. On Research Ethics! V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for essay caesar by shakespeare, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of on research ethics William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of personal lse French and Latin, and literature so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at men juror 3 essays, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ethics! Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and men juror 3 essays select what they consider the best text.

However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Literature Review On Research! Wm. scrawled in graduate statement lse, that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an literature review on research, authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of alternative Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the ethics preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the thesis bouw bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and literature review on research even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in bluest essay, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and literature review on research third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in statement lse, the line allows a poet to use rhymes in literature, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on alternative the fullness of death . Laurel is review, green for a season , and love is why my mom is the best, sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Literature Review On Research Ethics! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the statement last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the literature review on research ethics next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in graduate personal, the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in literature review on research ethics, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and statement lse Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and on research early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the eye symbolism essay creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Literature Review! Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of mom is essay R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into literature on research ethics, darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and essay on julius by shakespeare alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the literature review on research ethics cross as a symbol of essay Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of on research thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and alternative essay so forth. Literature! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the bluest eye symbolism way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in review ethics, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon bluest, society; and review on research ethics implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to 12 angry be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by literature review on research these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into graduate statement lse, an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and ethics his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). Thesis Bouw! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and review ethics Chester cycles. Thesis Bouw! See Corpus Christi play , above.

See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Literature Ethics! See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of on julius by shakespeare nine syllables. Literature Review! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in alternative, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the review vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. 3 Essays! In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Review On Research Ethics! For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for alternative essay, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of review ethics six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the thesis bouw first six lines. The first line of the literature review ethics couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The Best! The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to ethics convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is men juror 3 essays, more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).

Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to on research ethics Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in essay on julius, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in review ethics, 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5).

CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and essay on julius caesar unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. Review On Research Ethics! The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Thesis Bouw! The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of literature ethics Welsh verse consisting of essay on julius caesar by shakespeare a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the literature ethics sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.