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Build Your Construction Resume with Keywords. Wal-mart Research! Did you know that making one change to your could improve your chances of what, job search success? Adding keywords will help get your resume noticed and expose you to wal-mart, more job opportunities. Keywords are terms that hiring managers enter when searching for resumes on how do you write Monster. If your resume contains keywords that match those a potential employer is wal-mart research, searching for, you have a much better chance of being found. Your keywords continue to be helpful when an actual hiring manager reviews your resume, showing that person you have the desired qualifications for the job. Keywords can be categorized as follows: Job titles, especially the action essay outline one you are pursuing. Job-specific skills and wal-mart knowledge areas. Copd! Soft skills (such as team player or leadership skills) Tools, equipment and paper technical applications. Industry credentials, such as certifications, licenses, training and u of through reading degrees.

Affiliations and wal-mart research union membership. Keywords can appear anywhere on your resume. Action! Use the Skills section on paper your Monster resume to identity, include a comprehensive list of skill-related keywords. Think like a hiring manager: If you were hiring someone with your background, what credentials would you look for? A helpful exercise is to search for your target job on wal-mart paper Monster and how do review the postings that come up. Research Paper! Look for how do a prose essay, frequently requested skills, licenses and other useful keywords. Wal-mart Research! The following are sample keywords for various construction specialties. The lists are not exhaustive, as the keywords you should add to book, your resume depend on research your experience and the revealers book skills.

Use the lists as a starting point for determining important keywords you can integrate into wal-mart your own resume: Keywords Related to All Trades. U Of Writing Through Reading! Soft Skills: Professionalism, results-driven, self-starter, goal-oriented, team player, communication skills, interpersonal skills, multi-tasker, honest, organized, dependable, punctual, leader, customer service. Construction-Specific: Valid driver#39;s license, own hand/power tools, safe and clean working environment, regulatory and wal-mart research paper safety compliance (OSHA, ADA, UBC, HAZMAT), equipment maintenance, available for you write a prose essay, travel and flexible shifts. Bricklayer: Certified bricklayer, mason, brickmason, blockmason, stonemason, tuckpointer, interior/exterior wall layout and construction, mortar selection, mortar preparation, installation of insulation in masonry walls, radial brick laying, stone laying for paper, industrial/residential chimneys, firebrick application to chimneys and smokestacks, acid-resistant brick application to kilns and tanks, precision stone cutting, precision brick cutting, precision block cutting, masonry materials handling/cutting, masonry structure reinforcement, brick alignment, foundation wall layout and book construction, chimney and fireplace layout and paper construction, layout/construction of grouted reinforced masonry walls, pavement and what is writing patio layout and construction, refractory brick and mortar materials. Carpenter: Construction carpenter, bench carpenter, rough carpenter, carpenter#39;s helper, carpenter assistant, lead carpenter, journeyman carpenter, finish carpenter, framing carpenter, general construction, restoration and research remodeling, facility maintenance, residential construction, commercial construction, framing, interior/exterior finishing, blueprint reading, cabinetmaking, finish carpentry, commercial flooring, concrete flatwork, painting, construction quality assurance, reading construction plans, tile installation, floor installation, cabinet installation, construction repair, window-frame and door fitting/installation, building foundation preparation, beam/girder/footing form installation, roof construction, wall and how do a prose ceiling covering application, trim/door/baseboard/molding installation, wall/ceiling/flooring erection and research paper insulation, materials selection/cutting/shaping. Essay! Construction Manager: Construction supervisor, construction project manager, project superintendent, construction foreman, assistant construction supervisor, project management, commercial construction, industrial construction, residential construction, construction supervisor#39;s license, plan reading, Work Breakdown Structures (WBS), ground-up projects, subcontractor recruitment/supervision, enforcement of research paper, codes and t creative writing reading safety regulations, structural engineering drawings, job site supervision safety, project estimating/bidding, workflow project scheduling, Critical Path Methods (CPMs), project funding, materials ordering, budgeting pro-formas, quality control, architectural design, blueprint reading, land acquisition, MS Project, AutoCAD. Research! Construction Worker/Laborer: Construction laborer, construction helper, general laborer, heavy construction projects, construction machines and tools, construction site cleaning and t creative through prep, demolition, backfill excavations, scaffolding building, asbestos removal, propane/oxygen/acetylene torches, heavy machinery operation, cement mixer, forklifts, backhoes, cranes, cable trucks, hydra-lift trucks, haul trucks, use of levels, repetitive heavy lifting. Electrician: Electric motor/switch assembler and repairer, electronic equipment installer/repairer, electrical power-line installer/repairer, electrician#39;s helper, electrician assistant, commercial electrician, maintenance electrician, certified electrician, journeyman electrician, electric meter installer/repairer, electrical engineer, avionics technician, electrical technician, schematic diagram interpretation, blueprint reading and wal-mart research paper interpretation, control circuit troubleshooting, 120V, 480/277V, VFDs, individual sensors, level probes, thermocouples, RTD, 3-phase AC motors, drive systems, electrical testing equipment, logic schematics, mechanical aptitude, welding equipment, air compressors, HVAC systems, vacuum pumps, programmable logic controller (PLC) systems, Allen Bradley PLC Systems, motor controls, pneumatics, hydraulics, mechanical systems, welding systems, project management (PM), SLC-5 series, rsnetworx, Control Logix, DH+, process control instrumentation, I/P, PID, voltage troubleshooting, standard wiring practices, National Electrical Codes (NEC), AC/DC control circuit troubleshooting. Ironworker: Steel worker, metal fabricator, presser, production worker, rebar worker, drawing and schematic reading and the revealers book report interpretation, rigging assembly, heavy equipment moving, cable attachments, steel unit positioning and alignment, pre-fabricated structure assembly, reinforcing bar and wal-mart tension cable laying and the revealers book report connecting, steel cutting and positioning, concrete reinforcement, ornamental ironwork installation, robotic equipment, mag drills, Hogan drills, grinders, hydraulic tools.

Mason: Stonemason, brickmason, blockmason, bricklayer, tile and research marble setter, cement mason, concrete finisher, stucco mason, plaster mason, junior mason, mason apprentice, journeyman mason, cornering, lead construction, course construction, mortar selection and is writing preparation, brick and stone sizing/cutting, natural and manmade stone materials, granite/limestone/marble masonry, concrete masonry, brick masonry, wedges, plumblines, levelers, wall and floor construction, chimney and fireplace construction, residential and commercial construction, stone laying, brick laying, precision cutting, brick and stone alignment, blueprint reading. Wal-mart! Painter: House painter, prep painter, industrial painter, commercial painter, residential painter, sheetrock taper, HVLP liquid painting, drywall patcher, interior and affirmative exterior surfaces, painting equipment/spray guns, paint mixing ratios, plaster installation, prepare/seal/prime surfaces, cost estimation. Research Paper! Plumber: Journeyman plumber, master plumber, drain technician, plumber gasfitter, industrial plumber, service plumber, residential service plumber, commercial services plumber, licensed tradesman plumber, licensed plumber, plumber#39;s helper, journey license, master plumber#39;s license, equipment maintenance, high-rise, tilt-up, estimating, new construction, plumbing system installation and testing, licensed backflow tester, underground plumbing and copd case piping systems, steam systems, boiler installation, jetter experience, water treatment systems installation, industrial piping, gas piping, sprinkler systems, rough-in, gas lines, emergency service, pipes and pipe fittings, blueprint reading, pipe cutters, cutting torch, threading machine, bending machine, preventive maintenance. Wal-mart Research Paper! Roofer: Roofer, roofer#39;s helper, roofing assistant, roofing assembler/repairer, sheet metal roofer, roof technician, roof installation, safety and code requirements, equipment/tool maintenance, blueprint reading, roof damage assessment, roof design and construction, roof repair, material requirements calculations, correcting structural/insulation/waterproofing deficiencies, roof decking preparation, laying insulation and waterproofing materials, flashing and drain installation, conducting drainage and waterproofing tests, coordinating with building inspectors, preventive maintenance, project management, quality assurance. Surveyor: Registered land surveyor, surveying technician, cartographer, survey researcher, mapping technician, land surveying, survey computations, subdivision mapping, deed descriptions, GPS/GIS systems and report tools, client management, project management, civil engineering, environmental engineering, cost estimates, workplan preparation, permit preparation, excavation drill equipment, subcontractor selection/supervision, geologic and wal-mart research paper hydrogeologic interpretations, risk assessment, remediation feasibility testing, data analysis, report preparation, AutoCAD, land development desktop software, topographic data collection, CADD mapping, robotic total stations (e.g., Leica, Topcon, Nikon, Geodimeter). Copd Studies Uk! Welder: Structural welder, pipe welder, welder/fitter, welder apprentice, journeyman welder, AWS Certified Welding Inspector, ASME certified, Certified Mig Tig Welder, metallurgy testing, arc, tig, mig, resistance, solid state, electroslag, stick, flux core, cutting torches, welding torches, welding guns, steel treatment processes, carbon, sheet metal/tubing fabrication, AWS/ASME guidelines, blueprint reading, JLT sheets, EZ Pipe.

By commenting, you agree to Monster's privacy policy, terms of research, use and identity essay use of research, cookies. U Of T Creative Writing Reading! U.S. Patents No. 7,599,930 B1; 7,827,125 and 7,836,060 - V: 2017.20.0.50-303 - - Looking for wal-mart research paper, Monster Cable? you'll receive more content in your inbox soon. Identity Essay! Join Monster to wal-mart research, get job alerts and essential job-search advice.

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Make Money Online – Earn Money Online Magazine. Education is not only a name for all round development of human personality but also an effective means for national and research paper, social progress. Not only does it mould the is writing instruction, character of new generations. It also connects them with their past because no future can be brighter if divorced from its past. Education is the only means of transmitting cultural heritages from one generation to the next one. The pivot of this education process is teacher who is wal-mart paper also responsible for the education process and development of human personality. The role of a teacher is identity very significant in our home land-Pakistan. Which is a strong and stable ideological base? Here the responsibility of a teacher becomes manifold. He has to train the new generation on ideological lines and he is also entrusted with the wal-mart paper, responsibility of enabling them to accept the challenges of modern times.

This can be possible only if his/her own ideological background is steeped in the undying values of Islam and how do you write a prose, he has a strong grasp of the art of teaching. Before embraking upon the ideological role he is to play. From a practical and ideological point of view. He/ she is research paper not only to be open-minded but should have also a strong ideological base he has to photography, be well versed in the practical aspects of teaching. For an under training teacher. It is very important to train him on wal-mart, ideological lines.

For meeting these specific goals, it is important that there should be an institution. Photography! Which can train teachers on lines? Government Elementary Teachers Training College is such an institution that has been catering to the training needs of Dera Ghazi Khan divisions. In the beginning it was established as “Normal School D.G.Khan”. Then it was named as “Govt.

Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan”. Wal-mart! In the beginning B.Ed classes were taught. But now M.Ed classes have also been introduced in this college. In B.Ed programme there are 200 seats for male and female. Science and arts divided equally. But in M.Ed programme 100 seats are reserved for morning and evening class without discriminating male and copd, female applicants. Good institutions always appraise their programmers and follow up their products i.e therefore.

Researcher preferred the follow-up study of M.Ed graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan because follow up studies are conducted to see the effectiveness, of the wal-mart research paper, outcomes and results of any programme. Mistily such type of studies is conducted in he field of guidance. Counseling, and placement. The institute of Education and photography, Research (I.E.R) University of the Punjab, Lahore is the pioneer institute in Punjab, which has conducted the follow up studies of its graduates to see the placement value. Wal-mart Research Paper! Studies of a prose its graduates to see the placement value, Govt. Wal-mart! Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan has M.Ed programme.

It is instruction considered seriously that such a study must be conducted to find the placement of its graduates and appraisal of the programme. The problem proposed for research paper investigation as a follow up of the graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan. De-limitation of the problem. Four divisions out of eight selected randomly. Thirty-four students out of 250 were selected by use of convenient sampling from how do a prose, session 2005-2006. The study is further delimited to the investigation of respondents. Job satisfaction.

Professional growth. Usefulness of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan programme. Satisfaction with the financial benefits of M.Ed. Degree. Wal-mart! Contribution to the general cause of education. The attitude of the headmaster’s pupils, parents, community and copd case studies uk, colleagues towards the graduates.

Economic or financial benefits of the degree. Participation of the research paper, graduates in educational and related activities and; Professional growth of the the revealers, graduates. signigicance of the study. This study is wal-mart significant as it attempts to identity photography, answer the following questions: i) What is the placement position of the M.Ed (Secondary) graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan. ii) To what extend graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan are succeeded in realization of the objectives for wal-mart paper which they were prepared and trained at Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan. What are problems and difficulties faced by the Govt.

Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan graduates in the field in the pursuit of these objectives? Is study may provide information about the performance of M.Ed (Secondary) graduates of Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College D.G.Khan working in different schools. This study may provide feed back for affirmative action essay education department and Govt. Elementary Teachers Training College, D.G.Khan to paper, improve M.Ed (Secondary) programme. This study was further intended to what is writing, make suggestions and wal-mart research, recommendations regarding the improving in the M.Ed (Secondary) programme. The study may help in further research. Going through the following steps completed the case uk, study: The related literature was reviewed. The questionnaire was developed under supervisor’s guidance and was validated through expert’s opinion. Name and addresses of selected M.Ed graduates from 1192to 1998 were obtained from the college record.

The data was collected through personal contact from the subjects of the study residing in wal-mart research traveling range. Questionnaire was mailed to the subject of the study residing at distant places along with the purposed of the study. A reminder was sent to the defaulters to send back the filled in questionnaires. The data collected as presented and the revealers book, tabulated. It was analyzed by wal-mart, applying simple percentage and interpreted. There is a dearth of literature about following facilities. However, in the literature available about follow-up study, Mr. Morris L. Bigg has defined it as follow up study is a research activity, guidance and counselor develop follow-up studies as a systematic programme for maintaining content with their former students and clients (6:4) Generally speaking follow-up study is a programme of continuous evaluation of the programmes and individuals with regular intervals of time.

Procedures of follow-up studies have always a very logical connection with the original programme. It represents and evaluation of the success of the entire programme under study. Thus follow up study of former students infect is and interesting and you write essay, significant function of any school programme. Lefever says that, there are two essential aspects of wal-mart paper follow-up procedure. A Questionnaire to copd uk, all formers students, weather graduates or drop-outs or weather placed in job or not. A check among employers regarding their degree of satisfaction with products of school or programme (8:546:). Follow-up is more closely concerned wit school. The follow up counseling and guidance programmers.

Medanil has stated that process for school counselor involves occasional investigation of the subsequent records of paper professional value for how do you write the counselor. Teacher and students (10: 15). Follow-up studies are widely used in different areas for different purposes. Some of such purposes are as follows: 1) To evaluate the activities of the school particularly to judge the research paper, curriculum, administration and level of writing through achievement of wal-mart research school. 2) To evaluate the guidance and counseling programme. 3) To evaluate placement poison and performance of former students. Follow-up study can also be used to identify those former students in need of further assistance from the outline, school (11: 15). Follow-up studies usually provide accurate information in concentration with curriculum.

These studies provide accurate information concerning vocational, avenges, economic opportunities and social status. Green made use of follow-up study as research valuable out and causes failure (11: 6). Kelly maintained that, “The results of follow-up study can be used to substantiate that proposed changes in the school programme”. The results can also be used for the following purposes. To improve the public relations. To increase the public motivation. To provide content for class and for home work. To provide material for discussions and units of work on occupations. (6: 159).

Follow-up study is conducted to determine the status of a group of interest after some period of time. Like school surveys follow-up studies are often conducted by educational institutions for the purpose of internal or external evaluation of their instructional programmers or some aspect of it. Accreditation agencies for example typically require systematic follow-up efforts typically seek objective information regarding the current status of the former students (are you presently employed?) as well as attitudinal and opinion data concerning the graduates perception of there training if a majority of graduates should indicate, for example’ that they fell the career counseling they receive was poor, this finding would suggest an area in of improvement. Similarly, if a number of wal-mart paper graduates should indicate that they have unable to obtain employment due to a lack of certain competencies. Studies! This information would also be valuable input for the upgrading for research paper the upgrading of the programme interest. Follow-up studies may be conducted solely for research purpose. A researcher may be interested, for example, in assessing the degree to which initial treatment effects have been maintained overtime (3: 253-253). Project Talent (1965) was a follow-up survey conducted by University of case Pittsburgh with support from the co-operative research program of the U.S office of education, the national Institute of wal-mart health, the national science foundation, and the department of defense. Five basic purposes of the study wee mentioned by this survey.

To obtained an inventory of the capacities and potentialities of American youth. To establish a set of affirmative essay standards for Educational Psychological measurement. To provide a comprehensive counseling guide indicating patterns of career success. To provide information on how youth choose their life work. To provide better understanding of the paper, educational experiences which prepare students for their life work. Project talent descried as an example of educational survey as well as a follow-up study. The Revealers Book Report! One phase of the longitudinal study reported by Combs and Colley (1968) involved the follow-up study of the wal-mart research paper, ninth-grade group who failed to complete the high school programme. This group, which represented by book report, random sample of the ninth grade secondary school population, provides an estimate of the characteristics of the dropout population compared with those of a random sample of students who graduated but did not enter a junior college or A-year learning of higher. Learning, these two samples were compared on wal-mart research paper, number of characteristics. Such as, academic achievement, participation in extra-curricular activities work experiences, hobbies, contacts with school counselors, and self reported personal qualities.

The students who graduated score significantly higher on most of the action essay outline, characteristics, except self-reported qualities of leadership and wal-mart research, impulsiveness. One unusual finding indicated that the dropouts earned as much as those who had finished high school and had been earning it longer. It was pointed out, however, that economic advantages of finishing high school could not be adequately evaluated until later in life. Many of the students expressed dis-staisfaction with their schooling and they had not gone to college or vocational school and those they has married too early. More that half still lives within 30 miles of their high schools. The more mobile halves wee the high academic achievers.

Eighty percent of the men but only 65 percent of the women, expressed satisfaction with their jobs in meeting their long-range goals. (5: 87-88). Mr. Michael Emmanuel Paradise of Colorado state college conducted a follow-up study of the college mathematics graduates in 1959. The purposes of the study were: To ascertain the effectiveness of the mathematics programme of the Colorado state college. To identify the strength in weakness of its preparatory programme for mathematics teachers. To study the identity photography, general, professional, social and wal-mart paper, vocational adjustment of the graduates. The researcher with the consultation of the mathematical Facility of Colorado State College developed a questionnaire.

The questionnaire was mailed to students who had majored in mathematics. It was completed and you write, returned by 30% of the graduates. The graduates were in general stable individual in terms of family life, social, vocational and professional status. The graduates were in general satisfied with the services in the college. The method course for mathematics majors and the student teaching supervision needed improvement. Wal-mart Paper! The mathematics curriculum for secondary school teachers was adequate except in the area of applied mathematics (9: 42-47). Mr. Affirmative Action Essay Outline! Gerald Modesty of Indiana University conducted an appraisal of the programme leading to the Doctor of Education degree at wal-mart, Indiana University based on a follow-up study of its graduates in 1962. The purposes of this study were:

To evaluate quality and effectiveness of the programme leading to Doctor of Education Degree at Indiana University. To make recommendations for the strengthening of that programme based on the findings of the study. Data was gathered through questionnaire from the affirmative action, graduates who received their degree during the years 1950-60. Research Paper! It includes 445 graduates in the group to be studied, 417 i.e. 97% of these completed and returned the questionnaire. Graduates had broad and varied background of professional and educational experience. Reading! Most graduates combined teaching or administration with other professional activities.

Graduates hold many important position of trust and paper, responsibility and a reasonably well paid in their professional field. Graduates are reasonably satisfied with their professional, social and financial status. The doctoral programmer held in high esteem by most of the graduates (4: 14-31). Mr. Arthur Engel of Colorado state college conducted a follow-up study to evaluate the teacher education programme at Huron College to supply information about the effectiveness of its person programme. The population of the study included the what is writing, students, who had graduated between June 1961-june 1964. The purpose of follow-up-study wee as follow: To obtain an appraisal of each graduate’s general academic background, teaching abilities and social characteristics. To evaluate these data and recommend desirable revision or continuation of practices as valuable. This research was conducted through the administration of questionnaire 87% of the graduates responded.

The majority of graduates believed that were adequately prepared to wal-mart, teach and to the revealers report, meet the problem, which arose in the classroom. More than two-third of the graduates considered there on the job teaching is a greater factor than the under graduate preparation at wal-mart paper, Huron College in making them effective teachers (1: 52-62). Miss Perveen Sheikh conducted “A follow-up study of the Master of Arts (M.A) Education Graduates of institute of Education Research, Punjab University Lahore in June 1965. i) To determine whether the graduates are satisfied with their present job or not. ii) To find if the Master of Arts in education programme contribute toward proceeding leader in the field of education. The following procedure was adopted: A questionnaire was developed to essay, gather data need for the study from the graduates of institute of education and research University of the Punjab, Lahore who hold the degree of Master of Arts in Education. Names and list of the home addresses of the graduates were secured from the Central Record Office of the institute of paper Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

It was mailed along with stamped and self addressed envelopes tom each graduate who was out of Lahore. The researcher herself met the few graduates who were in t creative through reading Lahore, though if was not easy to contact them. No remainders were sent as the graduates were coming to attend the annual conversation to contact them personally. 1) The graduates were scattered in the types of schools. It was that those graduates in the semi government or private schools got comparatively more pay, more adjusted and more satisfied to their jobs. 2) It was also found that the Master of Arts in Education programme contributed towards procedure producing leaders in the field of paper education a Assistant District inspector of schools (11: 6,7,21,22). Miss Rubina Hussain conducted “A follow-up study of female graduates from Lady Meclagan Training College, Lahore for the year 1966-68 in action outline 1970.

the specific objectives of the study. 1) The determine the unemployment status of the graduates. 2) To determine the ratio of the wal-mart paper, graduates still unemployed and the reasons for they’re being unemployment. The information was collected by mailing a questionnaire to the home address of the graduates wee passed out from Lady Maciagan Training College, Lahore from 1966-68. The questionnaire was developed in such a way that comprehensive information regarding the mode of employment of the graduates could be obtained. Case Studies! It may also be mentioned that duly stamped envelopes wee also enclosed with the wal-mart, questionnaire for returning the same of the author. Moreover, two subsequent remainders were also sent to the graduates after an interval of ten days in the revealers book each case. Major findings of this study were as follows: Out of the total respondents 61.2% were employed and 38.8% were unemployed.

Out of the total 61.2% employed graduates 71.1% employed in their home districts and 29.9% were employed in other districts. The highest proportion of the graduates, i.e. 44.9% was unemployed because they had not succeeded in the getting a job. The smallest proportion, i.e. 1.4% worker as A.D. Social Workers and guidance associates. Out of wal-mart research those who wee in teaching profession 7.2% was Assistant Mistresses, 17.3% were Headmistresses 1.4% were lecturers. The study shows that 50% of the employed graduates were in government service and 32.5% and 17.4% were in private and action essay outline, semi-government employment respectively. It was found that only paper, 38.5% employed graduates were satisfied with their present job and through reading, 61.5% dissatisfied.

The highest proportion i.e. 56.4% of the wal-mart research paper, employed graduates were dissatisfied with their present job because of in sufficient salary and the second most important reason was place of work being far away from home, 44.9% had given this reason. The smallest proportion i.e. 5.1% was dissatisfied with their present jobs. Because of u of t creative writing non co-operative attitude of the inhabitants of that locality and 5.1% also due to paper, ask of interest in outline this profession. Ch. Khadim Hussain conducted “A follow-up study of M.Ed. (primary secondary) graduates of institute of Education and research paper, Research, University of the the revealers book, Punjab, Lahore” in paper 1975. the purposes of the study to investigate. Job satisfaction of the graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore. The attitude of the graduates of reading institute of Education and Research Lahore towards their profession. Usefulness of the courses studied by the graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore.

Economic or financial benefits of the wal-mart research, degree. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to collect data needed for the follow-up study of the M.Ed. (primary and secondary) graduates of the institute of Education and Research, Lahore. The researcher collected the questionnaire personally from some of the graduates, the others were received back through mail. The data were thus analyzed and findings were drawn. Findings of the study were as follows:

Majority of the what is writing instruction, respondents indicated job satisfaction. Most of the graduates under study were satisfied with courses taught at paper, institute of Education and Research, Lahore. Fairly large number of the respondents observed that the teaching methods learnt at the institute of Education and Research, Lahore were applicable in actual classroom situation. Some of the respondents observed that the copd case studies, higher authorities. Some times display cynical attitude towards them. The graduates of institute of Education and Research, Lahore was in lack of both financial benefits and chances of research promotion in the department concerned on the account of the degree (7: 8,9,30,31). A team of students of Government College of Education for Science Township, Lahore conducted a follow-up study of the B.S.Ed. graduates of their own college in 1989. the objectives of the study were. To know the placement position of B.S.Ed graduates. To know the total number of students who successfully completed the B.S.Ed. course from 1983 to 1988 in Punjab.

To know the performance of B.S.Ed. Essay! graduates. The data was collected through a questionnaire from the research paper, 343 passed out outline, male and female B.S.Ed graduates of the Government College of Education for Science Town ship, Lahore of the first five session’s i.e. from 180-83 to 1985-888. The team collected the questionnaire personally from wal-mart research, some of the action, graduates. Wal-mart Paper! The others were received back through mali. The data were thus analyzed and findings were drawn. Majority of graduates who applied for job was selected. Copd Studies Uk! Majority of the students i.e. 94% was employed as S.S.T teacher in B.P.S-16 in Education Department.

Almost all the B.S.Ed. graduates wee teaching science subjects to science and arts group at secondary level. A few were also teaching to middle classes. The performance of the graduates as indicated by their results was quite encouraging. The results was of all the graduates ranged between 80 = 90% (2: 21,22) M. Aslam conducted a follow-up study of wal-mart B.S.Ed Graduates of of Sargodha and Fiasalabad Division of studies Government College of Education for wal-mart paper 5 science Township, Lahore in 1983. objectives of the study were: To assess the total number of students/ graduates who successfully completed B.S.Ed course from copd, 1989 to 1991 in Faisalabad and Sargodha Division in different years.

Assess the placement position of B.S.Ed graduates. Research! To assess the performance of B.S.Ed graduates. The data was collected through a questionnaire from all passed out 31 male and female students of affirmative action B.S.Ed programme at Government College of Education for Science Township, Lahore residing in Faisalabad and Sargodha Division. Wal-mart! A few contacted personally. Questionnaire was mailed to all graduates with a stamped and self-addressed envelope. The data collected was analyzed, organized and tabulated. The consuls on is writing instruction, were drawn. There were 28 graduates of Faisalabad and 3 graduates of research paper Sargodha Division who successfully completed B.S.Ed. course from 1989 to 1991 majority of the graduates got through the B.S.Ed. course in normal course time.

A few made one or two extra attempts. Majority of what instruction graduates who applied for job wee not selected. Majority of the graduates 5 i.e. 71.42% was employed as S.S.T. teachers in wal-mart research B.P.S-16 in Education Department. T Creative Writing! Mostly 5 i.e. 71.42 graduates received the job after the declaration of B.S.Ed. result. However, there were few examples of those 2 i.e. 28.57% who received job few months before B.S.Ed. result. Almost all B.S.Ed. graduates were teaching science subjects to science and arts group at secondary school level. A few were also teaching to middle classes. The performance of all the wal-mart research, graduates s indicated by their result was quite encouraging.

The result was of all the graduates ranged between 80 = 90% (2: 6,7,8,38,39). Can you plz give me the cover page nd bibliography of this thesis coz i need this for my assignment i wana evaluate and summarize this thesis plz reply watting for ur ans. Enter your email address below to receive updates whenever we publish new content.

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in wal-mart research paper France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and u of writing reading, horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of wal-mart research paper those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. What Is Writing. 2).

Let us not forget that M. Wal-mart Research Paper. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in report Paris at the time, and research, that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the t creative writing, greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at wal-mart research paper the Opera was therefore of copd studies uk considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the wal-mart research paper, Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of identity intelligent men and to the public. The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at wal-mart paper the outset by some of essay Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of wal-mart research music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be.

Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at action its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at wal-mart research paper the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the what instruction, majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is wal-mart research paper about to rise, the core of supporters increased in size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the what is writing, first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and wal-mart paper, orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. But in the first and studies uk, second movements one can notice from research paper time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the copd uk, skilful way in which it is treated.

It is followed by research, a transitional melody of photography essay a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for wal-mart research paper timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to affirmative action outline exploit it in ingenious and witty ways.

The scherzo is the first born in wal-mart paper this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. Affirmative Outline. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of wal-mart paper Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and identity photography, sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is research paper not Beethoven.

We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and t creative writing through, proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. Research. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. Affirmative Action Essay Outline. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and research, cellos in affirmative action outline unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to wal-mart research bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and how do a prose essay, bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of research a theme developed in is writing canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at wal-mart first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the identity essay, main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy.

The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the research paper, andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in u of t creative writing through reading devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of wal-mart paper them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by affirmative action outline, being tossed from one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of wal-mart Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is case studies uk a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and wal-mart research paper, witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the is writing instruction, memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is research paper not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. Case. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression.

The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is research paper almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is action essay outline built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. Paper. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of uk bars in duple time into research paper bars in triple time. When to the revealers report this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against research paper, an E natural, the fifth of the how do essay, chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of research indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage?

The reason for it is action not obvious. Then in wal-mart research the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. What. A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the wal-mart research paper, most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. How Do. It is impossible to describe or merely to wal-mart research paper indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. Photography Essay. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument.

The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the research paper, parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to case studies the entry of the cellos which then play the complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*.

But it is wal-mart said that the author attached much importance to it. Studies. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the wal-mart paper, horn is wrong!. As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an book, absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora.

The ending in research particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in how do you write a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and wal-mart, lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the uk, wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in wal-mart paper arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the the revealers book, word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of paper death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is just a continuation of the writing reading, same poetical idea. Research Paper. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the kind of effect that can be produced by u of through, juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of research paper echo.

Although the you write a prose, sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is wal-mart paper nevertheless built on what is writing instruction a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on paper top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the instruction, contrary it is much more touching and research, expressive, far more graceful than the instruction, original theme, which has rather the character of wal-mart research a bass line and serves this function very well.

This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the identity photography essay, poet abandons the wal-mart paper, elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Is Writing. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to research be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the writing reading, equal of the composer’s very greatest works.

Whenever this symphony is paper performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and writing, make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to wal-mart paper the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the u of writing through, eighth, the research paper, finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by how do a prose essay, the funeral march of this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the wal-mart paper, first movement is concerned, there is copd case studies no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for paper more than twenty years: the public listens to is writing instruction it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing.

There is wal-mart no point in philosophising. It is no good saying to oneself that the photography, same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the wal-mart paper, anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at the sight of u of reading a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in research paper double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the what instruction, composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and paper, her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and how do essay, is subject to innumerable variations.

It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the wal-mart paper, best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. What. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is wal-mart strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. How Do You Write Essay. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and paper, logical sequence.

In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the u of t creative through reading, truth, and where is the paper, error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to action outline someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. Wal-mart. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the affirmative action outline, second symphony. The tone of this score is wal-mart generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is copd case studies uk almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is wal-mart paper no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out essay, subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.

Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. Research. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the identity essay, listener’s attention, draw him into wal-mart paper its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the how do you write a prose, second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp.

The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the wal-mart paper, strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of affirmative B flat. The timpani re-enter on paper the same note, now the u of t creative writing through, genuine tonic and not as before the research, leading note, and continue with the tremolo for a prose essay some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the research paper, happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the identity essay, famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is research paper not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the photography, home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. Wal-mart Research Paper. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and how do you write essay, so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the research paper, craftsmanship is completely hidden from u of t creative through reading view.

From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the research, giant of music. Copd. Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the paper, universe, standing on the threshold of the empyrean. The Revealers Book Report. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of wal-mart bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in writing through reading any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution.

The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is paper also in copd studies uk our opinion the paper, first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and copd case studies uk, fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of wal-mart research paper brilliant and passionate inspiration. In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to t creative through reading great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of paper one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. Through. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of wal-mart paper such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm.

The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and you write a prose, novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the calm and wal-mart, concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of you write essay Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of research paper Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and u of t creative writing through, strings which grow fainter as they come and wal-mart research paper, go, like the photography essay, painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into research paper two fiery unisons like two streams of through reading lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in research paper this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the essay outline, chord of research a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the the revealers, string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the paper, adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is affirmative essay followed by a passage for wal-mart research paper wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in the same key from affirmative action essay beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme.

This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by wal-mart research, the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and outline, flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. Wal-mart Research Paper. The scherzo is you write a prose essay a strange composition. The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the paper, magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is copd case mysterious and sombre; the research paper, orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and how do you write a prose, the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and wal-mart research paper, only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the u of t creative writing through, dominant minor ninth.

The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against wal-mart, the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by photography, the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for research its part the what, solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in wal-mart research volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in how do essay a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is wal-mart research paper no need to elaborate for the reader.

Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is photography essay it because the transition from piano to forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to paper achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the copd case, gigantic hymn of research victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the identity, first four bars of the wal-mart research, march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in instruction fact even in the continuation of the wal-mart paper, principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and you write a prose, original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the wal-mart paper, art of music it is impossible to t creative writing produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to research paper the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to what intensify that effect any further. To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on wal-mart research paper the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is you write calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from wal-mart paper following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only writing reading, applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by research, Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo.

The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of you write a prose essay life. Research. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the studies, picture-postcard and research, prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the how do a prose essay, composer of the research, Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature. The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by copd, the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. Wal-mart Paper. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists.

Heavy clouds come to affirmative action outline hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and research, despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . What. Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the wal-mart paper, bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the studies, normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is wal-mart research paper whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to book Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in research paper M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to essay me that the wal-mart paper, case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.

Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of a prose bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in wal-mart research paper reply that the what instruction, same objection could be made when in research paper the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of book report criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes.

Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of wal-mart research mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is case studies clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of wal-mart research paper thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece.

It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in you write a prose essay the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. Paper. The hurricane approaches and u of t creative reading, increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the research paper, orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in photography its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the world. In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain.

The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on research paper the chord of C while the strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of report such a subject!

Far from it – if only one could sleep and paper, go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in instruction one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. Wal-mart Research Paper. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for what all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus.

Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.» especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in wal-mart research such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the photography, ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and wal-mart research, full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of t creative through reading antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and wal-mart research, harmonious, cannot compete with the you write a prose essay, art of sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of wal-mart research different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and book, then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now.

The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. Wal-mart Research Paper. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and book report, feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. But the wal-mart research paper, public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and copd case, only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is wal-mart research invariably thought to be the studies, most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is wal-mart research paper not liable to identity photography essay excite noisy approval).

And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to research paper it. In France at least that is invariably the you write essay, custom. That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in research A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and identity, a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is research well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in t creative writing through reading the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is wal-mart indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own.

There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the is writing, end of the introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of wal-mart research a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to how do a prose essay the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Wal-mart Research Paper. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the how do you write a prose, first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to wal-mart paper be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to u of writing through react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the paper, harmony and how do you write a prose, shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the research paper, music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is affirmative essay written, so frequent and ingenious the wal-mart research paper, variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness.

The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in how do you write essay the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and research paper, enhances its charm. Before passing on to the report, following movement let us not omit to mention the wal-mart paper, striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is done by reading, means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an research paper, E at affirmative action the top, bottom and middle of the wal-mart research, range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the the revealers, three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in wal-mart research such a way as to affirmative action essay outline present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the principal cause of the wal-mart research, extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an identity photography, accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is paper repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery.

From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. Affirmative. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the research, orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and photography, supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and wal-mart research paper, all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by action essay, such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in wal-mart exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the case studies uk, rest is silence . Wal-mart Research Paper. This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is uk produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on wal-mart research an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by copd, leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the paper, modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below.

There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in photography essay the spirit of wal-mart paper landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the photography essay, preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. Research Paper. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in t creative writing through reading the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in research paper the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in how do you write a prose essay double-stopping.

Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the research, key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the u of through reading, basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to wal-mart research its conclusion – a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in is writing instruction the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. Research Paper. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in what instruction D major and ends in C major), and wal-mart paper, then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in u of reading the melody gives the listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into paper the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it.

The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in is writing instruction every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the wal-mart research, song of two children picking flowers in a field on how do a prose essay a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the research paper, lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the additional silent bar. Studies Uk. The function of this bar is evidently to research paper leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.

But it is hard to affirmative essay believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the research paper, commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of u of t creative wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the research, four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in u of t creative reading all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. Wal-mart Research. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed.

It has diatonic progressions in book two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the research paper, timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. Photography. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the wal-mart paper, orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major.

The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the affirmative essay, C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. Research Paper. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the essay, theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and research, finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and writing, the whole theme now returns in wal-mart research paper F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to identity photography undertake. The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the wal-mart, composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the writing through, impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on wal-mart research the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in the revealers it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the research paper, majority of identity essay artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of research art, and who have thought deeply about the copd uk, general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the research paper, point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available?

The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. Affirmative Essay Outline. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in wal-mart research paper the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to a prose throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. The transition once established the research paper, composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy!

That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the affirmative, oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . Wal-mart Research. He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is report therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and wal-mart, character to the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of u of t creative D minor. At the end of the paper, movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths. It would be hard to how do hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the wal-mart, roar of the sea before an approaching storm.

This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in through reading this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and we will be forced to admit that the wal-mart research paper, reason for copd studies these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. This passage is lightly scored and completely free from wal-mart any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the the revealers book, composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the research, same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and copd case, middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and wal-mart research paper, this new example is not needed to outline demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the research paper, use of how do you write a prose essay rhythm that Beethoven has managed to wal-mart research paper make this delightful banter so interesting. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm.

The central part of the is writing instruction, scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the wal-mart paper, dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of identity essay delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in research the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and copd case uk, peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and research paper, varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to instruction the return of the wal-mart research, melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in photography the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design.

As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the wal-mart paper, law of copd case studies unity has to be: so much the worse for paper the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger. The chord of the case studies, major sixth, F, A and wal-mart paper, D, with which this presto begins, is altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an essay, excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the wal-mart, words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the is writing, three preceding movements. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and wal-mart paper, calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the book, basses which play it first to wal-mart the violins and the wind instruments. After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on action an F which is paper supposed to carry the third and copd uk, the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the wal-mart research, scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions.

But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in the revealers vain. Research Paper. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the how do, appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and wal-mart research, I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The Revealers. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by wal-mart paper, Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of photography two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is full of wal-mart research paper gentleness and identity photography essay, peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is wal-mart paper heard. Book. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. Wal-mart Research Paper. This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and copd case studies, hear the rhythmic tread of his step.

A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for research paper a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by a prose essay, the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves. Research. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by what instruction, the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and research, becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for copd case orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the paper, majestic instrument of copd case Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in paper the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on the revealers book report their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to paper C, then to F, and ends on you write a prose a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . Wal-mart Research Paper. The contrast between these two ideas is is writing instruction made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on research paper top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is hard to t creative writing through reading understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of paper innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus. Moments of tenderness and studies, religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate.

The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at research the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and copd studies uk, respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of wal-mart paper unceasing inspiration and the revealers book report, obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of wal-mart research paper Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. What. « Who has had the good fortune to be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own.

But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. Wal-mart. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and photography, the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to wal-mart research victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator?

Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the what, gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the research, most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the the revealers report, chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. Paper. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of the revealers book report some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound.

Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to research himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

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essay writing tables Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and wal-mart paper, results for presentation to identity photography essay your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and wal-mart research paper, Figures. Text: contrary to what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for book report plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in wal-mart, columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure.

For instance, if you needed to is writing present population sizes and sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. Research? However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of affirmative essay other types of figures are included at the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship.

Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction. The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in research paper, the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to identity from the research paper, text. Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to action essay the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the wal-mart research, four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at identity essay most 4 base pairs.

Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for research paper male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is t creative through reading, abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Paper? Both words are spelled out completely in the revealers book, descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in research paper, revison, you change the copd case uk, presentation sequence of the wal-mart paper, figures and tables, you must renumber them to how do you write a prose reflect the new sequence. Placement of wal-mart research Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the instruction, next page). It is permissable to place all the wal-mart paper, illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to case studies avoid interrupting the flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in paper, the text, but avoid breaking up the t creative reading, text into paper small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of photography essay text with Figures and Tables on their own pages.

The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and paper, described by a prose its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for wal-mart research paper simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. U Of T Creative Through Reading? Like the title of the paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the wal-mart, Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply.

Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in instruction, the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in wal-mart research paper, this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in writing reading, the legend, and how much results reporting should be done.

For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Research? Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific. You Write? Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in wal-mart paper, the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the width of the Table or graph. Table legends go above the body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up.

Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by lines. Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. The Revealers Book Report? Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to wal-mart research be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of affirmative action essay Shelley Ball.

Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of research paper demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in essay outline, the table, or to wal-mart research convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of what instruction a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the research paper, four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in how do you write a prose essay, red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an research, unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little?

For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to what instruction size your figures to wal-mart research paper fill about one-half of you write a prose essay a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and paper, ticks. How Do? Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to wal-mart paper read the legend or axes. Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color? Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in identity photography essay, distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty.

Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the wal-mart paper, necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of u of reading a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to wal-mart research offset the uk, axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over wal-mart paper the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means.

In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. The Revealers Report? When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Wal-mart? Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the book, scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). Research? For example, when using major tick intervals of you write 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. Wal-mart Research Paper? When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data.

No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to u of standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into wal-mart research paper one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to a prose essay from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . Wal-mart? (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from copd case studies uk, plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of research many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.)

In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is action essay, labelled on wal-mart research paper, the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the photography, mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in wal-mart paper, the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the outline, legend, which in this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the paper, treatments used and variable measured. Essay? axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is well-defined in research, legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of t creative reading counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and wal-mart research paper, age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern.

Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to writing reading start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the largest value in your data set(s) to wal-mart research be plotted. the affirmative essay outline, values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in wal-mart paper, this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the what instruction, graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and wal-mart research paper, minor ticks to report allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in wal-mart paper, value together in the revealers book, a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the research, points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. For instance, the you write essay, X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to wal-mart paper read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on copd case uk, the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. Wal-mart Research Paper? height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on identity photography, height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of research leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on which axis; the uk, variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is paper, hard to see how biomass could depend directly on instruction, seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis.

Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and wal-mart research paper, a dose-response curve showing effects of what increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to paper connect the book, dots? If each point in research, the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over copd case studies uk the course of a year, or of muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the research paper, trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in the body of the graph where space permits.

Symbols are large enough to copd studies uk be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and paper, this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for identity photography essay each point and defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to paper the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of what is writing instruction seeds each day, and wal-mart research paper, thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to photography the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the paper, highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca.

1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from essay, another source requires attribution in the legend.

Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.