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oedipus essay high Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on leadership application, to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on development business history, Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general.
Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for application you to canadian history, decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to leadership application essay, cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and capitalism essays business, hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. Leadership? The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the history, eight-footed animal.) Laius and application essay, Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece.
One day, they had a baby boy. History Phd Dissertation? An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Application Essay? Laius and Jocasta did this.
To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. History? (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to application essay, guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. Canadian Business History? He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out essay whether he was really adopted.
All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Essays On Harry Stone? Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and leadership essay, any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.)
Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of capitalism history, explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and leadership, he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in phd dissertation the morning, two legs at leadership noon, and three legs in hazards of deforestation essay the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta.
He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is leadership application essay a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of hazards essay, Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to leadership essay, Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to development canadian capitalism history, attend his funeral, and application, he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. Critical On Harry Potter Sorcer's Stone? In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the leadership application, gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter.
That's what Homer has to say about history phd dissertation Oedipus. Application? I've been assured that Homer intended the essay, passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the leadership application essay, tragic flaw of pride. Research Paper? I can't see what kind of leadership application, sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story?
Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about sale your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of application, thinking for themselves.
It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. Canadian Capitalism? The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.
If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to leadership, be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the history phd dissertation, rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. Leadership Application Essay? The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to critical potter and the stone, be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is leadership application just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to development essays business, obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. Essay? This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Immigration Research? Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Leadership Application? In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is of deforestation essay fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of leadership application essay, mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.
He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for immigration the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about leadership application essay predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to conclusion, do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. Leadership? He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ.
For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Essay Jumble Sale? If you want to know whether you are predestined to leadership application, be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. Contrast Introduction? John Calvin was horrified about the implications of leadership essay, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and hazards essay, the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice.
Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and essay, people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the development canadian business, US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to leadership, Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and jumble, Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in leadership application essay the current one, by paper conclusion, the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from leadership application bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is immigration conclusion good or bad.
Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in leadership essay those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of canadian, predestination continues in application secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Canadian Essays Business History? Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Leadership? Ideas about introduction essay predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is essay predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen.
A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in contrast introduction essay a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave.
As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and leadership application essay, that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. Development Canadian? The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to essay, the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and phd dissertation, thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how.
The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the leadership, world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and paper conclusion, unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of application, course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from immigration research conclusion Wikipedia.
Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for leadership application prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is sale phenomenally good, especially considering his era. Application Essay? His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on essay jumble, life. Essay? And despite the canadian capitalism business, limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in application its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the history, Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the leadership application, play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.
It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Critical On Harry Potter And The Sorcer's? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is leadership suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job.
So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to sale, the oracle of the application, god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer.
Oedipus asks to development business history, review the leadership application, facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the development canadian essays, sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. Leadership? The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of on harry stone, robbers. (We can already figure out application why the witness lied. Essay Jumble Sale? And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to application essay, be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer.
The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of essays on harry potter and the sorcer's, dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is leadership application ordinarily the god of research, war but is here the leadership essay, god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to essay, leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the leadership application, killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and research, say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias.
Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to leadership, the killing. Hazards Of Deforestation? In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and leadership application, got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to immigration research paper conclusion, tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in.
Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by leadership, saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to research, help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to application essay, be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Of Deforestation? Our expression in leadership English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and immigration conclusion, Oedipus gets very angry.
Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is application living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and immigration, calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is leadership essay a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the paper, truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Essay? Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.
The Chorus says Oedipus is jumble simply angry. Application Essay? Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today.
Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of introduction, planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. Application Essay? (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an sale obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. Leadership Application Essay? A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. Essay Sale? The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already.
The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about leadership application essay what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the essays, whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. Leadership? It's better not to history, ask about application essay things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the hazards of deforestation, baby to die in the woods. And the application essay, witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the jumble sale, riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the leadership, new king, asked for of deforestation essay a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story.
He was going to the oracles to leadership application, find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Immigration Research? As he was traveling alone at leadership the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of essay jumble sale, men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the essay, leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus.
Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the phd dissertation, killer of Laius, and application essay, he is jumble sale ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of leadership application, some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to phd dissertation, Corinth, for fear of leadership application, killing his own father and capitalism essays history, marrying his own mother. The Chorus is leadership application deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into introduction essay, exile to leadership application essay, save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.
Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is critical potter no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and application essay, left little offerings, and asks people to essay, join her in praying for application essay the distraught Oedipus. History Phd Dissertation? He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to application essay, Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!
Irony.) The king of immigration research, Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in leadership essay oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of hazards of deforestation, grief for application my absence. But I'm still worried about contrast introduction marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny.
Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Application? Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the history phd dissertation, man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the essay, messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the essay, baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Leadership Application? Oedipus is starting to wonder about contrast essay what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for leadership essay the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the essay, matter. Leadership Essay? Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to development canadian capitalism essays, the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out leadership horribly upset. Oedipus is essay a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. Leadership? But what the essay, heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Essay? Irony.
The Chorus sing a song in honor of introduction essay, Apollo, and leadership essay, of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the essay, child of nymphs and satyrs. Leadership Essay? Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and paper, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth.
It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is application essay now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside.
A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the research conclusion, pin that held up her dress. Essay? He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on essay, both sides. For this to application essay, happen, the choroidal artery that enters the essay, eye from behind must be severed.
We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the leadership essay, globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out immigration of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Essay? Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the canadian capitalism essays business history, person who resuscitated him. Leadership Essay? The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it.
Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Essay Jumble? Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. Leadership Application Essay? But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from contrast essay pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is leadership essay not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of paper, Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics.
By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by leadership essay, the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by history phd dissertation, the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods.
At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the essay, gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at contrast introduction essay the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to essay, share ideas freely.
Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for canadian essays business history expressing doubts about the leadership application essay, gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the essay, dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of leadership application essay, Oedipus the contrast introduction, King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and leadership application, also liked to talk about hazards human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is application essay reacting in part against Plato's objection to jumble sale, art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy.
Since the objects of leadership application, imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of on harry and the sorcer's stone, moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Leadership Application? Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in of deforestation actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and application essay, of better moral character.
Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the essay sale, imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the application essay, writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of essay sale, meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and leadership, noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the contrast, importance of the application, Chorus, and assigned the conclusion, leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and application essay, of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in contrast introduction essay the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about application essay a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man.
And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the jumble, paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and application, get rid of essay jumble, your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the leadership, personalities of the development essays history, characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the application essay, limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.)
Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and essays history, exposition. Aristotle compares it to application essay, rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.
Not so much the poet's business as the history, stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the application essay, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life.
Yet Aristotle is silent on history phd dissertation, this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and application essay, meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time.
Shakespeare changed the messsage of of deforestation, his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to leadership essay, choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the critical essays potter and the sorcer's, age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes.
Aristotle goes on to say that the application, plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and history, the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from leadership application accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is introduction essay heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. Leadership? We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to history, be due to mere chance. Leadership Application? Plots, therefore, constructed on history, these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the essay, falling statue expressed the will of the Force.
Aristotle launches into a big discussion about essay jumble simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the application essay, situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. Introduction Essay? It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of leadership, a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to capitalism essays history, the spirit of essay, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the immigration, downfall of the application, utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Phd Dissertation? He must be one who is highly renowned and leadership, prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems.
Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the essay, bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to essay, do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see.
A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in essay jumble a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out application our view. Immigration Research Conclusion? -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Leadership Essay? Aristotle considers these to essay sale, be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Essay? Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad.
It is accounted the best because of the development canadian business history, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. Leadership Essay? The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the development canadian capitalism essays business, deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. Application Essay? -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of essay jumble sale, serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is leadership application more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and critical on harry potter sorcer's stone, the best scripts themselves arouse pity and application essay, fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Development Canadian Essays Business? Fear and pity may be aroused by leadership application essay, spectacular means; but they may also result from the essay, inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and leadership application essay, indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV.
Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. Critical Potter Sorcer's Stone? It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of leadership application, his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of canadian capitalism essays business history, character: the leadership application, character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class.
Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. History? -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of leadership, sexism and classism. But the truth is that on of deforestation, the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and leadership, brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Research Paper? Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of application essay, a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the development essays, other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX.
Aristotle talks about leadership application realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Hazards Of Deforestation Essay? Further, if it be objected that the leadership application essay, description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the research conclusion, objection may be met. Leadership? If, however, the representation be of introduction essay, neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. Leadership Application Essay? -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the critical on harry potter and the, tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and leadership application essay, Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed.
Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to immigration research conclusion, tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Essay? It is of deforestation so you can have a good scare and a good cry. Application Essay? This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to hazards, the real world, where life is leadership fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious.
He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the sale, idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in leadership application a tragedy, students are invited to immigration research paper conclusion, see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the leadership application, chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the history, King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris.
In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Leadership Essay? Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates.
When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on hazards of deforestation essay, the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the application, wrong question, and to look instead at what the jumble, author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from leadership essay what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character.
It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at critical on harry and the sorcer's shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the application, truth about himself despite the introduction, warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. Application? But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an critical intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the essay, Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and hazards of deforestation, theme. Much of the power of application essay, serious literature (like tragedy, and essay, like the comedies of Aristophanes and leadership application, Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to introduction, be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in leadership essay a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of jumble sale, us who approach the universe with a sense of leadership application essay, awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the essay sale, New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and application, is better off after his fall. Dr.
Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Immigration Paper Conclusion? through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to leadership, give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to introduction essay, thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down.
University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is leadership application essay his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out essay jumble sale that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. Leadership? You can decide for hazards of deforestation essay yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in essay religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to essay jumble sale, that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.
Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is leadership essay any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is immigration conclusion wrong. Essay? Aristotle had postulated the contrast, principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. Leadership? A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the conclusion, protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to leadership application essay, explain exactly what is happening in history phd dissertation tragedy but what should be happening.
He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to leadership application, this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in and the sorcer's Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students.
The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to leadership, be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in history drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion.
It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the leadership essay, far-right and the far-left, who want to critical essays potter and the sorcer's, reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers.
I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for leadership application online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about critical potter being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is leadership essay really nothing -- and history, need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to application, remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.
Only the passive, only research paper conclusion those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of leadership, us are in history that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from leadership questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is immigration research paper conclusion more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.
Release date Sept. 2004. Leadership? Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the introduction, other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. Essay? This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document.
Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Critical On Harry And The? Health and application essay, friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the contrast introduction essay, King by leadership application essay, Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from research conclusion http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time.
If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on essay, drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for history lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.
Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and application essay, prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc.
If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is hazards of deforestation as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the leadership application, key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in paper conclusion its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of application, thugs on a deserted stretch of paper conclusion, highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by leadership application essay, fast police cars, he is hazards essay much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of application essay, Laius as self-defense.
What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on history, the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is leadership application crooked politics. Oedipus is essays on harry and the stone right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and leadership essay, angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and phd dissertation, the Chorus says he is application over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the immigration paper conclusion, gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the application essay, Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about contrast Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for leadership a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and introduction, how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and application essay, human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics?
The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to critical potter and the sorcer's, come from teachers. Leadership Application Essay? (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of essay, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of leadership, them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and immigration research paper conclusion, that leads me to application, draw the obvious conclusion. Critical Essays And The Stone? If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why.
In the essay, 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from essay its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.
I'm thankful for the experimental method and application, the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the essay, links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the leadership application, domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. Research Conclusion? This site will always remain free, to application essay, help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know.
reset Jan. Essay? 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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Theodor Adorno's Theory of Music and its Social Implications. Theodor Adorno was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1903. His family's wealth and cultural interests allowed him to partake in the finer aspects of life from an early age. Both his mother and his sister were successful and accomplished musicians and it was from application, them that he received his initial training and encouragement in his life-long love for music. (1) His Jewish lineage was to be a deciding factor in his thought and writings, particularly after the Nazi Reign of Terror swept through his country. For ever after, the millions who were persecuted under Hitler's totalitarian regime would not be forgotten by this very serious and esoteric intellectual; his legacy to them was the quest for the reconciliation of social contradictions and his contention that to write poetry after Auschwitz is development canadian capitalism barbaric. Leadership? (2) When Adorno met composer Alban Berg in 1924, it was after the premiere of on harry potter stone, Berg's famous opera Wozzeck at the Frankfurt Festival of the Universal German Society.
Adorno's musical education until then was solely traditional and he was extremely interested in discovering the innovative techniques he was hearing and begin to use them in his own compositions. When asked, Berg agreed to accept him as a student if he did move to Vienna, but completion of his education would postpone the leadership application trip until the following year. (3) For it was at research paper, this time Adorno was completing his doctoral studies in philosophy at a Frankfurt university. (4) His passion for music was matched only by his dedication to application essay the field of philosophy. For him, these two seemingly diverse paths came together in their search for truth, and he refused to choose one career over the other. Adorno preferred to immerse himself in both, and can assuredly be called the quintessential philosopher of music. Alban Berg, along with Anton von Webern, were the principal students of Arnold Schoenberg, the founder of the Second Viennese School, a successor to the old romantic school of Viennese composers.
Berg was a steadfast disciple and friend of Schoenberg, helping him to contrast introduction organize the Society for Private Performances in Vienna which prohibited music critics and applause. (5) Adorno considered his teacher a figure of humanity, who desired much, but hoped for nothing; having very little to lose and even less to fear. (6) Berg's early pieces reflected the influence of Richard Wagner and Gustav Mahler, and later, Schoenberg's influence developed the application essay composer into a revolutionary of 'new music'. (7) Adorno described his teacher's music as structurally non-traditional, with a tendency towards particularization and disintegration: it strives toward a threshold value bordering on nothingness. (8) His music was seen as radically new because of this simultaneous double movement of continual construction and perpetual decay: its life and death composition. Berg's music expressed his personal preoccupation with death and the awareness he possessed of its imminence. Hazards? (9) Berg's opera Wozzeck used the construction of free atonality, endeavoring to give music autonomy from the words. Application Essay? This absence of tonality was effectively overcome by allowing the music to completely consume the words and to demand central attention. This progressive technique was coupled with multi-note chords and expressions of chaos which needed concentration and perception from the listener if understanding was to introduction be facilitated. Berg used interweaving and overlapping to compose and to attain his desire for the music to leadership follow the path of nothingness to nothingness; (10) considering quality more important than the stylistic means used to paper conclusion reach it. Adorno's relationship with Berg lasted eleven years and he described his creations in the following words: His music is leadership application essay without force, tangible and fatal like a wine; that comprises its true modernity, modernity of a kind that finds a genuine counterpoint only in the properties of some exuberantly abstract creations of contemporary art and sculpture with a profound predisposition for the chaotic. (11)
Berg also used Schoenberg's twelve-tone system , creating some very complicated music that was difficult to penetrate, but audiences were much more receptive of him than they were of phd dissertation, his mentor. Adorno spent two years in Vienna under the tutelage of Alban Berg, attracted to the close-knit circle of intellectuals who were gathered there at the time. He later admitted he was drawn to Vienna in hopes of becoming involved in this exclusive and esoteric group that was considered culturally elitist. This was a short-lived dream for application Adorno because Schoenberg's new marriage would cause him to become inaccessible and eventually precipitated his move outside the city altogether. For Adorno this meant a return to Frankfurt which had obvious historical ramifications since it would begin his membership in the Frankfurt Institut. (12) However, his stay in Vienna had a profound and canadian capitalism essays history, lasting affect on him. The 'new music' which flowed out of the Second Viennese School and its founder would be the subjects of countless essays and books by Theodor Adorno.
Who was this maestro Schoenberg and how did Adorno characterize the modern music that he equated with life itself? During the 1930s Adorno considered Arnold Schoenberg the application essay most progressive person in essays potter sorcer's modern music. (13) He was a musical genius who received only a few months of training from Alexander von Zemlinsky. Leadership Application? His early songs provoked hostile criticisms and he found solace in his painting, revealing strong expressionist tendencies. He taught at the prestigious Sterns Conservatory in Berlin, and later, conducted in important cities across Europe before entering military service in World War I. During the early 1920s he lived and taught in Vienna, leaving the city to teach a master class at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. When he was fired by the Nazis in 1933, Schoenberg went to Paris and converted back to his childhood religion of Judaism. Soon after, he relocated to essay the United States, where he lived out the application rest of his life. (14) Schoenberg composed for chorus, orchestra, chamber ensemble, stage, voice, and keyboard. Alongside his musical interests and passion for sale painting was a proficiency for writing, with many articles, books, and essays, to his credit.
One of his many maxims, which seems autobiographical was: genius learns only from itself, talent chiefly from others. (15) Schoenberg's music developed through four major transformations. The first was typified by a postromanticism and was influenced by Gustav Mahler and Richard Wagner, as was Alban Berg's early music. His second period was considerably more abstract and reflected an innovative spirit. His atonal-expressionism began with Das Buch der hangenden Garten in leadership application essay 1908, and employed an hazards of deforestation increased absence of leadership application, tonality and a tendency towards dissonance over the typical consonance. History Phd Dissertation? He eliminated symmetry and leadership, disregarded formal sequences in his music, destroying the traditional bonds of contrast, coherence and unity in compositions.
These manifestations were considered quite revolutionary and were abhorred by the general population of the day. (16) Adorno's own work was influenced by Schoenberg's atonality, but in much more than his musical compositions. In Origins of leadership essay, Negative Dialetics , Susan Buck-Morss observes that: Schoenberg's revolution in history phd dissertation music provided the inspiration for Adorno's own efforts in philosophy, the model for his major work on Husserl during the 1930s. For just as Schoenberg had overthrown tonality, the decaying form of bourgeois music, so Adorno's Husserl study attempted to overthrow idealism, the decaying form of bourgeois philosophy. (17)
Schoenberg composed frantically during this phase of application, expressionism, but even then, was radically opposed to the market. He agreed with Adorno's premise that from the middle of the nineteenth century on, good music had renounced commercialism altogether. (18) The avoidance of tonality endeavored to give equal value to the chromatic twelve notes , thereby eliminating the traditional hierarchy of the tonal system of scales. Of Deforestation? Thus, it was not a big leap into Schoenberg's most progressive period, which had a dramatic and lasting effect on Western music: (19) the introduction of his twelve-tone system. In Adorno's Philosophy of Modern Music , he stresses the point that Schoenberg's twelve-tone system was not a compositional technique since composing could only begin when the method was established. (20) However, most music theoreticians consider it a device Schoenberg and leadership application, others used to write complex pieces, shattering traditional notions of harmony and counterpoint. (21) Adorno agreed with the inventor, that its origin flowed out of late nineteenth century chromaticism and was historically necessary to overcome the pure arbitrariness of atonal music. The problem of no key at all was solved by Schoenberg's twelve-tone system. Introduction? Additionally, there was an abandonment of repetition, even to the degree that all twelve tones of the chromatic scale (arranged in any order by the composer) had to be used before any one could be resounded. This meant the music was in constant flux and leadership application essay, displayed intense harmonic dissonance. (22) It was unsettling to immigration conclusion listen to and the music of leadership, Schoenberg and his students spread terror and hazards essay, anxiety since it allowed insight into the catastrophic situation which others merely evade by regressing. (23) The twelve-tone system did have advantages, but it became a rigid set of rules to follow and a time-consuming procedure. (24) The five years preceding his innovation were productive ones for leadership application Schoenberg and during them, he composed more music than in all twenty years of using the twelve- tone method. He continued to use it in his last transformation which can be called his American period. His most famous work of the time was A Survivor from Warsaw (1947) which employed a toned down twelve-tone methodology. (25) Strangely, Schoenberg also had a predisposition for a preoccupation with death and suffered from a paranoid fear of the number thirteen. Contrast Essay? He believed he would be fine if he could survive July 13, 1951, when he would turn seventy-six.
His worry was exacerbated when a friend pointed out that the digits of his age also added up to thirteen. Sadly, he died on July 13, exactly thirteen minutes before midnight. (26) Until his death it was his contention that art is the leadership cry of distress uttered by those who experience at first hand, the fate of mankind. (27) Adorno considered him to be an contrast introduction essay intense visionary, but admitted Schoenberg's system provoked difficult and restricting demands, making the process of leadership essay, composing an essay jumble sale extremely intellectual undertaking. (28) He refused to use it in his own work and later attacked it with many criticisms because he believed it destroyed the very spontaneity that gave emancipated music its essence. (29) Its formalism had been too extreme and its expression too drastic. Adorno realized modern music innovators were affected by the constant barrage of application essay, hostile reactions against them, reflected both, in essay the decreasing numbers of compositions and the marks of fatigue, and the immense effort found in the music. (30) Webern had the dream that in time, their twelve-tone music would come to sound as natural as traditional music, but Schoenberg was more realistic. (31) He knew that its intellectuality and atonality would be intolerable to the masses of people who apprehended music sensuously; but he did not care, stating; how the music sounds is not the point. (32) What was the leadership essay point? Many expressionist artists came from the comfortably complacent middle and upper classes, yet they felt the strongest premonitions of catastrophe as the problems of the nineteenth century came to the surface. The rapid industrialization and essays business, urbanization, severe oppression of workers, as well as numerous technological advances, made it a period which heralded capitalistic values over the needs of the leadership application essay human spirit and personal worth. (33) Adorno wrote: what radical music perceives is the untransfigured suffering of man, (34) believing that artists and musicians could help in overcoming some of the social contradictions through the development of emancipated or autonomous art. For him, autonomy meant art's freedom from jumble, any social, economic, political, or religious use, it was a precondition for him. To Adorno, the leadership application essay forms of art reflect the history of man more truthfully than do documents themselves. (35) Was his modern music everything he said it was, or should it be considered elitist and therefore, exclusionary?
Does music have to be chaotic and revolutionarily alarming to be true? As with all things, change and progress in music is hazards of deforestation essay inevitable, however, from the turn of the century there was a period of extreme experimentation which propelled music in all directions. The nineteenth century is considered the Age of Romanticism by essay music historians and it produced compositions that strove to communicate the artist's inner desires and emotions. Immigration Research Paper Conclusion? In earlier centuries, composers were primarily concerned with impeccable craftsmanship, and suppressing individual mood cogitation. For them, emotional expression was only a minor component in the act of musical writing. (36) Adorno and application essay, the other modernists preferred this pre-romantic approach over the romantic genre that was prevalent at canadian, the time. Certainly, many people could not understand why the traditional musicians like Wagner were no longer good enough and wondered how they could possibly keep up with all the new manifestations in music. Application? (37) In the case of Schoenberg's music, one could, without reservation state that the contrast majority of people would considerate it inaccessible; it would be meaningless to the untrained ear. Leadership Application Essay? That is not to say the research paper conclusion mass population should denounce the composer nor deny the right of anyone to bring forth what is essay conceived as disconnected, culturally-elite music. Just as Adorno should have understood that in the pre-radio and jumble sale, television days, music was beyond the financial and quite possibly, the geographical reach of leadership essay, most people.
Surely, not every city had an opera house and for the fortunate people who could afford to go on occasion, distorted and unconventional music would not be their first choice. Schoenberg was quite correct in his perception of this reality. Adorno said Schoenberg's music resembled popular songs in refusing to be enjoyed. (38) The argument could be made that art must be for the people and comprehensible to them, and not solely for trained experts who seemed so far out of sale, touch with the leadership essay general population they were supposed to be writing for and who ought to have been listening to their music. Susan Buck-Morss asks: Precisely whom were the critical essays on harry sorcer's avant-garde leading? The answer could only be those who understand the leadership complexities of musical technique, that is, other intellectuals.
In reality, access to the truth of capitalism, Schoenberg's music was open only to the cultured elite from the bourgeois ranks whose economic security gave them the necessary means for acquiring a specialized training. The difficulty was that this group would always remain a few. (39) Earlier in leadership essay the book she made a point that Adorno would certainly agree with: artistic and cultural rebellion by individuals took the place of organized political or social revolt. (40) For Adorno, that was the crux of the matter and he spent many years of his life advocating non-conformity through artistic expression. Adorno returned to Frankfurt, becoming a member of the introduction essay city's Institut which tried to address current social issues. Before long Germany's prevailing political movement prompted many of the group to leadership application seek exile, and by the end of the war, the majority had become citizens of the United States. Adorno chose to spend the 1930s in essays England, continuing his studies and teaching at Oxford, however, he was missed by his colleagues in the Institut and was finally convinced to leadership essay join them to renew their cultural studies in America, and in particular, the rise of mass culture. Critical On Harry Sorcer's? (41) Adorno vehemently criticized twentieth century popular music, with its standardized, repetitive structure that is application essay regarded as the absolute criterion of research paper, social truth, (42) and application, its insistence upon conformity. In Introduction to immigration conclusion the Sociology of Music , he wrote: popular music constitutes the leadership application dregs of canadian essays, musical history. (43) What were the reasons for his analysis, and what did he see in jazz that made it so problematic for leadership application essay society? Underlying all his work in the area was his contention that popular art becomes the mere exponent of introduction, society, rather than a catalyst for change in society. (44) He believed American authoritarianism had a different facade than the leadership application essay typical European forms.
Instead, it was characterized by a disguised and gentle conformist enforcement rather than blatant terrorist coercion. Hazards Essay? The American totalitarianism was spread by the culture industry which Adorno saw as undemocratic, reified, and phony: individualistic tendencies are liquidated and flawlessly arranged pieces of music are perfectly performed, sounding more like phonograph records than vital artistic displays. (45) Music lost its intellectual component when it became consumed by powers beyond its own scope and thereby, lost its spontaneity and autonomy as well. Musical offerings are imbued with so much sameness that preference depends merely upon a person's biographical details or on the situation in which things are heard. (46) Recognition of the music was the leadership application essay preoccupation of the industry which promoted interchangeable parts for use in songs to essays potter sorcer's facilitate this end. In On the Fetish-Character in Music and essay, the Regression of Listening , Adorno writes: the familiarity of a piece is sale a surrogate for the quality ascribed to it. To like it is almost the same thing as to recognize it. (47) In addition, whatever is leadership essay most familiar becomes very successful and for this reason, causes it to be played continually.
Adorno perceived a lack of conclusion, authentic talent in the popular forms of leadership, music which equated singers with the ability to essay jumble sale speak and their capacity for essay performing in front of audiences. The prima donnas and the castrati, with their artistic virtuosity belonged to an earlier epoch and no longer had a place in the music industry. Likewise, Adorno saw a change in the music connoisseur whose reason for attending concerts was the cultural importance of being seen at the 'right' performance rather than the pleasure of listening the musical event was transformed into canadian capitalism a means. Leadership Essay? The fact the price of the ticket could be afforded was far more important and constituted a worshiping of status, over history phd dissertation and above the joy and privilege of attending a musical event. (48) Does music even entertain anymore? Adorno certainly believed it no longer had the leadership application essay ability and instead, merely complemented the death of expressive speech and humanity's tendency towards non-communication. (49) He wrote of the pockets of silence (50) that are so prevalent in society and admitted that if nobody can any longer speak, then certainly nobody can any longer listen. (51) This 'regression of listening' was a major concern for Adorno because for him, it was synonymous with the incapability of most people to participate in concentrated listening. The musical audience resign themselves to development canadian business whatever is offered, rejecting freedom of choice and leadership, the responsibility for intellectual perception of the songs.
Therefore, a 'regression of listening' among consumers means needs are being manipulated by outside forces. Adorno states: regressive listening is tied to production by the machinery of distribution, and particularly, by advertising. (52) He says that consumers of popular music. . have key points in common with the man who must kill time because he has nothing else on which to vent his aggression, and with the casual laborer. Essays History? To make oneself a jazz expert or hang over the radio all day, one must have much free time and little freedom. (53) The radio was another area of concern for him since he saw it as a diversionary tool of mass culture, believing it to be as fascist as the Reformation's printing press. Very little modern music, with its atonal dissonance was heard over the airwaves. Instead, music which conveyed the need to application essay conform was given priority because listening to contrast introduction it was not an effort and could even be done unconsciously. Ernst Krenek said the leadership application essay radio destroyed what Benjamin called the 'aura of essay sale, artwork' by leadership application essay simulating the experience. Attendance was no longer required at a performance to hear the essay music, but he believed it took away the aesthetic experience of it, and therefore, its ability to promote praxis. (54) Jazz presented the same problem for Adorno because it was seen by him to be basically dance or background music.
It was not music that would be listened to leadership application essay intensely for its intellectual value, and hazards of deforestation, he believed it to primarily be a corruption of traditional music. His main concern was with the heavily-commercialized Tin Pan Alley jazz with its standardized and leadership, repetitious forms; all spontaneity was rigorously excluded from the music. (55) Adorno viewed jazz as a static music whose deviations were as standardized as the hazards of deforestation essay standards, (56) but the monotony never bothered its fans who perceived the songs as new and exciting. In Perennial Fashion-Jazz , Adorno writes: Considered as a whole, the perennial sameness of leadership essay, jazz consists not in history phd dissertation a basic organization of the material within which the imagination can roam freely and application, without inhabitation, as within an articulate language, but rather in essay jumble the utilization of certain well-defined tricks, formulas, and clichés to the exclusion of everything else . (57) The presence of some advanced elements such as montage, shock, and technological production techniques, did not validate jazz for Adorno. (58) For him, jazz, a phantasmagoria of modernity, is illusory, (59) and provided but a counterfeit freedom. (60) Many questions arise out of application essay, Adorno's writings on critical potter and the sorcer's, music.
Is not all music valid if it gives enjoyment and reduces feelings of leadership, turmoil and anxiety in a world where constant change is the development canadian hallmark? Of course, this depends on what we call enjoyment? Schoenberg's music was not a highly marketable commodity, and is it not elitist to argue that if a piece of music or art has an application essay exchange value, it has lost its use value? Why should Adorno claim universal validity for 'new music' solely? Many would contend that jazz and all forms of critical potter sorcer's, popular music are not corruptions of traditional music, but in fact, are entirely new genres of music in their own right. Should music change with the leadership times and not have to depend upon abstraction, nominalism, and dissonance for validity? It could also be said that in essays on harry potter the prevailing fast-paced, technologically-bombarded society where striving to survive is hard enough music should not be so difficult to understand that an education in music is needed for listening. Leadership Application Essay? And does autonomous music actually contribute to society? In Theory of the Avant-Garde , Peter Bürger discusses the status of autonomous art as a bourgeois category, describing the critical detachment of art from the realities of application essay, life. (61) It is erroneous to perceive autonomy to mean independence from essay, bourgeois society; and instead, to understand that it is actually art that is produced by members of classes who are somewhat free from leadership application, financial pressures, and have the hazards of deforestation essay luxury to leadership application essay produce what is history phd dissertation not part of any means-end relationship. (62) Bürger saw the leadership loss of effectiveness in Adorno's modernistic music because it offered no communication with society. It does not reflect society, and vehemently resists it. (63) It is music that has no practical value, but Adorno insisted that these isolated works harbor truth in society. Was he right?
Adorno believed autonomous artistic compositions were the pressures of society's utopian possibilities and the last hold out for essay sale humanity's desire for a better world: a world which he saw to be immersed in social contradictions. Until these contradictions were harmonized, music and leadership essay, the other arts must continue to reflect elements of social protest. Adorno also admitted that music itself contained contradictions in its own structure since it could never be completely autonomous nor fully reflective of hazards essay, culture. What distressed him more was autonomous music being severely threatened by commodification, displaying considerably more features of an exchange value philosophy. He contended that his criticisms of popular music were not based on elitist comparisons with traditionally 'serious music', but rather, that the real dichotomy was between music that was completely market-driven and music that was not. (64) Adorno was not idealistic enough to believe music can emancipate humanity from leadership application, all its problems, however, he did hope it could transmit some knowledge of truth, and history, be a form of enlightenment. In The Decline of the West , Oswald Spengler wrote: world fear is assuredly the most creative of leadership, all prime feelings. (65) It is evident that Adorno's theory of music was not based on an elitist position, but rather, on one of social conscience which strove for truth in philosophy and conclusion, music. For most people music crystallizes the past, bringing good and bad memories to the forefront.
For Adorno, music was much more. He was convinced that music could be so powerful it could force individuals to realize their existence is a product of social forces which can undergo change. (66) Music can bring about a realization of truth. As Martin Jay writes in The Dialectical Imagination : For, so the Frankfurt Institute always insisted, it was only by the refusal to essay celebrate the history present that the possibility might be preserved of a future in which writing poetry would no longer be an act of leadership application, barbarism. (67)
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Harvard Business School. The Harvard MBA application guide has been updated for leadership application essay 2017! EssaySnark#8217;s guide to development canadian capitalism essays business history the Class of application 2020 Harvard essay will help you understand what needs to be in a successful pitch. On Harry Potter. Remember, a good HBS essay may have little in common with a good essay for another school like Columbia or Kellogg or Stanford. And OMG, apps were up 6% at HBS last year. The Harvard essay question will be the same this year: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” This is deceptively simple. You need to know what you bring to the table #8212; and who you are #8212; before you can even begin to leadership application craft a response. This is also one of the easiest essays to phd dissertation unintentionally come across as disingenuous and fake. We began a series of posts on The Strategy of application Authenticity which is designed to help you build an awareness for what is, and isn#8217;t, authentic, so you can present yourself truthfully, sincerely, and contrast introduction essay, with impact in your MBA apps. You can see what Harvard required in past years, as a way to understand their strategy in recruiting students. Leadership Essay. Round 1: Wed., September 6, 2017 Interview invites will come in two batches in the first week of October (October 2nd and October 5th, to be specific).
If you aren#8217;t invited in the final batch, you#8217;ll be #8220;released#8221; (that is, if they#8217;re not going to keep you on the further-consideration list; see this post for phd dissertation an explanation). Application. Round 2: Wed., January 3, 2018 ; interview invites will likely be issued in two waves (last year it was on Jan. Jumble Sale. 25 and leadership application essay, Feb. 1); if you aren#8217;t going to get invited, then you#8217;ll be hearing that on the second batch release day. Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely.
It#8217;s still possible to make it in history phd dissertation during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against you then. Two recommendations Two questions for them to application essay answer. We explain the concept of critical essays and the sorcer's #8220;standardized#8221; recommender questions and offer an important resource for you to give to your recommenders, to make their job easier. In 2016, there was a small group including Harvard that used one version of leadership #8220;standardized#8221; questions, and there was a larger group of phd dissertation schools using a different set of NEWLY standardized questions. (are you confused yet? yeah). No idea how things will evolve for 2017 in terms of what those other schools will do.
We can say that Harvard is sticking to what it#8217;s done for the last several years, so there#8217;s consistency on their side. The first issue of course is, who do you choose to write for you? We have a number of posts about recommenders here on the blahg (on the first page of the application essay, site, use the critical on harry and the sorcer's, dropdown menu in the righthand panel to choose Recommendations to get a list of leadership all of them). If you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the critical essays potter, specifics and lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for feedback from EssaySnark. A summary of the 2015 HBS invite process was posted on 9/22/15 and we expect it to be directionally accurate this year, too. HBS works like this: You submit your app, the Admissions Board reads all of leadership application essay them (in no particular order it doesn#8217;t matter what time you submitted or if it went in earlier or later than someone else#8217;s, or what geography or career you#8217;re in), then about a month-ish later, they will issue interview invites.
When they implemented this process originally, those invites came out in three waves over the course of two weeks (three Wednesdays in a row), then it went down to two; for Rd 1 2015 it was three waves of invitations scattered over immigration paper, only about a week. Leadership Application. Round 2 in essays history January 2017 is now confirmed as two Wednesdays in a row, so just one week total. Leadership Application. The first wave has tended to be significantly bigger than the second one (the bulk of the immigration research paper conclusion, invites will go out on that first day). The day of the last wave of invites is when everyone not being invited to interview is told that they didn#8217;t make it; they call that the #8220;release.#8221; Instead of getting an invite or release on that final day, it#8217;s also possible to be put in the #8220;further consideration#8221; bucket, which is sort of like a waitlist but you#8217;re not accepted, you#8217;re just someone they#8217;re hanging onto because they#8217;re still interested in you. The invitations are issued in batch mode, all at once, at noon Eastern time on the scheduled day. If they want to meet you, you#8217;ll get an leadership, email which says to check your app for status. Contrast Essay. If you don#8217;t get an email on either of the first two days, you didn#8217;t get an interview (yet but it could still come on the last day). Application Essay. Everyone who wasn#8217;t already invited to interview gets an email on the last day of the sequence.
If you haven#8217;t received any email by, say, 12:05pm Eastern time then it#8217;s not gonna come that day. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to interview across the whole season. That#8217;s 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. Essays On Harry Sorcer's. (We don#8217;t recall seeing this data from HBS for 2014 but it#8217;s comparable, they tend to invite similar numbers every year regardless of app volumes.) Generally speaking they invite more of their applicants in Round 1 something like 1,000 yet most schools including Harvard tend to get more applications submitted in Round 2 so right there tells you that Round 1 is an advantage. It appears that in Round 1 2015 HBS got enough apps that they decided to issue interviews to. 50 more candidates. Here#8217;s more details on leadership application the data as of the development history, 2012-#8217;13 season if you want to see how it broke down in essay past years. Remember that getting invited to interview in one wave versus another within the invite-day sequence means nothing in terms of the strength of critical essays sorcer's your candidacy. Dee Leopold says this every year. Leadership. We did a post on history phd dissertation the blahg about application it on 10/9/13 (but nobody seems to believe us#8230; so we wrote another post on 10/11/13 to explain it all again).
HOWEVER: There are greater chances that you#8217;ll be invited in sale the first wave, if you#8217;re going to be invited at leadership application essay all, simply because in past years, they have invited the essays potter, bulk of applicants in application the first chunk. If you#8217;re placed on hazards of deforestation the pre-interview waitlist in Round 1 what they call #8220;Further Consideration#8221; (other schools just call it a #8220;waitlist#8221;) then you#8217;ll either get invited to interview, or released, on leadership application essay the Round 2 interview dates, usually in the first wave. If you#8217;re on the post-interview Round 1 waitlist, you#8217;ll probably get the final answer (admit or deny) on the Round 2 decision date. If you get an invite, you need to phd dissertation be prepared to essay travel, since these are adcom-interviews conducted in hub cities around the world. They won#8217;t be flying to your doorstep to meet you. You#8217;ll need to make some arrangements, and yeah it#8217;ll likely require taking some time off of work. But don#8217;t freak out about that part; if you end up getting the invite, you will make it happen, we#8217;re confident (and Harvard is flexible with extreme situations like deployed military). Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection.
The gist of it is, within 24 hours after your interview, you#8217;ll need to submit something (an essay that#8217;s not an essay but it#8217;s basically an essay even if the canadian capitalism essays business, admissions people claim it#8217;s not an essay) that is, again, totally open-ended. Leadership Application. Can you see how much Harvard wants to see how you deal with ambiguity? That#8217;s kind of what leaders have to do all the time, right? The Post Interview Reflection is a chance for essay you to tell the leadership, Harvard Admissions Board that thing that occurred to you, that you realized you should#8217;ve said the moment you walked out of the interview room. Or it#8217;s an opportunity or try to fix your answer to that one question you completely flubbed. Or if you can#8217;t think of anything else, maybe reiterate your application #8220;theme#8221; (though honestly we don#8217;t think that#8217;s such a great idea, that#8217;s just our personal Snark opinion). If you#8217;ve been invited to interview at Harvard GREAT! CONGRATULATIONS!! Now you really should pick up our HBS Application Guide if you don#8217;t already have it.
We also have some important advice specific to Harvard in our MBA Interviewing Guide. Yes we#8217;re telling you to buy two guides. (In fact you#8217;d also benefit greatly from our Custom Interview Questions service.) Do you want to history make the most of application essay this opportunity or not? Harvard posted a preliminary Class of 2017 profile on 6-8-15 but then later we saw the contrast essay, full profile including GMAT scores and leadership application essay, we blinked. An 80% range of business scores of 700 to 760. Really?? OUCH! It#8217;s still possible to leadership application get in with a score outside that range but boy is it going to be tough. Phd Dissertation. For reference, here#8217;s the Class of 2016 profile posted at the same point in leadership essay time the prior year (6-3-14) #8212; which looked very similar to the Class of 2015. So, same GMAT (median 730, full range 510 790 but you know there#8217;s only one or two in the 510 range); same GPA (3.67 ouch!) and development canadian capitalism essays business history, same age (27 years old). Leadership. The only difference is there#8217;s more apps than ever a 1.5% increase and history, they marginally bumped up the class size, to 948. Leadership Application. Takeaways?
That it#8217;s just as hard as ever to get into Harvard Business School. Direct from Harvard. Essay Jumble. Snarkety snark snark. In September 2013, The New York Times ran a pretty important feature on Harvard about leadership essay gender dynamics. A few days later, a follow-up article was published on class at HBS (not the kind of #8220;class#8221; with teachers). This resulted in lots of media coverage and big conversations across all the essay jumble, business schools. Leadership. EssaySnark#8217;s reaction is here. For Reference: Harvard#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Provided for phd dissertation posterity. And because it helps you to leadership essay understand this school. One essay, unlimited length: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” They first asked a version of this question in 2013, for the Class of 2016.
This year#8217;s incarnation is really the epitome of a perfect essay question. They#8217;re basically saying, #8220;Tell us what you think is important.#8221; Here#8217;s advice from the contrast introduction, #8216;Snarchives which offers a very good place to start thinking about that: The most important thing to leadership application essay remember with your Harvard essay. Every year, EssaySnark provides insights and recommendations for how to handle the HBS application and we have now done that for of deforestation all you Class of application 2019 prospects! Expanded and contrast essay, revised to give you the greatest advantage in setting your strategy. [end discussion of application essay 2016 HBS app] Click to view the hazards essay, 2015 question. Here#8217;s the question: It#8217;s the first day of class at HBS. Leadership Application Essay. You are in introduction essay Aldrich Hall meeting your #8220;section.#8221; This is the group of 90 classmates who will become your close companions in the first-year MBA classroom. Essay. Our signature case method participant-based learning model ensures that you will get to know each other very well. The bonds you collectively create throughout this shared experience will be lasting. History Phd Dissertation. Note: Should you enroll at HBS, there will be an opportunity for leadership you to share this with them. We suggest you view this video before beginning to write. First step: Review that video and review it again!
You should also check out their HBS MBA Voices student-focused blog , which should serve as a real goldmine of insights about the school (though PLEASE do not simply parrot the information you view/read/hear from any of hazards essay these sources into leadership, your essays. Canadian Capitalism Essays Business. that#8217;s like such a rookie mistake and yeah, we see it all the time). As a reminder, this is what they asked for the two years previous: #8220;You#8217;re applying to leadership application essay Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career intentions, test scores, and what your recommenders have to immigration research say about application essay you. What else would you like us to research paper know as we consider your candidacy?” Advice from Harvard: Be sure to application read their Direct from the of deforestation, Director post dated 15 May 2015 (you may have to scroll down on that page to leadership application find it) Admissions Director Dee Leopold gives some useful guidelines to introduction use as an important starting point. [end discussion of application essay last year#8217;s HBS app] Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely. It#8217;s still possible to make it in essay during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against leadership application essay, you then (and it sounds like this year#8217;s Round 1 was as full as ever).
Regardless, a great app is needed in any round for Harvard Business School. [end discussion of 2015 HBS app] Click to view the research paper conclusion, 2014 question. You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to essay know as we consider your candidacy? We#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. It#8217;s been revised to reflect the new #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; question, with additional checklists and tests you can perform on your essay to make sure it#8217;s presenting you as it should. Don#8217;t apply to paper conclusion Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy with your approach. How interviews worked in 2014#8217;s Round 1 deadline was 9/9/14.
First wave interview invites: October 8 an estimated 800 candidates received one (for 2015 Dee Leopold said they#8217;d issue 900 invites that first day) Second wave invites (another 150 candidates got one), #8220;further consideration#8221; invitations (a variation on the waitlist but essentially the same; about 200 of these went out), and release of all others: October 15 (for 2015 there were two more waves, with. Application Essay. 350 total invites between them, and another. 100 FC invites) Interviews held from October 20 to November 21. The adcom travels to multiple cities around the world or you can go to HBS. How it worked in 2014#8217;s Round 2 deadline was 1/6/15 sorry that we don#8217;t have data, only canadian capitalism essays history dates. First wave interview invites: January 28 Second wave invites, waitlist invitations, and application essay, release of all others: February 4. Contrast. [end discussion of 2014 HBS app] You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and application essay, what your recommenders have to say about you.
What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? They#8217;ve also reduced the phd dissertation, number of leadership recommendations to just two, from three. [end discussion of 2013 HBS app] In case you#8217;re curious about what they#8217;ve asked before: Tell us about something you did well. Tell us about something you wish you#8217;d done better. [end discussion of 2012 HBS app] Highlights from HBS Admissions Webinar July 2, 2014. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to interview. [That#8217;s almost 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. The Class of introduction essay 2016 is leadership application, 940 936 students. -ES] A new section of the app this year asks about non-degree coursework; you can include MOOCs and of deforestation, other online (non-credit) work you#8217;ve done. [This is to help you demonstrate analytical abilities. -ES] Everybody needs to take the GMAT or GRE (they are agnostic as to which one); no exceptions. The resume you upload can be more than one page, but you should ask yourself, #8220;Does it need to be?#8221; [No. -ES] In the leadership application essay, app, they ask about your intended post-MBA industry and function. HBS does not want a #8220;laminated life plan#8221; but they do want to know your general direction. There#8217;s a separate app question to cover additional information; this is not an essay. Contrast. [You can use this to leadership application essay explain gaps in employment or circumstances surrounding a low GPA, as you would with other schools#8217; #8220;optional essays#8221; but again, with HBS, this is not an essay and also, you should be able to cover that in your actual Harvard essay, probably. Phd Dissertation. -ES] All financial aid awards are need-based; they don#8217;t do merit-based fellowships. This means you don#8217;t get news of scholarship money at the time of admission, like other schools do. [Basically you should be happy with the admit itself! They don#8217;t feel the need to bribe you to attend. -ES] Of course, Dee talked about the #8220;optional#8221; essay and what they saw in successful applicants last year.
EssaySnark covered many of these points in detail in the 2016 Harvard Guide. Something else you should know: Dee is typically the leadership application, first person who reads the incoming emails sent to development canadian capitalism essays history the general HBS inquiry account (!). The most common question they get is, #8220;Do I have to take the TOEFL?#8221; The next most common: #8220;Do I need to take the essay, GMAT?#8221; (Hint: Their requirements are pretty darned clear on their website .) Takeaway message: Don#8217;t write a stupid email to Harvard admissions. Do your research first, and then and only then ask the research paper conclusion, question if you cannot find the answer elsewhere. Leadership Application Essay. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2014 essays. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2013 essays. We did a bunch of reviews of Harvard essays on GMAT Club in September 2013; the question hasn#8217;t really changed even with the #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; thing, so you may want to check those out. Immigration. Alas, our contract with GMATClub was not extended so we#8217;re not doing reviews over there any more. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2012 essays. And even older than that (2011 and application, later) these are still relevant because Harvard is essay, still Harvard they#8217;ve been looking for the same qualities in a Brave Supplicant year after year: Our Essay Ideas App Accelerator includes a free BONUS: a sample essay that won!
Review the original draft and EssaySnark#8217;s complete Essay Decimator critique for the 2011 HBS Essay 1, on #8220;three accomplishments#8221; study it for free and leadership, make your Harvard essay that much stronger. Research Paper Conclusion. And we#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the HBS Admissions Board thinks about leadership application essay stuff. Don#8217;t apply to Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to hazards of deforestation essay end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy (with a professional#8217;s opinion on leadership your HBS essay, even). 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app!
The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to research conclusion help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and leadership, the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . History. As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to leadership essay my pitch in order to maximize my . What were we snarking about at jumble sale this time in past years? 2016 : ($) The challenges of interviewing with a student compared to an alum 2016 : Round 2 Countdown has started 2016 : Being prepared for your MBA interview 2015 : ($) The wanderer wants to leadership application essay use bschool to find a new path. 2013 : Success Story! A Journey to the Center of America: A Saga (Part 2: The First Year) 2012 : BSers Thoughts of Bschool 2012 : ($) What about a lower-ranked program? (No, lower than that) 2011 : Reliance on bschool rankings is a trap 2011 : essay critique: Columbia essay 2 life experience 2010 : The pitch.
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Free Essays on Autobiography Of An Umbrella Essays. |Due date: November, 2008 | The aim of this essay is to leadership application essay give an contrast introduction outline of Roald Dahl’s life, highlighting the most important moments of his life, to point out his mayor works - specially the ones addressed. sociological autobiography essay example 2. Read and Download sociological autobiography essay example. Free access for PDF Ebook Sociological Autobiography Essay Example and also various other store collections. There are numerous free Sociological Autobiography Essay Example that are regularly written as well as archived in our online collection. Essay on Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. ESSAY ON BEN FRANKLIN’S AUTOBIOGRAPHY Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography is an inspiring tale of leadership application, his personal, as well as public achievement throughout his life. Franklin’s life embodies the research paper conclusion exemplary model of a life composed of discipline, self-reliance and self improvement.
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Kyle Witherspoon Ms. Weston English 101-07 May 23rd, 2013 Educational Autobiography High School was a crucial learning experience for me. There were ups and downs and lots of memorable moments in between. It would prepare me for life, not just college. High school taught me many things about. Absurd actually is and history, their own ideas on the importance of the Absurd. Albert Camus’ first thoughts on leadership application the Absurd appeared in 1937 in contrast introduction essay, his collection of essays called L’Envers et L’Endroit. The Outsider is a story about a man living with an Absurd life and essay, teaches the readers about Camus’ ideas and opinions. Life of Frederick Douglass” called “Learning to Read and essay, Write,” it was written in 1845.
Malcolm X’s “Learning to Read,” is an excerpt from,” the Autobiography of Malcolm X“. These two pieces were written more than a century apart yet several common themes can still be identifies. These themes help provide. hear me holler, And you may see me cry-- I'll be dogged, sweet baby, If you gonna see me die. Life is fine! Fine as wine! Life is fine! Autobiography - James Langston Hughes was born February 1, 1902.
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kpmg cover letter Do you have a question that you would like an answer to? We've compiled these frequently asked questions to give you the answers you want. Do companies really do background checks? What if something negative comes up in my background check and how should I address it with the potential employer? Yes, many companies conduct background checks. The best advice would be to get out in front of leadership, anything that you think may appear in history phd dissertation, your background check - you'll know when you get to a place where your potential future employer will be conducting this check - so it's best to let your potential employer know that you may find something and share the resolution.
After the background check, they may then need you to provide documentation to prove the leadership application essay resolution. How does a potential new hire go about selecting the industry in canadian capitalism business history, which they want to work? (PCS, Healthcare, etc.) Industries and groups vary by leadership essay, geographic market so the opportunities will be different. The Human Resources team works closely with each new hire when selecting the potter sorcer's appropriate industry group to leadership application essay provide for the best fit and interest. We encourage you to do your homework by asking questions about the industries for which you may be interested and capitalism business history, not to be afraid to share your areas of interest. How can I find out leadership application essay, which industries PwC specializes in? To learn more about the industries we serve, please visit our site. Will PwC hire an international candidate? At PwC, we have a number of international opportunities ranging from the International Intern Experience to working on client engagements abroad, to doing an international tour. Our international secondments are excellent professional experiences.
How does PwC distinguish itself from the other Big Four firms from the client and employee perspectives? It really is hazards of deforestation our people - at the end of the day, all the Big Four do the same type of essay, work - so it comes down to history phd dissertation the people with whom you want to work and the value you want to bring to our clients. Leadership Essay! At PwC, we are all focused on developing lasting relationships - with each other, with prospective candidates and with our clients, both current and jumble, new. Where does PwC have offices in leadership, the US? Is there a way I can see a job description for an internship or entry-level position online?
Please create a Talent Profile for a specific internship or job opening at www.pwc.com/getstarted. If our recruiting team sees that you meet the immigration basic qualifications for the role, they will reach out to you to discuss your resume further. I didn't major in Accounting; would it still be possible to leadership essay do an internship? The majority of our positions are for essay jumble students who are majoring in leadership application, accounting. However we do have opportunities for students in various other majors. How do I go through recruiting if I would like to work in a different city than where my school is located? You would complete on-campus interviews at essay, your school first, and then you would be referred to leadership application the office of your choice for a second round interview. How do I know when PwC is introduction going to be on campus?
What groups does PwC work with on leadership application campus? You can find out when we are going to be on essay your campus by contacting your career center, or by joining your Accounting Society or Beta Alpha Psi. These groups announce to essay their members when we are on campus and essays on harry potter and the stone, share deadline information. I have applied for a specific PwC opportunity on my campus. What is the application essay next step in the process to be offered an internship with PwC? Thank you for your interest in a career with PwC.
If we are interested in considering you for a position, a recruiter will contact you. I have created a Talent Profile on pwc.tv. What are the development canadian capitalism essays business next steps? We encourage you to application essay connect with your recruiter on campus. Of Deforestation! If we determine you meet the listed criteria for one of our available positions within a geographic location with which you're interested in working, then a recruiter will be in touch with you. How do I apply to positions outside of the United States?
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The tuition and fees for the review course are directly billed to PwC (one time only). New full-time hires can enroll at www.beckercpa.com/pwc. Can I expect to travel as a first-year associate? Travel assignments typically depend on the nature and type of work involved on a client engagement. So it is possible that you may experience business travel assignments as a first-year associate. Application! The variety of client travel time will depend on which group you are in and where your home office is located. Does PwC sponsor H1B visas?
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As an intern, how can I build my network? A great way for you to build your network at the firm as a summer or winter intern is to leadership essay volunteer for activities where you might meet colleagues of varying levels and lines of service - at the all-hands community day, for instance. I've already graduated, am I eligible for an internship? No, our internships are for students who are currently still in school. Do you have any advice on how to contrast essay keep in touch with the firm between now and next summer, when my internship begins? If you attend a school where we regularly recruit, you will be invited to attend events and activities that we'll be hosting on your campus throughout the academic year. We definitely encourage you to attend whenever possible, as this gives you an opportunity to get to know more of our people before you start. If you attend a school where we don't come to essay campus as often or if you can't make the events on your campus, we recommend you reach out to canadian capitalism history those you met during the recruiting process to let them know of your excitement about your upcoming internship.
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Does the cover letter or resume carry more weight? The resume generally carries more weight in our opinion. Many times, your cover letter will be read by the recruiter, but when the application essay recruiter discusses your credentials with others in the organization, it will be the development essays business resume that is shared. Do I need letters of recommendation? No, you only need to submit your cover letter, resume, and unofficial transcripts. How important is a GPA to getting an interview with PwC or other firms? The GPA is certainly very important and you should work hard to maintain or raise your GPA. However, it's not the only factor that we will consider. We want students that are well-rounded, who don't just have strong GPAs, but who are also involved on their campuses and in their communities.
It's also good to explore other career opportunities and keep your options open, making sure you find a career that is essay a good fit for you. What are the biggest differences between the on-campus and office visit interviews? The on-campus interview is the first interview. Essay Jumble Sale! It is a great way for us to get to know you better, and helps us to begin to application essay determine if you are a good fit for our firm. The office visit takes that one step further, and includes several interviews over the course of a day, as well as opportunities to get to know our professionals better via panel discussions or networking events like meals or receptions. Introduction! They are a great chance to get a feel for application our culture, our people, and the vast opportunities we provide in contrast introduction essay, the specific city or market you are most interested in working. At each year in my studies, what are the application essay opportunities for a student to critical potter sorcer's stone interact with PwC? There are a number of leadership application essay, ways to contrast essay participate in PwC programs and network with our people during each year of your studies. Please visit our recruitment timeline (LINK) to application essay learn more about these opportunities based on your current year of on harry and the stone, your program. Can you describe PwC's typical hiring cycle? We typically hire one year in leadership application, advance of a start date - for example, if you're looking for a summer internship in 2012, we are recruiting for those positions in the fall semester of 2011.
For full-time hiring, again the cycle is about a year in advance of start dates, and of deforestation essay, we have both winter and leadership application essay, fall start dates. Social media and my career search. I don’t have a lot of work experience. What should I put on my profile on of deforestation essay professional networking sites? Think of leadership application, experience in the broadest possible sense. As a student or recent graduate, you can list internships (paid or unpaid), significant campus leadership positions (e.g., student government, newspaper editor, club president), part-time jobs, campus employment, a significant volunteer role and/or freelance work. As long as you performed professional work and have accomplishments to share, all of these types of roles can be included in your professional network profile. When in doubt, ask a career services professional to review your profile. Is it okay to critical essays on harry potter and the sorcer's stone connect to recruiters via professional networking websites such as LinkedIn? There is leadership application essay no specific rule here.
Some recruiters are happy to essay sale connect with students via professional networking sites and some choose not to do so. A good practice is to leadership application essay ask a recruiter when you meet him or her if you may connect with them on a professional networking site. If you reach out to connect with a recruiter you haven’t met, be sure to customize the introduction connection request to explain who you are and why you’re interested in connecting with that person. Just remember that there are no guarantees whether or not a particular recruiter will respond. How can you use Twitter in a professional way? One way to use social media platforms like Twitter professionally is to leadership application essay register an appropriate user name and follow people and companies you admire to see what they’re tweeting about.
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Stay informed through your school’s career center, student organizations as well as connecting with us digitally.