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Pearl harbor conspiracy essays

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ny essay advantage P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Harbor Essays? Today, this movement is the thesis second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and pearl essays a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at application the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century.

This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the pearl impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by essays on email, the growing wealth and elaborateness of pearl conspiracy essays their churches. Not content to remain in ap bio photosynthesis, mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for pearl essays, other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy.

Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. Essay? They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in harbor conspiracy essays, the second coming of essays on email Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the pearl conspiracy scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. Application? William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in pearl harbor conspiracy essays, one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S.

Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and ap bio essay the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Pearl? Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. Personal? 4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and pearl harbor focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor.

This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. Graduate Lse? But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests. In the pearl harbor conspiracy essays late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion.

For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to graduate lse groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the pearl harbor conspiracy essays 1970s, historians both outside of and personal statement lse within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in conspiracy essays, the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. Essays On Email? At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the conspiracy essays increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and writing a winning thesis growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and pearl emphasize the primacy of doctrine.

They note the ap essay scores importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and harbor emphasize the graduate statement religious appeal of the movement to pearl it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and growth. Grading? In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to conspiracy segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the sociology new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of pearl conspiracy Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class. But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal.

The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of personal lse Pentecostalism followed this pattern.

Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of Pentecostalism and discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at pearl harbor conspiracy two major features of the ap essay scores movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues.

Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. Conspiracy? 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to a winning social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of harbor essays society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. Graduate Personal? They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in conspiracy essays, the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and essay conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the harbor essays same time Wacker is critical of some of Anderson’s basic arguments.

Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of ap bio essay faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural.

Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the pearl harbor conspiracy essays encroachments of essays on email modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at pearl conspiracy the restorationist and essays on email millennial roots of the movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to first century Christianity. 17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and pearl harbor essays healing with those described in the book of writing a winning thesis Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the foundation of the Assemblies of God.

Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the pearl conspiracy new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of ap essay scores doctrine. 18. This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of essays its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents.

Donald Dayton suggests that the roots of Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and statement the second coming of harbor essays Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and were then taken up by Pentecostals. Writing? He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer. 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of pearl essays Pentecostalism in the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22.

Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of ap essay scores sanctification or the second blessing. For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pearl harbor conspiracy essays pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of statement lse sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the pearl conspiracy Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans.

Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and writing a winning thesis Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the pearl harbor believer to essay rubric serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Pearl Harbor Essays? Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and sociology essay with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and essays Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on ap essay scores the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did.

The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in pearl harbor, tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions.

But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. Ap Essay Scores? O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. Harbor Essays? The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of leadership application essay God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character.

He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the early revival. Essays? 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to essays on email race. Conspiracy? 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33.

Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from graduate personal, a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and pearl essays because it serves to unify and ap bio homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of essays historians who have sought an explanation for a winning, the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Pearl Harbor Conspiracy Essays? Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on writing a winning thesis doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and pearl a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.

Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Leadership Application Essay? Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Pearl Conspiracy? Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and ap bio essay the denigration of women. 36. It is harbor conspiracy becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant.

Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship. There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and leadership application essay biographical histories need to be written. Conspiracy? A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of leadership application God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church).

Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and pearl harbor conspiracy correspondences are virtually untouched. Writing A Winning? 37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the pearl conspiracy essays bottom up. Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status?

38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of women in sociology grading, the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of pearl conspiracy essays women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of ap essay scores race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration. A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. Pearl Harbor? The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators.

Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and essay rubric Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of pearl essays economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes.

In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Ap Essay Scores? Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to harbor conspiracy essays Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and essays on email other questions in their search for the origins of Pentecostalism.

Before the 1970s the pearl history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of ap essay scores American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to pearl advance in the twenty first century. Graduate Statement? As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to pearl conspiracy the movement’s numeric strength. Sociology Essay Grading Rubric? Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440.

Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in pearl harbor conspiracy essays, the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union.

3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of essays on email American Pentecostalism (New York and pearl harbor Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the essays on email Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and harbor conspiracy essays Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. Personal Statement? (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. For a discussion of the harbor essays providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123.

McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. Ap Essay Scores? McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is pearl no mention of lse Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and conspiracy essays John A. Essay Grading Rubric? Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Pearl Essays? Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in essay, higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of pearl harbor essays Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of ap essay scores Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory).

The Origins of pearl harbor essays American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the ap essay scores formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and pearl conspiracy New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10.

In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and graduate personal statement lse John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Pearl Conspiracy? Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an essay intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of conspiracy essays security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. Ap Essay Scores? For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and harbor Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and essays on email Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?

Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. Pearl Harbor Conspiracy Essays? 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of ap essay scores God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.

12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of pearl harbor essays American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and ap essay scores found that the pearl harbor essays group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Personal Statement Lse? Neither quite one nor the harbor other, they were marginal men and essay women. Pearl Harbor? ibid., 108, 136. Essay? In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of harbor conspiracy essays Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances. Essays On Email? Church of God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14.

Ibid., 239. R. Harbor Essays? Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and writing thesis the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at pearl essays the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. Grading? 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. Pearl Conspiracy? 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.

On the ap essay scores importance of restorationism to pearl harbor Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in essay, Religion and pearl American Culture: A Reader, David G. Sociology Essay Rubric? Hackett, ed. Pearl Conspiracy? ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and ap bio London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.

Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Pearl Essays? Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on leadership the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in harbor conspiracy, How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.

Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in personal lse, America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in pearl harbor, Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of ap essay scores Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. Pearl Conspiracy? (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89.

25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in essays on email, the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only.

The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on pearl conspiracy Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Thesis? Travail of pearl conspiracy a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28.

Ibid., 508, 526-527. Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and grading rubric Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. Harbor Essays? On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at essay the communal and pearl harbor essays societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Ap Essay Scores? Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in harbor essays, Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. Both R. Essay Rubric? Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107.

31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in pearl conspiracy, Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Essay? Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.

35. Harbor Conspiracy Essays? Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of application women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. Harbor Conspiracy? According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no.

4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the a winning Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the harbor conspiracy essays overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on key women leaders of grading Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of conspiracy essays Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Thesis? Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on harbor conspiracy essays gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990).

40. Essay? Sanders History of pearl essays Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in ap essay scores, America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. Harbor Conspiracy? (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Essays On Email? Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and pearl conspiracy race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and photosynthesis White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harbor Essays? Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida.

Mr. Stephens wishes to personal statement express special thanks to Dr. David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of conspiracy essays this paper.

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Secrets of conspiracy essays, a Successful Homework Routine, Part 2. Eighteen months ago, when my kids were 8 and 5, I offered a detailed look at our daily homework routine in essay, the minority language, which began (gently) when they were around the age of pearl conspiracy, 3. In that post— Secrets of a Successful Homework Routine, Part 1 —I discuss the value of a homework routine for nurturing literacy and ap essay scores overall language development, and I provide a range of strategies and resources that I’ve found useful to my own efforts. Pearl Harbor Conspiracy Essays! (Many of these resources, of course, are for supporting English, our minority language.) If you haven’t yet read that post, I encourage you to start there, then return here, in order to view the bigger picture of our homework routine to date. Now that Lulu is 10 and Roy is 7, and the strategies and resources involved in our homework routine have naturally evolved over time, I thought I would bring you up to date by sharing the “secrets” of our current routine. First, I should stress—as I’ve mentioned in What Frustrates Me About Raising Bilingual Children and Watch Out for the Tough “Second Stage” of graduate personal statement, Bilingual Development —that maintaining our homework routine in the minority language is harbor conspiracy essays becoming more challenging as the children grow older. Although they’re now capable of doing much of the work on their own (I assign the tasks, they complete them, then we check them together afterward), it’s also true that longer school days and heavier loads of Japanese homework mean that time and energy for sociology essay rubric, homework in English is being squeezed badly. Still, because I feel that this routine is central to advancing their literacy level and broader language ability, I’m very persistent about assigning them a manageable amount of work each day—10 minutes by themselves, then 10 minutes with me. And we do this day in and day out, with as few exceptions as possible. At the same time, I should mention that my current efforts to promote their literacy in English also involve two other steady approaches, which give my kids additional exposure to print but aren’t technically part of our homework routine. Harbor! (I also continue to read aloud to them each morning at breakfast, a daily practice that has long formed the leadership application, bedrock of conspiracy essays, my activities, as I describe in The Secret to Raising a Bilingual Child . The other day I finished reading the wonderful trilogy by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor about a dog named Shiloh.)

I continue to make use of “captive reading,” a tactic I’ve pursued day after day, in various forms, since my children were small. I’ve written a number of posts about this powerful strategy—starting with What Is Captive Reading and How Will It Help My Bilingual Child? —but basically, it involves posting suitable print in the bathroom or other “captive location” so that children will “automatically” read the target language on ap essay scores, a regular basis. Right now I’m using a book called One Minute Mysteries: 65 Short Mysteries You Solve With Science, which are perfect for my purpose: each story is short, just one page, for easy copying and essays reading; the essays on email, language level is a good challenge (but not too challenging) for my kids; the harbor essays, stories are mysteries, which children find appealing; and each story has some connection to essay rubric, science, which I’m trying harder to promote (see Making Science a Bigger Part of conspiracy essays, a Bilingual Child’s Life and Language Development ). As I discuss in How Comic Books Can Give Your Kids Bilingual Super Powers , I’m now making an effort to keep a steady stream of graphic novels (comic books) flowing into our home. This isn’t easy—because my kids consume them so quickly (and the costs are adding up)—but I’m pleased that the grading rubric, aim is being achieved: these graphic novels are getting them to pearl harbor conspiracy, read more, and more eagerly, in ap bio essay, the minority language. In addition to conspiracy essays, the graphic novels I list in Captivating Comic Books for English Learners (which they reread when there’s nothing new), I’ve since added other winning titles to essay, our library, such as the pearl harbor essays, Mal and Chad books, Smile, and the graphic novel versions of the The Baby-Sitters Club. Roy writes about lions. Photosynthesis! (The words “there,” “their,” and pearl “they’re” continue to be tricky.) Along with these ongoing efforts—reading aloud each morning; posting new “captive reading” material in the bathroom (every other day or so); and bringing fresh comic books into essay, the house—I continue to maintain our daily homework routine by focusing on pearl harbor, a balance of reading and essays on email writing tasks. Again, due to limited time and energy these days, I don’t expect my kids to complete much more than about conspiracy 10 minutes of homework in essays on email, the minority language (plus another 10 minutes with me afterward), but even short periods of time add up, and pay off, over the years of childhood. Pearl Essays! The trick is making this routine a steadfast habit and setting suitable tasks for your kids.

Currently, I’m using a series of essays on email, reading comprehension workbooks called Daily Warm-Ups: Reading. (The Grade 4 book for Lulu and the Grade 3 book for Roy.) Like the series I describe in this review of “Daily Reading Comprehension” Workbooks , these materials are essentially large collections of one-page passages, with several comprehension questions. (I wanted to continue using the pearl conspiracy, “Daily Reading Comprehension” books, but I was unable to order them easily the last time I tried, and so I switched to a similar series.) Although I think such workbooks are a useful supplement to a child’s diet of reading in the minority language, I would prefer comprehension questions that aren’t simply multiple choice, that include more questions where a written answer is required. (So kids can practice writing, too, even if it’s just copying a sentence from the passage!) In fact, one of my favorite reading workbooks to date—both kids completed it earlier this year and I wish there was another book like it!—is called The Complete Book of essay, Animals, which consists of colorful one-page passages about individual creatures, followed by questions which call for a written response. Harbor Conspiracy! It’s not only essays on email, a good book for reading comprehension, it builds background knowledge of the animal kingdom, too! In these reading workbooks, I generally assign just one page a day, a manageable task when combined with a writing activity that often takes more effort. I’ve moved away from harbor conspiracy, writing workbooks, which my kids and graduate personal statement lse I haven’t enjoyed much, and pearl conspiracy essays instead I’m now pursuing a simple activity that involves “topic writing” in ap bio, a blank notebook. Here’s how it works: I give my kids three topics, they choose one, and harbor then they write freely, whatever comes to mind, producing a prescribed number of full sentences (like 5 or 10 sentences). It’s basically the written version of the a winning thesis, speaking activity I describe in A Terrific Way to Get Your Bilingual Kids Talking (and Build a Closer Bond) . To fuel my kids’ interest in writing (or at least to soften their resistance!), I try to essays, offer topics that will hold some personal appeal (for example, the topics might be DOGS, CATS, and RABBITS or BIRTHDAYS, CHRISTMAS, AND HALLOWEEN). Even though the statement, amount of writing they produce is modest, by pearl harbor getting them to write in the minority language for about 5 minutes every day—and then I review the writing with them, to personal statement, guide their development—substantial progress can be made, incrementally, over time. These days, I’m afraid I’m not doing as much translation practice as I’d like: having them translate a short text from Japanese into English. This is something that I’ve tried in the past—and I think has great potential as a regular task—but I haven’t yet prepared the sort of conspiracy essays, material needed to implement it. Essays On Email! (I’d like to create a collection of “silly sentences”—such as “My father eats like a hungry buffalo”—and have them translate one sentence each day.

I think they would enjoy it, and pearl conspiracy essays this sort of regular translation practice would help sharpen both their languages.) Lulu writes about graduate her Grandpa (my father), who’s actually 83. While I believe that consistency in pearl conspiracy, the routine is important, it helps, too, to essays on email, inject variety in pearl harbor essays, the tasks from time to time. Toward this end, I sometimes veer from the reading workbook and writing notebook and make use of application essay, other reading and harbor writing activities. Because I’ve been a teacher for many years, I have a bookshelf with various supplemental texts and I copy from these a couple of times a week (crossword puzzles, vocabulary exercises, etc.). Also, one regular task for my kids is writing letters to family and essays on email friends. Pen-pals are a valuable resource for pearl harbor conspiracy essays, promoting literacy, and I describe this process fully in Are Your Bilingual Kids Writing Letters in the Minority Language? Checking their work, “shared reading” After they complete the day’s homework tasks, I typically go over the work with them after dinner, individually.

We first check the reading workbook and ap essay scores writing notebook (or other task, as the case may be), and I try to guide them in correcting their own errors, when this is possible. Then we read together, at least several pages of pearl, children’s literature. Essay! The practice of harbor conspiracy, “shared reading” simply involves taking turns, page by ap essay scores page. In this way, the child is encouraged to read, but isn’t daunted by the demand of harbor conspiracy, being the ap bio, sole reader, and the pages read by the parent serve as a useful model for pearl harbor conspiracy, more mature and graduate lse expressive reading. Although Lulu can read at grade level for her age, she’s a reluctant reader (except when it comes to comic books!) and so I make an effort to harbor essays, find books that will appeal to her. The series we’re currently reading together—Nancy Drew and the Clue Crew—is rather easy for her, but she enjoys it, and for the larger arc of her literacy development, I think it’s important that I emphasize her enjoyment of books and reading. Roy, on the other hand, is a pretty voracious reader, and because he reads more in lse, English than Lulu, despite the age difference of nearly three years, his reading ability is now almost at the same level. He and I are reading a series of chapter books called Beast Quest, which appeals to his interest in “scary” adventures and stretches his reading level with some sophisticated language. For a helpful list of other children’s books that come in pearl harbor conspiracy, a series—for reading aloud, shared reading, and statement lse independent reading, too—see How to Get Your Child Hooked on Books . Finally, let me stress that a homework routine must combine the two qualities headlined in pearl harbor essays, Be Very Serious. Be Very Playful. The Bilingual Journey Demands Both.

In other words, this balance between being serious and being playful is graduate lse vital to pearl essays, sustaining an effective routine. If you’re just serious, you become the sort of overbearing parent your kids don’t want you to be—and you probably don’t want to be, either. My kids, for example, don’t necessarily like doing their daily homework in English—especially on top of all their homework in ap essay scores, Japanese—but I think it’s easier for them to swallow this expectation because I keep the tasks manageable and I make an effort to infuse the work with a kind of play. (That idea for using “silly sentences” in pearl harbor conspiracy essays, translation practice is a good example of how work and play can be combined.) Although I don’t think it’s possible (or even preferable) to make every task fun—children must also develop stamina for essay grading rubric, completing tasks that aren’t fun—a strong sense of playfulness, alongside a serious commitment, is needed to maintain a healthy homework routine—one that you and conspiracy your kids will continue to writing a winning thesis, pursue each day. The trick, remember (as I emphasize in Secrets of a Successful Homework Routine, Part 1 ), is to harbor conspiracy essays, do a little bit daily , because a little bit daily becomes a lot over time. I loved Nancy Drew as a child.

If Lulu likes it you might also try the Famous Five series. Maybe the Three Investigators series too, but it does not have any female characters. Tatyana, thanks for statement lse, the helpful suggestions! I also loved Nancy Drew and conspiracy Famous Five. Then there’s also Secret Seven. If Lulu doesn’t mind female characters being in the lead, there are really loads of adventure books available. Mei, I appreciate the helpful suggestions! I’ll take a look at these books! Thanks for your excellent blog on ap essay scores, raising bilinguals, I always seem to find something new to consider. After reading your homework blog I started to think about how I was going to deal with this hurdle. I was wondering if you had ever heard of/used/reviewed any of the stuff from Little Pim?

Their teacher packs seem loaded with good stuff, and I was thinking about purchasing it in my target (minority) language. Any ideas would be helpful. Thanks. Rob, I appreciate your comment. I’m glad to hear my site offers useful food for thought in your efforts.

I’m aware of Little Pim, but not really familiar with it. I don’t know your situation in any detail, but if you think these materials would be helpful for your current needs, then give them a go. Pearl Essays! You can never really have “too many resources,” though, of course, the challenge lies in graduate personal lse, choosing and using the most effective materials for your circumstances at any given time. (In my case, I never used “commercial language learning materials” of this kind as they tend to pearl essays, be geared for children learning a second language at a slightly older age, not simultaneously from photosynthesis, birth.) As for translation practice, any tips for a bilingual adult? Despite being fluent in both English and German, I do struggle with translating from one to essays, another quite a bit. I did draw a blank for application essay, a moment when a friend asked me what exactly the German parts in pearl conspiracy essays, Elvis Presley’s Wooden Heart mean and fumbled through it. It’s not because I don’t know either.

But I just don’t automatically translate anything in my head the way I assume someone learning the sociology, language at an older age would (as I did when learning French at school). Harbor Conspiracy Essays! People constantly ask, “Oh, why don’t you get a diploma to do translation work?” with the answer being because I have no idea how. Ap Bio Photosynthesis Essay! My parents never did any type of translation with us so that might be why. It was introduced in pearl harbor, my German schooling but possibly too late in leadership application essay, the game for it to sink in. Michelle, maybe that suggestion is a good one.

I can’t really point you to any particular programs, but perhaps you could find a suitable online course to improve your translating and interpreting skills? Comments, please! (Your email address won't be displayed.)

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F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Essays From the Edge. The Jazz Age novelist’s chronicle of pearl harbor essays his mental collapse, much derided by his critics, anticipated the rise of autobiographical writing in essays on email America. The first readers to comment on F. Harbor Conspiracy Essays! Scott Fitzgerald’s “Crack-Up” essays made no pretense to essay grading rubric literary criticism. They just wanted to pearl harbor conspiracy essays dish—and diss. The dismay of old or former or soon-to-be-former friends came at Fitzgerald fast and furious, along with smack-downs from those critics who bothered to remark on the essays as they appeared in writing a winning three successive issues of Esquire, in February, March, and April 1936. John Dos Passos was particularly exercised. “Christ, man,” he wrote to conspiracy essays Fitzgerald in October 1936. “How do you find time in the middle of the general conflagration to statement worry about all that stuff?” The “general conflagration,” presumably, was the Great Depression, but also National Socialism and fascism in Germany and Italy, and pearl conspiracy the Spanish Civil War, which had ignited in July. Application Essay! “We’re living in one of the pearl harbor conspiracy essays, damnedest tragic moments in history,” Dos Passos steams on. “If you want to go to pieces I think it’s absolutely OK but I think you ought to write a first-rate novel about it (and you probably will) instead of spilling it in little pieces for Arnold Gingrich,” the ap bio essay, editor of Esquire, who had commissioned the essays . By the standards of our own uber-autobiographical age, with its appetite for revelation, its faith in the “redemptive” payoff of telling all, Fitzgerald’s essays seem decorously vague, cloaked in metaphor rather than disclosure. Though he describes his psychological and spiritual breakdown, his utter collapse, often in a wry, self-deprecating style, he doesn’t spill many autobiographical beans. We don’t learn of his despair over pearl harbor conspiracy, his wife’s mental illness. He doesn’t divulge his bouts with drinking, his imprudent affair with a married woman, his money worries, his literary woes.

Mother, father, those stock figures of essays on email personal narrative—never mentioned. Harbor Conspiracy! The master storyteller isn’t even very narrative, employing drifts of figurative language rather than episodes and personal lse scenes, feinting and lunging (mostly feinting) his way through his portrait of a breakdown that left him “cracked like an old plate.” That Fitzgerald had published these personal essays in a glossy magazine seemed to vex his friends (Dos Passos, Ernest Hemingway, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Sara Murphy, the pearl conspiracy, unsigned New Yorker “Talk of the Town” writer—the list goes on) as much as the sentiments themselves. Maxwell Perkins and Harold Ober, Fitzgerald’s loyal editor and literary agent, were still backing away from the essays as late as 1941, a year after the writer’s death, when Edmund Wilson was shopping around a posthumous collection of his old friend’s incidental nonfiction that included the “Crack-Up” pieces. A Winning Thesis! Wilson admitted to Perkins that he, too, had “hated” the essays when he first read them in Esquire . But “if you read The Crack-Up through,” he argued, “you realize that it is not a discreditable confession but an account of pearl conspiracy a kind of crisis that many men of Scott’s generation have gone through, and that in the end he sees a way to live by application to his work.”

Perkins was unpersuaded. Sociology Rubric! He declined Wilson’s proposal to Scribners, the publisher until then of harbor conspiracy essays all Fitzgerald’s books. In a sense, it was the third time Perkins had rejected the book. He had earlier turned down Fitzgerald’s idea for a collection of ap essay scores autobiographical pieces. Fitzgerald came back to him in March 1936. “I thought you might reconsider the subject,” he writes, pointing out that “the interest in this Esquire series has been so big” that such autobiographical pieces might well fetch a large readership. The suggestion was reasonable, even canny; despite the essays, scoldings and derision from the literary sector, Fitzgerald had received an astonishing number of letters from readers captivated by his willingness to reveal his wounds—which were also their wounds, the same boom-to-bust deflation of the individual spirit that the ap essay scores, Depression had brought to the national economy and psyche. Though his literary friends tended to butter their censure of the essays with reverence for the great gift of his talent (which he was wasting—their point), the “Crack-Up” pieces were welcomed by ordinary readers. Perkins was having none of it. In a wonderfully prissy remark he says that in “The Crack-Up,” Fitzgerald committed an harbor conspiracy “indecent invasion of his own privacy.” He concurred with Ober that this sort of photosynthesis essay confessional writing (as it would later be called) was dangerous for Fitzgerald’s status as a serious writer.

Perkins countered Fitzgerald’s retooled “Crack-Up” book proposal with the suggestion of “a reminiscent book—not autobiographical but reminiscent. … I would be very much for pearl harbor, it.” What Perkins meant by photosynthesis essay, a book that would be “reminiscent” but “not autobiographical” is pearl conspiracy not clear. The distinction is itself dated perhaps, a division that marks the photosynthesis essay, border between art and life that Perkins and Dos Passos were determined—even desperate—to defend. Undeterred, Wilson approached New Directions, a house founded by James Laughlin the same year Esquire had run the essays, and already the default publisher of avant-garde work. So it was that New Directions became the publisher of The Crack-Up in 1945, five years after Fitzgerald’s death at age 44. The book is still available under that imprint. At the time of his death, Fitzgerald was considered (and considered himself) a has-been, the unfortunate poster boy for the ruinous Roaring Twenties. But over time, the publication of The Crack-Up has come to be regarded as the pearl harbor conspiracy, trigger to Fitzgerald’s resurgence as an essential and enduring figure of 20th-century American literature. The critical response to the book’s appearance in 1945 was a far cry from the reception the Esquire publication of the leadership essay, essays had elicited. Conspiracy! Reviewers were respectful, even enthusiastic, or at least seriously interested. Lionel Trilling, for one, praised Fitzgerald’s “heroic self-awareness” in his review in The Nation . Along with the essays themselves, the volume contained notebook sketches, letters, and tribute essays, including a piece by photosynthesis, Glenway Wescott, “The Moral of Scott Fitzgerald,” which had first appeared in pearl conspiracy The New Republic shortly after Fitzgerald’s death. “There is very little in world literature like this piece,” Wescott says of the essays, which he takes as a single work, calling it “the autobiographical essay” Fitzgerald wrote as a kind of “swan-song.” In a strenuous effort to find kindred works, he compares the essays, “in a way,” to Sir Walter Raleigh’s verse epistle before his beheading.

Though Wescott thinks Fitzgerald’s treatment of his misery is “cheap here and personal there … still it is fine prose and naturally his timeliest piece today: self-autopsy and conspiracy essays funeral sermon.” The writing astonishes: “one quick and thorough paragraph after another, with so little shame. Sociology Grading! … [T]he first half is written without a fault: brief easy fiery phrases.” Fitzgerald’s subject, Wescott says with acuity, is pearl harbor “his lassitude of imagination; his nauseated spirit; that self-hypnotic state of not having any will-power; and essay nothing left of the intellect but inward observation and dislike.” Hemingway lost no time trashing Fitzgerald to Perkins, their mutual editor (a connection that Fitzgerald, already a literary star, had arranged for the unknown and harbor conspiracy essays struggling Hemingway when they met in Paris in the 1920s). In a letter dated February 7, 1936—right after the first “Crack-Up” piece was published—Hemingway complains to Perkins that Fitzgerald “seems to almost take a pride in his shamelessness of essays on email defeat. The Esquire pieces seem to me to be so miserable. There is another one coming.

I always knew he couldn’t think—he never could—but he had a marvelous talent and pearl harbor conspiracy essays the thing is to use it—not whine in public.” Hemingway wasn’t done. He went on to savage Fitzgerald in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” a short story that also appeared in sociology essay Esquire, in August 1936. He injects “poor Scott Fitzgerald” into pearl essays the fiction, noting that Fitzgerald had been “wrecked” by his “romantic awe” of the rich. This short story also refers to an exchange in writing a winning thesis which Fitzgerald is pearl harbor supposed to have said, “The very rich are different from you and writing me,” thereby allowing Hemingway to conspiracy essays write the arch reply, “Yes, they have more money.” Except this exchange, much quoted ever since, never occurred. Even decent Max Perkins couldn’t manage to essay grading rubric correct the inaccuracy, though he put the facts on conspiracy essays record: he was present at graduate personal, a lunch in New York in pearl harbor 1936 when Hemingway said, “I am getting to know the statement lse, rich.” To which the literary critic Mary Colum, the third person at pearl conspiracy essays, the table, said, “The only difference between the ap essay scores, rich and other people is that the pearl essays, rich have more money.” Fitzgerald wasn’t at the lunch—or in the city at the time.

No doubt Hemingway was glad to leadership offload the exchange onto Fitzgerald and adopt for himself the memorable zinger. Fitzgerald wrote to Beatrice Dance (who had been his lover that summer) to report that he had protested his old pal’s literary slam in essays “a somewhat indignant letter,” though Hemingway remained unrepentant. “Since I had chosen to expose my private life so ‘shamelessly,’ in Esquire, ” Fitzgerald notes, “he felt that it was sort of an open season for me.” Fitzgerald then wrote Hemingway “a hell of a letter,” which, on second thought, he decided not to send. “Too often,” he says to Beatrice Dance, “literary men allow themselves to get into internecine quarrels and finish about as victoriously as most of the nations at the end of the World War.” Hemingway, he says in essays on email a final remark, “is quite as nervously broken down as I am but it manifests itself in different ways. His inclination is toward megalomania and mine toward melancholy.” About as good a mutual character assessment as either of them ever got. In the pearl harbor conspiracy essays, eyes of writing a winning thesis his friends, Fitzgerald may have broken decorum. But his essays kindled a narrative revolution that continues to simmer in American writing—in the rise of memoir and pearl harbor essays the appeal of personal essays in daily newspapers, to name only two obvious shape-shifters in publishing. And it is publishing, not only writing, that is at essay rubric, stake here. As John O’Hara wrote to Fitzgerald in a considerably more sanguine letter after reading the harbor essays, essays in Esquire, “I suppose you get comparatively little mail these days that does not dwell … on your Esquire pieces, and graduate personal I guess few of the writers resist, as I am resisting, the temptation to conspiracy go into their own troubles for purposes of essays on email contrast.”

What Fitzgerald was describing was not “just personal” (as Gatsby says of things that don’t have real value). His misery was native to his time and place. It was cultural. And he knew it: “My self-immolation was something sodden-dark. It was very distinctly not modern—yet I saw it in conspiracy essays others, saw it in a dozen men of honor and industry since the war.” Glenway Wescott may have found “little in world literature” like the ap essay scores, “Crack-Up” essays, and harbor conspiracy essays early readers of the Esquire pieces also seemed to recognize their jarring novelty. But no cultural change happens in a vacuum.

Something in essays on email the air links change to change, later making evident a pattern, a fundamental shift. One such kindred event: around the time Fitzgerald’s first “Crack-Up” essay was on national newsstands, the first formal Alcoholics Anonymous group was being organized in Akron, Ohio, making public the fellowship that Bill Wilson and Bob Smith had begun privately at pearl harbor conspiracy, Smith’s house. The coincidence is statement worth noting, but not because there is any causal relation between Fitzgerald’s hyper-aware essays and the founding of that most American of religions, a secular faith without priests or hierarchy or even an agreed-upon notion of “God,” a populist, anti-intellectual spiritual methodology. Even stylistically, they couldn’t be more opposed. The “Crack-Up” essays are the cry of Fitzgerald’s rarefied soul, lavish in metaphoric evasions—including evasions about his drinking. By contrast, the scriptural text of AA, The Big Book, is a model of socialist-realist prose, relentlessly earnest, a kind of unliterature whose first chapter, “Bill’s Story,” inaugurates the autobiographical enterprise that remains the touchstone of AA. Yet these two cultural (or spiritual) occasions, which began their public lives at the same time, in the depths of the Great Depression, are linked in the way that history alone can make obvious, displaying a shared landscape, creating or simply recognizing coherence. From here—the here of our own autobiographical age—it is pearl harbor conspiracy possible to see a link between Fitzgerald’s valiant attempts in his essays and the fledgling personal documentation (self-narrative without guiding psychotherapist) that is the root of ap essay scores AA and the secret of its enduring success. But if what Fitzgerald was doing in the essays could be linked to something as unliterary as AA drunkalogs, then The Crack-Up was a blot on his “real work.” To throw away personal pain in essays— little pieces in a glossy—was to nick away at literature itself. “You ought to write a first-rate novel about pearl essays, it (and you probably will) …” The propriety Dos Passos is trying to safeguard here is the authority of the novel, the great architecture built of long generations, the literary habitation already threatened by the shocking immediacy of the sociology essay rubric, movies. Pearl Harbor Conspiracy Essays! Who needed yet more splintering of the great, beloved form?

Especially by those scrappy little pieces. The publication of the “Crack-Up” essays looks now like a sharp pivot, marking a fundamental change in American consciousness and therefore in narrative voice, an evident moment when the photosynthesis essay, center of authorial gravity shifted from the “omniscience” afforded by fiction’s third person to the presumption (accurate or not) of greater authenticity provided by the first-person voice with all its limitations. Whitman had set American poetry on this road a few generations earlier: the voice of “Song of pearl Myself” belongs to a lyric essayist, contending with himself and his time, using the personal self as the representative of the national type, fusing the individual to history. And the presence of faux memoirists as narrators in American fiction—including Nick Carraway in The Great Gatsby, Hemingway’s own Nick Adams, and thesis before that the narrators of Huckleberry Finn and Moby-Dick —also betrays a preference for harbor conspiracy, the first-person voice. The “Crack-Up” essays are a similar poetic project. Fitzgerald’s strangled cry in them makes clear that a lyric impulse links the personal essay with poetry, even though essays are a prose form and seem to pose a chronic scourge (or companion) to their apparent kin—narrative fiction. In fact, the essay inhabits an intermediate territory between story and poem.

That may be its fundamental appeal. Tell a story and writing a winning then think about it—all in the same work. Whitman didn’t employ (or deploy) the pearl essays, first person to personal statement recount his life story or reveal his secrets: we need Whitman’s biographers to pearl harbor conspiracy suss out his sex life, for ap essay scores, example. Like Fitzgerald, Whitman’s “I” is the song of his consciousness, not of his episodic experience. Fitzgerald’s essays nudge American prose toward the kind of personal authority that Whitman sought for American poetry. In fact Fitzgerald’s first essay opens not with the pearl conspiracy essays, first-person voice, but the second: Of course all life is a process of breaking down, but the blows that do the dramatic side of the work—the big sudden blows that come, or seem to essays on email come, from outside—the ones you remember and blame things on and, in harbor conspiracy moments of weakness, tell your friends about, don’t show their effect all at ap essay scores, once. There is harbor conspiracy another sort of blow that comes from a winning within—that you don’t feel until it’s too late to pearl do anything about it, until you realize with finality that in some regard you will never be as good a man again. Fitzgerald feels squeamish about personal disclosure just as Hemingway and leadership essay Dos Passos do.

He too finds public confession morally repellent—as his nervous remark suggests about harbor essays, those “blows” you talk about “in moments of weakness.” He hardly establishes his subject—the mysterious but decisive breakage of his sense of essays on email self—before he backs off to “make a general observation” in the second paragraph. “The test of pearl conspiracy essays a first-rate intelligence,” he famously says, “is the ap essay scores, ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and essays still retain the ability to function.” This “observation” is really a restatement of ap essay scores a concept formulated by Keats, Fitzgerald’s lifelong literary hero. In a letter to his brothers in 1817, Keats tries to describe the essential quality of “a Man of Achievement especially in literature. Harbor Conspiracy Essays! … That is when a man is capable of sociology grading rubric being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts without any irritable reaching after fact reason.” He calls this quality Negative Capability. Psychologists (and AA) call it detachment. The terms Negative Capability and detachment aren’t descriptions so much as proof of the conspiracy, inability to corral this essential but elusive quality—just as all spiritual qualities are impossible to define. For Fitzgerald, the idea has more of an American can-do quality than Keats’s Romantic readiness: “One should … be able to see that things are hopeless and yet be determined to application make them otherwise.” This muscular notion “fitted on to my early adult life, when I saw the improbable, the implausible, often the ‘impossible,’ come true.” Fitzgerald refers here to pearl harbor essays his phenomenal overnight stardom with the publication of This Side of Paradise at age 24, when he became not only a best-selling author, but a model for the man of his age—a condition he later called “the bitch goddess” of success. The “Crack-Up” pieces are an attempt to review the devastating conundrum of ap bio photosynthesis essay spiritual collapse that came in the wake of such high flying. Harbor Conspiracy Essays! He ends the first essay with the harrowing question posed in the Gospel of essay Matthew: “Ye are the salt of the pearl harbor essays, earth. Ap Bio Essay! But if the salt hath lost its savour, wherewith shall it be salted?” By the second essay he is smarting under the criticism he has received from his literary friends. “There are always those to whom all self-revelation is contemptible,” he writes in the opening paragraph, “unless it ends with a noble thanks to the gods for harbor conspiracy, the Unconquerable Soul.” The sardonic capital letters signal his refusal to go quietly or to photosynthesis write (at least for the moment) “a first-rate novel” about his breakdown. “I wanted,” he writes early in the second essay, “to put a lament into pearl conspiracy essays my record.”

As he did at the end of the first essay, he adopts in the second the personal statement, language of spirituality to describe the quality of his desolation and despair, doing a turn on St. Conspiracy! John of the Cross: “In a real dark night of the soul it is essays on email always three o’clock in the morning, day after day.” In the first two essays, Fitzgerald leans heavily on the “cracked plate” metaphor. In the third, as he moves beyond description of his condition toward a solution, he retains the same figure of speech, but turns it inside out. In considering those who “survived” the “self-immolation” he has been describing, he realizes they “had made some sort of clean break.” He doesn’t seem to notice that he has reversed field with his metaphor. Or perhaps the realization that the solution to conspiracy essays his “crack-up” is to make a “clean break” is so enchanting to him that he forges ahead with it. “A clean break,” he says, “is something you cannot come back from.” He will continue to be a writer because “that is my only way of life.” He won’t break with that. But he will no longer be “a person.” Things get muddy here—and self-dramatizing. He will no longer be “kind, just or generous.” None of essays on email this sounds genuine. It is the recognizable infuriated (and impotent) frustration of someone who has felt his life overused by others—not just the killing demands of Zelda’s illness and the vagaries of publishing, but all those letters of harbor essays recommendation, blurbs, and reviews, the middle management of being a successful writer.

Still, the clean-the-slate determination in the essays does feel authentic: “I have now at last become a writer only.” He had not, of leadership application course—Zelda was still there to be kept in private hospitals, Scottie to be sent to good schools, and later he would fall in pearl harbor conspiracy essays love again, with Sheilah Graham. And he was writing a “first-rate novel” when he died, the unfinished Last Tycoon . But in the “Crack-Up” essays he stopped in his personal and professional tracks, and described the dark night of his soul, against all advice and ap essay scores prudence. He wrote his lament. As it happens, I live in Fitzgerald’s grandmother’s house in St. Paul, Minnesota, a fact I learned some years after I moved into the brownstone rowhouse on Laurel Avenue, before this leafy old neighborhood was gentrified. In the early years I could look out pearl harbor conspiracy my second-floor window to see two cars come to ap bio a screeching halt at the intersection, a bag of pearl harbor essays white powder passed from one to the other, before each careened off again. It was one of ap essay scores those charming, down-on-its-luck urban places that artists and other odd ducks move to and tart up before the lawyers and doctors, the harbor, museum curators and psychotherapists arrive. I allow myself to ap essay scores think Fitzgerald may have stayed here as a boy, at least briefly, after his father lost his Procter Gamble job in Buffalo and Scott was sent back to St.

Paul before the rest of the pearl conspiracy, family returned. Ap Essay Scores! There’s no scholarly proof for this, but a certain logic makes it possible, even likely. Pearl Conspiracy Essays! And a certain desire. Before I knew the house was connected with Fitzgerald, I called the place Heartbreak Hotel because it seemed that its vacant apartments were routinely rented by people divorcing or divorced, sad sacks trudging up the dark staircases of the Victorian brownstone with heads down. A very crack-up kind of place. But truth be told, in St. Paul there’s no distinction to living in “a Fitzgerald house.” Scott and writing Zelda, and his parents before him, hopscotched around this old neighborhood, switching apartments with dismaying frequency, as if they were all on the lam. Enough “Fitzgerald houses” remain to make up a slim guidebook, which you can find in harbor conspiracy essays most local bookstores. For all this moving around, neither Scott and Zelda nor the senior Fitzgeralds ever owned a house here or anywhere else. They were eternal tenants, flitting from ap essay scores location to location, always clinging to essays the general vicinity of St. Ap Essay Scores! Paul’s Summit Avenue, “our show street,” as Fitzgerald calls “Crest Avenue” in one of the sketches that Edmund Wilson included in The Crack-Up . In a sense, in St.

Paul Fitzgerald is everywhere. He was born in another apartment three blocks farther up on Laurel. On our walks, my dog often chooses to pearl harbor make her pause in front of the rowhouse on Summit where Fitzgerald came home to essay grading stay with his parents that decisive summer of harbor essays 1920. He holed up on the third floor to essays on email rewrite This Side of Paradise after a first version had been rejected by pearl harbor conspiracy, Maxwell Perkins. He mailed the revision to Scribners at the end of the summer, fingers crossed. A few weeks later, just before his 24th birthday, he dashed out of the grading, house, stopping cars on Summit, waving the acceptance letter from Perkins. In the essays that so appalled his friends, paradoxically Fitzgerald notes of harbor essays his bleak despair that it felt “strange to have no self—to be like a little boy left alone in a big house, who knew that now he could do anything he wanted to do, but found that there was nothing that he wanted to do …” He was exhausted.

That’s what comes through—not “self-immolation” but sheer exhaustion. He drank, he caroused his way through his success, but how he had worked—“my limitless capacity for toil,” he says with astonishment as he looks back at his years of literary labor from the vantage of his collapse. Here on the corner of Laurel and Nina, cars will sometimes stop on a weekend afternoon, usually in the fall, it seems. Four or five teenagers will tumble out, at least one with a notebook. Often there’s a woman at the wheel, someone’s mother no doubt, paused in the no-parking zone in ap essay scores front of the building while the kids run around, pointing to pearl harbor conspiracy essays the turret, one of them reading from a guidebook. They have already been to “the birth house” up the street, and to the rowhouse on ap essay scores Summit where the good news from Scribners came in 1920. Now they’re finishing up the pearl essays, class assignment, looking at the grandmother’s dour brownstone with a Dickensian debtor’s prison aspect, but which, they know from their teacher’s handout, is Scott’s (we all call him Scott, as if he were a neighbor we haven’t seen around for a while). They raise their cell phones and take pictures of essays on email each other, of the house.

Sometimes one of harbor conspiracy essays them reads something aloud—usually from Gatsby, once in a while from that sublime St. Paul short story “Winter Dreams.” Nobody, in my memory, has ever been carrying The Crack-Up . But it’s not a book for the buoyant. It’s for the burnt out. “This is what I think now,” Fitzgerald writes at the end of the third essay: “that the natural state of the sentient adult is a qualified unhappiness.” Yet his loyalty remains fastened to happiness, to youth—even if only the memory of its shimmer. He was, after all, an elegist at lse, heart. Conspiracy! “My own happiness in the past,” he writes in the essay’s final valediction, “often approached such an ecstasy that I could not share it even with the person dearest to graduate personal lse me but had to walk it away in pearl quiet streets and lanes with only fragments of it to distil into thesis little lines in books.”

How early it starts—the ecstasy of unreasoning happiness that must be walked away in quiet streets. And how quiet these St. Paul streets in this old crumbling neighborhood are still, especially nights when the high school students are back home writing up their field trip notes. Pearl Essays! How valiant the effort to distill the fragments, against essay all caution, into little lines that perfect strangers will read and harbor conspiracy essays recognize as their own. Patricia Hampl is Regents Professor of English at the University of Minnesota and the author of several books, including I Could Tell You Stories , a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award.

This essay is heavily indebted to the research and analysis of Scott Donaldson in photosynthesis his essay “The Crisis of Fitzgerald’s ‘Crack-Up.’ ” By William J. Connell. Waking up early Monday morning and remembering that it’s a national holiday should bring a smile to anyone’s face. But celebrating Columbus Day—and its connotations of discovery, imperialism, and harbor essays slavery —makes things a little more complicated. In a SCHOLAR web exclusive, William J. Connell grapples with this prickly holiday by explaining the first Columbus Day parade, held in 1892 to unite Americans after two recent tragedies. Best-of lists from sociology essay grading rubric bad romances to Shakespearean verse. We ask our favorite writers about their favorite titles.

The complete collection of our blogs, including Zinsser on Friday and our weekly Writing Lessons. Works you won’t find in print edition, from the pearl essays, likes of Harold Holzer, Wendy Smith, and leadership application essay Neil Shea. By Michelle Kuo. An excerpt from Michelle Kuo’s memoir on the life-changing power of harbor conspiracy essays literature.

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List fifteen norms and then identify them as either a folkway or more. Harbor Essays? Be creative. 1.Don’t double dip the application essay, chips. (Folkways) 2.Don’t put a cherry bomb in a mail box. Conspiracy Essays? (Law) 3.Don’t talk about ap essay scores, water when someone has to go to pearl harbor essays, the bathroom.(Folkways)

4.Don’t smoke in an elevator.(Law) 5.Don’t squeeze the toothpaste tube in ap essay scores the middle.(Folkways) 6.Don’t dine and dash at a fancy restrunt.(Mores) 7.Don’t tell the end of a movie to someone who hasn’t seen it.(Folkways) 8.Don’t climb the side of a building.(Law) 9.Don’t drink straight out of the milk carton.(Folkways)

10.Don’t go the wrong way down a one way street.(Law) 11.Never spit into the wind.(Folkways) 12.Don’t tear the tag off a matress.(Law) 13.Always keep the newspaper sections in order when done reading.(Folkways) 14.No shirt, no shoes, no service.(Law) 15.Don’t look for hidden Christmas presents.(Folkways) 3. flipping someone off.

4. holding the door open. 5. interupting someone. 6. cutting someone off from traffic. 7. not waving when someone lets you go in front of pearl harbor essays them when driving. 5. destruction of property.

1. Popping your gum-Folkway. 2. Holding the door open (Scott. )-Folkway. 5. Using bad language-Folkway. 6. Using cell phones in school-More. 7. Underage drinking-More. 9. Rubric? Being respectful to conspiracy, your elders-Folkway.

10. Writing Thesis? Flipping someone off-Folkway. 11. Passing someone in a non-passing zone-More. 12. Do your homework-Folkway. 13. Harbor Essays? Saying “excuse me”-Folkway. 14. Photosynthesis Essay? Don’t interrupt someone talking-Folkway.

15. Smoking within a certain feet of a restraunt-More. Celebrating Christmas/Thanksgiving with the pearl harbor essays, family(Folkway) Searching for Eastereggs(Folkway) Cleaning boots for graduate lse, St.

Nicholas(Folkway) Helping old people. Learning at least foreign language(norm in Germany) Boy?s clothes are matches to Girls clothes(dances) Changing Rings during Marriage.

Wearing black for funeral. Having at least one Computer in Household. Doing the Drivers-Licence with 16. Drinking first glass of sprakling-wine with parents for confirmation(folkway in pearl essays germany) Having respct for other (older) people. Don?t stare at handycapped(different) people. Handing candy out on Birthday. Finish putting mores or folkways on your entry. turkey @ thanksgiving (folkway) easter egg hunting on easter (folkway) no txting in class (mores)

eating pudding w/a spoon (folkway) wearing jeans during the winter (folkway) being home by curfew (mores) not drinking alcohol until 21 (mores) use pencil on tests in mrs. wolfs class (mores)

no hats worn in school (mores) no pop b4 a game (folkway) getting presents @ christmas (folkway) shower daily (mores) going to church on sunday (folkway)

dressing up for special occasions (folkway) eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner (folkway. dressing up for church (folkway) looking at someone while they are talking (folkway) tipping your waitress (folkway) returning a book on time (folkway) marrying before having a child (folkway) not laughing at someones mistakes (folkway)

killing someone (more) please and writing a winning thesis, thank you (folkway) covering your mouth when yawning (folkway) selling drugs (more) pulling out a lady’s chair (folkway) not pulling over for a cop (more) 3.Not wearing your seatbelt. 4.Wearing hats during the pledge. 5.Violating a police officer.

1.Not wearing black to conspiracy, a funeral. 2.Not wearing a shirt into a pulic place. 3.Not getting presents for your birthday. 4.Popping your gum. 5.texting during class. 6. interrupting someone who is ap essay scores, talking.

7.Not cleaning up after yourself. 9.Not being home on time. 10.Not being nice to your elders. 1. Eat with your mouth closed. 2. Conspiracy Essays? Say please and ap essay scores, thank you. 3. Pearl Conspiracy? Respect peoples’ privacy.

5. Ap Essay Scores? leave the room when you get a call. 6. clean up your mess. 8. let people with a lot less stuff than you go in conspiracy front of you at ap essay scores, the grocery store. 1. Chew with your mouth close. (folkway) 2. Wipe from front to back not back to front lol (folkway) 3. Respect your elders. (folkway)

4. Don’t drink and drive. (more) 5. No flashing of goodies in public. (more) 6. No smoking in public places. (more) 7. Pearl Conspiracy Essays? No burning leaves in town. (more) 8. If you sprinkle when you tinkle be a sweetie wipe the seaty. (folkway) 9. Say “excuse me” after burping, sneezing, or farting. (folkway) 10. Clean your plate. (folkway) 11. Pick up after yourself. Ap Essay Scores? (folkway)

12. Always ladies first. (folkway) 13. Bluckle up! (more) 14. No fun until work is done. (folkway) 15. Don’t share drinks. (folkway) not interrupting someone (folkway)

covering mouth when coughing/sneezing (folkway) possession of illegal substances (more) dressing up for special occasions (folkway) giving someone the finger (folkway) please and thank you’s (folkway) assaulting someone (more) respond when asked a question (folkway) underage drinking (more) no laughing at inappropriate times (folkway)

burping in public (folkway) smoking in certain public places (more) drunk driving (more) 1. Pearl Harbor Essays? Boys leaving the toilet seat down for the ladies. (folkway) 2. Tipping your waitor/waitress. (folkway) 3. Essay Grading? Covering your mouth when you cough/sneeze. (folkway)

4. Driving on right side of the road. Conspiracy? (more) 5. Not cursing. (folkway) 6. Using your turning signal.(more) 7. Not interupting a conversation. (folkway) 8. Essay? Not booing someone during speech class. (folkway) 9. Bomb threats=no no!(more) 10. Letting your friends know if they have toilet paper on their shoe.(more)

11.Picking up your dogs “leavings” on city property. (more) 12. Washing your hands before you prepare food. (folkway) 13. Recycling…Anything! (should be a more) 14. Walking in the hallways…generally. (folkway) 15. Saying excuse me while making your way through a crowded hallway and what not. Conspiracy Essays? (folkway) 16. Tearing up the dance floor at homecoming! oh wait that was just me! ;D (More!)haha.

1. Wash your hands. 2. Cover your mouth when you cough. 4. Be quiet during tests. 5. Don’t mess with someone else’s car when riding with them. 6. Don’t ask too many questions. 7. Remove hat for Star Spangled Banner. 8. Drinking and Driving. 11.

Being late to application essay, class. 12. Yelling “fire” at movie theater. 15. Robbing a store. 1. Pearl Harbor? No cutting in sociology grading rubric lines. 2. Making fun of someone. 4. Conspiracy? Washing your hands. 6. Saying thank you. 7. Have a date to the Prom.

9. Passing in a “no passing” zone. 12. Sociology Essay Rubric? Drinking and Driving. 13. Running a lemonade stand without a permit. (in california) 14. Harbor Conspiracy Essays? Speeding on a bicycle over 65 miles and hour. (connecticut) 15.

Giving lighted cigars to dogs, cats, and essays on email, other animals. (illinois) clearing your space when done at the dinner table(folkways) respect elders/those wiser than yourself(folkways) pick up after yourself(folkways) take your shoes off when you enter someone’s home(folkways) saying please and thank you(folkways)

hand on your heart during the pledge(folkways) hand on heart and taking off hats during the national anthem (folkways) maintaining speed limits(mores) not driving drunk or under the influence (mores) donate to charities (folkways) help someone struggling with things (folkways) hold open the door for people walking behind you (folkways) raising your hand in class (folkways) say excuse me when necessary (folkways)

no stealing (mores) Please and Thank you. Don’t smack your gum when chewing it. Don’t interrupt people when their talking. Don’t step in a puddle when your wearing tennis shoes. Wear sunscreen when you go to the beach. Hold the door open for others. Don’t kill people. Don’t smoke in school.

Don’t beat people up. 1. Holding the door for a girl. 2. Pearl Harbor Conspiracy? Shut the light off when you leave the graduate personal statement lse, room. 3. Respecting your elders by saying “Sir” and conspiracy, “Ma’am”. 4. Helping your mom unload the groceries. 5. Never leave an empty carton of milk in the fridge. 6. If you are the first one home, bring in the garbage cans. 7. When you need a refill at a restaurant place your glass at the edge of the table. 8. Cannot drive legally under the age of essays on email 16. 9. Identity theft.

10. Stealing a road sign. 11. Betting on pearl essays, sports. 12. Ap Essay Scores? Not stopping at a stop sign or red light. 13. Having an open container of alcohol in public. 14. Smoking in public places. 15.

Dealing drugs. 1. Please and thank yous (folkway) 2. Holding the door open for the next person (folkway) 3. Saying excuse me when passing in pearl harbor conspiracy essays somones way (folkway) 4. Saying bless you after somone sneezes (folkkway) 5. Not burping in public (folkway) 6. Not talking while somone else is talking (folkway) 7. Underaged drinking (mores)

8. Running a red light (mores) 9. Being rude (folkway) 10. Not parking in a handicapped parking (mores) 11. Speeding (mores) 12. Recycling (folkway) 13. Murder (mores) 14.

Sex Predator (mores) 15. Driving under the influence (mores) 1. Don’t interrupt someone else – folkway. 2. Don’t triple dip the ap bio essay, chip #128578; – folkway. 3. Hold the door open – folkway. 4. Pearl Conspiracy Essays? Don’t hack into computers – folkway/more.

6. No one may stand on the sidewalk on the 500 block of Illinois Ave. – more. 7. One may not pee in his neighbor’s mouth. – more. 8. Ap Essay Scores? It is illegal to give a dog whiskey. – more. 9. It is forbidden to fish while sitting on a giraffe’s neck. – more. 10. Kites may not be flown within the pearl harbor conspiracy essays, city limits. – more. 11. Chew with mouth closed – folkway. 12. Leadership Essay? Take showers – folkway.

13. Shake hands after game – folkway. 14. Humming on public streets is prohibited on Sundays. – more. 15. Cars may not be driven through the town. – more. for real. 1. Essays? Say please and thank you (folkway) 2. Say excuse you. 3. Do not interrupt people when they are talking. 4. Pay attention in writing thesis class DO NOT fall asleep in class.

5. Do not use cuss words in public. 6. Be kind to your elders. 7. Keep your gum in essays your mouth. 9. Dringing on the correct side of the street. 10. Do Not drink drive. 11. Underage smoking drinking.

12. Obay the color changes on a stop light. 13. Obay street signs. 14. Buy items, Do Not steal them! 15. Photosynthesis Essay? Do not take advantage of someone such as rape. 1. Say please and thank you.

2. Don’t talk with your mouth full. 3. Clean up after yourself. 4. Tell the truth/don’t lie. 5. Pearl? Help with the ap essay scores, chores around house. 6. Pearl Essays? Saying “excuse me” if you run into graduate lse, someone. 7. Saying “bless you” if someone sneezes. 8. Turn music down, so you don’t disturb others. 9. Harbor Essays? Don’t run red lights/stop sign.

10. Don’t do drugs. 11. Essays On Email? Underage Drinking. 13. Don’t Jaywalking. 14. Don’t steal/shoplifting. 1. Dont asking for a cup of water, but really fill it up with pop.

2. Dont buy an outfit, wear it, then return it. 3. Dont ask to borrow and pencil and NEVER return it (or worse, return it, but with bite marks all over it) 4. Say bless you after someone sneezes. 5. Do not let your cell phone go off or ring in class. #128539; 6. Always recycle. 7. Dont do a HIT AND RUN. 8. Breaking into someone’s house, without permission. 9. Vandalizing someone’s property. 10. Possession of or doing DRUGS! 11.

No stealing, especially from WALMART! 12. Neglect or abuse of another person or animal. 15. No illegal aliens? Not open doors for people. Dont enterupt when others are talking. Dont talk while teacher is teaching a class. Not sharing gum with others. Say please and harbor essays, thank you.

Help a lady into her seat. Help when no one asks. It is forbidden to fish while sitting on a giraffe’s neck. Humming on public streets is prohibited on Sundays. Drinking under the age. Driving without a seatbelt. 1. Don’t leave an ap essay scores, empty toilet paper roll (folkway) 2. Don’t leave the pearl conspiracy, door to graduate personal statement lse, the outside open (folkway) 3. Don’t pop your gum in church (more) 4. No texting during church (more)

5. Cussing to adults (more) 6. Wiping your nose on your sleeve (folkway) 7. Burping in someone’s face (folkway) 8. Slurping your drink (more) 9. Don’t turn on the heat/a.c. and leave the windows open (more) 10. Falling asleep during class (more)

11. Cheating/copying off someone else’s paper (more) 12. Re-wearing dirty clothes (folkway) 13. Don’t chew with your mouth open (folkway) 14. Cutting in line (more) 15.

Guys, when you go on a date, DON’T MAKE THE GIRLS PAY THE BILL! (more) 1) Cover your mouth when sneezing(folkway) 2) Ask before taking something from pearl, someone(Folkway or more) 3) Pitch in 5 bucks for the pizza(Folkway) 4) Sign in when you go into the media center(more) 5) Don’t say offensive jokes(Folkway or more) 6) Get your assingment done on time(Folkway) 7) Don’t make excuses for why you didn’t assume your responsibility(Folkway)

8) Don’t read something that says “DO NOT READ”(Folkway) 9) Don’t eat food in the fridge that has someone’s name on it (Folkway) 10) Don’t ride your bike in the middle of the street (Folkway or More) 11) If you ask for a ride from sociology grading rubric, someone, help pay the gas(Folkway. 12) Take care of your body, don’t do drugs(More) 13) If you say you will do a favor for someone, do it(Folkway)

14) If you adopt an animal, take good care of it (More) 15) Don’t pronounce Joulliet wrong in the Joulliet District(More)